Ninety Years of Aiken County
Memoirs of Aiken County and Its People
By Gasper Loren Toole II
Transcribed by Dena Whitesell

Chapter IV
THE RED SHIRTS AND RECONSTRUCTION

It was a strange coincidence that the beginning of the revolution to overthrow Reconstruction in South Carolina took place on the 4th of July, 1876, just one hundred years after the signing of the document that gave purpose to the American Revolution of 1776. The scene of the event that started this revolution was the little town of Hamburg, formerly in Edgefield County but now in Aiken County. This sleepy little village had been a formidable contender for the cotton and shipping business in the Savannah River Area, but when a railroad was built to the Georgia side its future was doomed. Augusta, on the opposite bank of the Savannah grew, but Hamburg became a desolate place. During Reconstruction days, it was a gathering place for negro politicians and headquarters for Doc Adams' company of state militia, composed of negroes. The mayor, town marshal, and trial justice of the town were colored. White men and their families going through Hamburg on business to Augusta were subjected to all kinds of insolence and abuse. Henry Getzen and his brother-in-law, Thomas Butler, were riding in their carriage on their way to their home in Edgefield on the fourth of July. When they reached Hamburg, they found Doc Adams' negro company of militia drawn across the main street, blocking their only way through town. Mr. Alfred B. Williams, an authority on the happenings of 1876 in South Carolina says in his interesting book, "Hampton and His Redshirts," that it looked as if the negroes wanted a fight and when they blocked this road they kindled a fire that set South Carolina free of the bonds of reconstruction. Mr. Butler sought redress through law. He complained to Trial Justice Rivers and swore out a warrant for Adams for closing a public highway illegally. The trial was set for the 8th of July. The white people, having stood the insolence of the negro militia t Hanburg about as long as they could, had determined to make a issue of this but to do so within the law. Word of the trouble had been passed from neighbor to neighbor, White men from all over Aiken and Edgefield Counties went to Hamburg for the trial. They expected trouble for they were armed with whatever they could get, shotguns, revolvers, hoes, axes and pitchforks. General M. C. Butler, counsel for Mr. Butler, spent fruitless hours in conference with Trial Justice Rivers and Doc Adams. White men kