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History of Nebraska, Forest County PA
A Lumber Town of 250 People
1828-1940

By E. C. Small

Donated by Pete Smith

Transcribed by Nancy Piper


"My Great Grand Mother Levada Watson Kerr's Uncle, George Watson being in numerous business ventures with T.D. Watson and my Great Grand Father Ross Allen Kerr contracting with Mr. Collins to build boats ,and run his upstream boat scaffold on Tionesta Creek, I thought I'd send you a copy of this book."

Pete Smith


Dedication

I dedicate this book to my parents, Edgar K. Small and Inez Weaver Small. They provided me with most of the history of the people and where they lived.

Also, to the god-fearing men, women and children who lived in Nebraska and the surrounding area.


Introduction

As a boy in Nebraska, Pennsylvania, from mid-1920's through mid-1930's, every day was an adventure, to be savored and remembered.

Lyman Cook gave me several rides in his eighteen-foot canvas canoe and even built a miniature raft for me. Many times I stood and watched Bob Jones, the blacksmith, hammer out a piece of white hot metal, possibly for the Sheffield and Tionesta Railroad train.

More than a few times I rode with Ralph Wolf in the horse and muledrawn wagons.

Back at the roundhouse I would listen to Enos Blauser and Charley Harvey swap stories about the railroad, and about who could chew snuff the longest without spitting.

I would sit and listen to Claude Atwood play the mouth organ and the Jew'sharp by the hour, or hitch a ride on the Sand T to Lamentation or Bear Creek to catch some native trout, or maybe to Kellettville just to look around.

Often, I would go to the roundhouse and borrow the speeder or the handcar from the siding and go for a short spin with a friend. Mostly, though, it was the speeder that my friend and I preferred because it peddled like a bicycle and was much easier to handle than the handcar, which required the use of one's whole body in propelling it down the track.

A special atmosphere and place to fuel a boy's imagination was provided by a walk through the old sawmill where big saws had hummed ten or more hours a day, and now stood silenced. The feed mill was also a good place to crawl and climb through and to fish from, when the creek water was up.

Probably the most lasting experience I had as a boy in Nebraska was sitting on the store porch learning the ways of the older men and listening to stories that were all said to have been the whole truth and nothing but.

Sometimes Jim Preston would ask me to play catch with him, when no one else was available, to keep his arm in shape for the weekend baseball game.

Finally, a boy needs money in his pocket when he goes to the store and looks at all the sweet things for sale.

For several years I sold the Sunday Pittsburgh Press, and for a short period, the daily Philadelphia Inquirer.

The biggest-paying job was digging potatoes for Klinstiver for 25¢ an hour.

This book of photos, a map, and accompanying commentary is an attempt to preserve a record of a once thriving lumber town, and perhaps, to whet the appetite of others for local, colorful history.


HISTORY

The village of Nebraska came into being about 1827, around the same time that Robert Guiton, Sr. came to the Guitonville area. The warrant on which the village of Nebraska stood was originally patented in the name of Gearge Meade. In time the land became the possession of Ford sisters, Sarah Ann and Caroline. Their mother, Ann Ford was willed 10,000 pounds by her uncle, Thomas Walker of Nottingham, England. He gave them part of the money, and they bought the land in and around Nebraska. It became known as Ford Mills, after they built two saw mills and a house. The time was the late 1830's through 1848, and in 1848 Caroline married George S. Lacy. After that the village became known as Ford and Lacy Mills or Lacytown, depending on who was quoting whom.

Many other structures were build in this same span of time. The Forest Hotel was built by Pierce Porter of Warren, Pennsylvania, in 1840. It was sold to Lewis Arner either by Green who was at Nebraska in the lumber business or by the Lacys and Fords who owned the land it sat on. The gristmill, a few other houses and a boarding house were built. On August 30, 1855, the town post office was established, and the town became know as Nebraska. The Lacy boys, sons of George S. Lacy told Andy Small when their father and mother came back from the state of Nebraska on one of their trips, they decided that Lacy town should be named Nebraska since they loved that state so much. Andy Small related this story to his son, Edgar K. Small, who in turn told the writer, Edgar C. Small.

Some time after T.D. Collins had gained full ownership of Nebraska and the surrounding area in the late 1800's, he had oil and gas wells drilled in Fox Creek, two and one-half miles above Nebraska toward Guitonville. He then piped the natural gas to Nebraska. All homes, businesses and the church had gas for heat and lighting. At times it had so much pressure it would blow the lids off the cook stoves. At other times it was so weak one would have to fire with wood or coal, which was really the main source of heat. Every home in the main part of town had spring water. Most homes had their own springs, with a trout in the same to keep the water clean of bugs. A few houses shared springs. In Blackhole or Railroad Town a few places had wells, due to the flat ground area. Sometime after Bob Jones became a permanent resident of Blackhole, he piped spring water into his home and to the homes of some of his neighbors from a spring which also supplied a stone watering trough about halfway between Blackhole and Little Coon Crossing, a distance of a half mile.

After seeing the names Blackhole and Railroad Town, readers will be wondering how the names came about. One time in the early 1900's when several railroad engines were operating, the coal smoke was quite thick in the area of the roundhouse and that part of Nebraska. T.D. Collins, off the cuff said, "This part of Nebraska is a black hole". The folks who lived in Nebraska proper liked to refer to that area as Blackhole, while their over-the-creek neighbors preferred the name, Railroad Town.

A few homes in Nebraska had bathrooms, the Collins house, F.S. Kreitler, Wyants, and the Lyman Cook house. Lyman built his own. The concrete wall addition for the bathroom in Lyman's house is still standing at this printing. There may have been a couple more homes with indoor toilets, but the remaining citizens did their best with outside privies, equipped with Sears and Roebuck catalogues, refined paper and oil lanterns. Most of the houses were well built, with wood siding, and some insulation.  Inside walls were plastered and covered with wallpaper. Everyone was quite proud of their living quarters, and kept them in good condition with paint and wallpaper. Lawns were kept neat after push lawnmowers came into being. Before that time, hand sickles and scythes were used.  There were some single-boarded houses that were built in a hurry to take care of the people who were coming and going. Quite often they were mostly teamsters, and if they did not get a better house within a reasonable time, they would leave regardless of what type job they had.

These single boarded houses were built in two areas. One was between the road bridge and the railroad bridge on the left side of the railroad track going toward Nebraska proper. The other area was in Blackhole, starting at the main road and going along the Guitonville Road toward Guitonville. (The houses between the two bridges were torn down in the 1920's and replaced with lumber piles. People who lived in the town for many years were forever moving from one house to another for many reasons: larger house, closer to the store and church, or just to be moving. Collins charged a small monthly fee for natural gas and house rent. In the 1920's and 1930's the rent was $8.00 per month. Some of T.D.'s long time employees got their gas for free - Lyman Cook, Andy Small, Enos Blauser, F.X. Kreiter to name a few.

When Collins drilled the oil and gas wells at Fox Creek, he did two things.  One, as already noted was piping the natural gas to Nebraska. There, he put the oil in steel drums and shipped it to Mayburg via the narrow gage and S & T Railroad, to be refined at a small plant he had built. The oil was a bright amber color, which, along with gasoline, was used in his equipment or was for sale.  The gasoline was sold out of drums at the Nebraska Store before pump gasoline became available in the 1920's. The pump gas was delivered by a Mr. Ditz from Fryburg; Corico, was the trade name. The Fox Creek gasoline was so potent that at one point when Secor, the store manager, loosened the side cap too quickly it blew 50 feet into the air, gasoline spewing in all directions.

When the gas wells would begin filling up with salt water, a temporary derrick, a tripod affair would be set over the well with the use of a steel cable, a pully, and a 6" diameter bailer--variable in length--and a team of horses. The bailer would be lowered into the well, then the team would pull it up by going the length of the cable. When the bailer cleared the top of the well someone would release a tongue on the bottom of the bailer to empty the water.

Fox Creek became a noted area for hunting deer due to the earth being saturated with saltwater. In the early 1900's Collins had a piece of land cleared between Golinza and Guitonville where he planted apple trees. Shortly afterwards, he hired a Mr. Hoover and his family to look after the orchard. They also supplied hay for horses, etc. Collins' apple business thrived for a few years then petered out. There are still apple trees in that area, probably the offsprings of the ones Collins had planted. In the 1950's, Fred Klinstiver was still finding some edible ones there.

During hay-making time on the "Hoover" farm, Collins and later Klinestiver would send out a crew to harvest the hay. In 1916, Jim Thompson, E.K. "Ned" Small, Warren "Kib" Daum, and Harry luck went to bail the hay after the cutting was completed.  The crew stayed in an old building, simply furnished with a few chairs and a table. They slept on the floor. Ned was the cook. The main fare of the day would often be bacon, eggs, coffee, beans and potatoes. To break the monotony there was quite a bit of trick-playing. One such episode came to a wet end one evening at supper, when Daum spilled coffee on luck, and luck then threw a cup of coffee on Daum.  

The hay bailer was a contraption consisting of a frame the size of a long bail of hay with a chute at one end where the hay was stuffed in. Two large wooden arms operated under horsepower compacted the hay. The crew would complete the operation by tying the bails with wire.  It was stated once that the Collins' farm was a beef cattle farm. There may have been a cow or two on the place but not a herd of cattle. The Collins' farm was also known as the Hoover Farm because the Hoover family had been caretakers there for many years.

Another farm Collins owned was called the Jones' farm between Nebraska and Guitonville not too far beyond the Melvin Moore Farm. It acquired the name Jones due to a John Jones living there for many years rearing two sons, Curt and Robert. The boys later spent most of their lives in Nebraska working on the S & T Railroad. In 1909, John Jones was in charge of Collins' log cutting in the area from Nebraska toward Guitonville. All the men who worked in the woods were skilled at many different jobs.

The foremost was felling trees with crosscut saws and double-bitted axes. Another job was barkpeeling. After felling the hemlock trees, a ring would be cut around each tree at four foot intervals then peeled off in strips with a bark spud and a bark pick, the width of which depended on the diameter of the tree. The bark would be piled, left for several weeks and maybe months awaiting its removal from the woods on log trains with attached bark cars. When arriving at the S & T Railroad, the bark would be transferred to S & T cars and shipped to tanneries in Kellettville and Sheffield to be utilized in the tanning of hides. Hemlock was the only type of tree bark used for this purpose.

Another special woodsman job was cutting railroad ties. For many years, chestnut trees were used and later oak, for making ties. (After Collins had completed his railroad system and still had a good supply of ties on hand they were sold to other companies.) Trees not more than a foot in diameter would be cut down by the lumberjack and skidded to a location where they could be easily loaded onto wagons, sleds and/or railroad cars. At this location, the trees would be debarked and shaped on two sides with broad axes or an adz and cut into prescribed lengths for transportation.

Obtaining trees for use at the Mayburg Chemical Plant was another type of work; trees up to 8" in diameter were cut and sometimes split then sawed into mostly 52 inch lengths and stacked into cords for measurement before being shipped to Mayburg. (Sometimes, large limbs from fallen trees were also used for this purpose.) This type of cutting greatly reduced the supply of the second and third crops of trees. Charcoal, wood alcohol, and acetone were manufactured at Mayburg.

Many speculators in the lumber business came and went in the 1800's and early 1900's after the Lacys had begun lumbering the Nebraska area. Some who came to the area in the middle 1800's were Alexander Gordon, Joe Green, E. Daran, Mr. Hunt, George Watson, William Dicky, John Cobb, and W. G. McKain.   A Mr. Kepple bought a large track of timber between Nebraska and Fox Creek and worked that area in the late 1800's and early 1900's.

Mr. Kepple had two sons named Charles and Walter. He built a boarding house, a sawmill, and a store and named the area Keppletown, He had his lumber hauled to Nebraska by horsedrawn wagons and sleds. There he loaded the lumber onto S & T flat cars at Kepple Switch, named after Mr. Kepple.

In the 1890's Soloman Mitchelen built a sawmill about 11 miles below Nebraska. Soloman's son, Howard lived in that vicinity named Mitchelen's Mill until the 1930's.  In 1896, two men by the names of Hunter and McCormick built a mill farther down the Tionesta Creek at the mouth of Coleman Run. They also had a bridge built across the creek to connect to the S & T Railroad.

About 1/2 mile below Nebraska there was a tiny community of four or five houses called Skilletville. The main attraction was a large stone watering trough where passersby often stopped to water their horses. The name Skilletville probably came from some woman beaning her husband or boyfriend with an iron skillet (frying pay).

During the height of the lumber and oil and gas-drilling businesses, in the late 1800's and well into the 1900's, the courts were busy trying cases of land encroachment and the legality of old and original land surveys. T.D. Collins found himself many times taking the part of the plaintiff and the defense in such disputes.

In one noted case, T.D. Collins, F.S. Kreitler, F.K. Brown and W.W. Dicky, better known as the Watson Lands Lumber Company were the plaintiffs and L.S. Clough and T.B. Bradley were the defense in an ejectment suit. At stake was 500 acres of virgin timber in Kingsley and Howe Townships valued at about $150,000.

Watson Lands owned Warrant 5266 of the Mead survey. L.S. Clough was owner of Mead Warrant 5282, and Mifflin Warrant 5101 and 5104. The case was based on interference of the original surveys made in 1794 between the Mead and Mifflin Warrants and the priority of the Mead surveys.

Each side had a battery of lawyers and surveyors. Local attorneys were Carringer for the plaintiffs and Brown for the defense. Judge Frank S. Thomas of Meadville was the presiding judge. The trial lasted a week; the jury stayed out all of Friday night and gave their verdict at 6:00 A.M. the following day in favor of the defense. The plaintiffs immediately made a motion for a new trial. Two months later, in November court Judge Thomas refused a new trial on the grounds that the jury had done their very best with the facts that were presented to them. The case then went to the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania which set the trial aside. Following this move, another trial was held in Tionesta but still no agreement was reached.

After a year or more of haggling in the county court with no concrete decision being made, Collins, Kreitler and Brown bought L.S. Clough's land holdings in Forest County, 40,000,000 board feet of mostly hemlock timber at a price of $290,000, the largest sale ever in Forest County. Collins got one-half of the sale, Kreitler and Brown received one-fourth each. This provided the material needed to build the Mayburg Chemical Plant in 1911.

All the roads in and around Nebraska were dirt until 1925 when the concrete road was built from the Tionesta Borough line to Nebraska by a contractor from Erie named Metz. About a year later that road was continued from Nebraska to the Clarion County line. During the Depression, in 1932, the Pinchot Road Program was in effect.

One of these manually pounded stone-base, tar-covered, roads was constructed from Black Hole in Nebraska on up toward Sheffield. A while later it was made to connect to the concrete one mentioned above.  The first road from Tionesta to Nebraska was brushed out in the 1840's.

The first use of telephones in Nebraska was strictly for business purposes, such as the grocery store or certain workers who needed to be alerted by telephone for messages concerning emergency calls to their jobs.

By the 1930's quite a few homes had phones, all connected to one party line. The party line apparently made eavesdropping a favorite past time of some, as a few humorous incidences arose from one neighbor "rubbering" on another's call, as listening in was dubbed.

Collins' many railroad lines stretched from Tionesta to Sheffield on the Tionesta Creek. The log trains traveled up the following streams: Big Coon and Little Coon Creeks, Bear Creek, Lamentation and Salmon Creeks, the Branch, Kingsley, Phelps, Logan, Blood Run, and Blue Jay Creek.

In the early 1900's the S & T Railroad was completed from Nebraska to Sheffield. In 1911, the system was completed to Tionesta and terminated to Tionesta in 1923. Passenger service began in 1902 and continued into the late 1930's.  Passenger and freight service combined in 1924 when the passenger train was discontinued and only one engine was used from then on namely------old Number 11- After many people had moved from Nebraska in the 1920's, the remaining townspeople instituted Old Home Day or Home Week. On July 16, 1930 hundreds attended the third annual Homecoming Reunion. The president of the planners for the get-together was Jim Thompson; E.K. (Ned) Small acted as vice president.

On August 8, 1928, 250 people had attended one such reunion, the Kellettville and Porky Orchestra providing musical entertainment. Another was held in July of 1933 which more than 200 people attended.  At the early homecoming events a bountiful picnic was held on the island and usually a band from Tionesta would help liven the scene. Ball games were held on the ball field at Black Hole.

During the years that have followed the demise of Nebraska as a town, many more reunions have been held at different locations around Tionesta.

On the ensuing, pages the reader will find the name, Blackman Hill describing a road leading to the Melvin Moore farm. For those more familiar with that area, the road is known a Nigger Hill.  A black man had lived about halfway up the hill for many years. When he died, he was given a proper burial somewhere near where he had lived. From that time on it has been referred to as Nigger Hill.

There were many people who lived in Nebraska and the surrounding area before 1885, and some after 1885 who are not mentioned in my book. This is not intentional, have included all the viable facts, photos, etc, I could gather together to give the flavor and essence of a Pennsylvania lumber town, Nebraska, Pennsylvania the beloved town of my boyhood. Those I was unable to include are hereby given honorable mention and an equal share of the respect and appreciation I have for the whole Nebraska story which I have merely touched upon.

Admiral "Kep" Davis was one of the many people who, as a boy, walked to and from work from Tionesta to Nebraska where he helped layout the S & T Railroad.

Rafting was the main source of transportation on the Tionesta Creek and the Allegheny River before barges, boats and railroads came into use. Lumber was shipped out on rafts, or log rafts would be assembled, tied together and floated down the Allegheny to be delivered to customers in Pittsburgh. Previous to moving out, the log rafts were put together just below the lower barge yard between the railroad bridge and the road bridge about 1,000 feet from the upper barge yard.

The last "raft" to go down the Tionesta Creek was in the early 1930's. This big event took place when some energetic and adventure-seeking young men and their lady friends from Tionesta went to Nebraska and built a make-shift raft. Some of those involved in this great undertaking were Sam Haslet, Art Covell, Wayne "Bus" Cook, and Jane and Marian Cook. It was in the spring of the year when the water was roaring high. Everything was perfect for a re-enactment of the Spring run of rafts to Tionesta. Some large planks, boards, and spikes were found from excess materials lying about near the old sawmill.

Once launched, the "raft" was guided by the use of poles to move safely over a couple whirlpools and to evade a few shore boulders. After docking at Tionesta, some friends and relatives were awaiting to celebrate their arrival. Lou Cook, one of the more famous river captains of the lumber town years was among the greeters. On the tail of the happy reunion a telephone call was received from Fred Klinstiver demanding the return of the raft material. Part of the crew complied to Fred's request but not before Lou Cook gave Klinestiver a piece of his mind.


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  Nebraska, Forest County - A Lumber Town of 250 People - 1828-1940 - Now A Favorite Fishing Spot - By E. C. Small - Published by the Forest Press, First Edition.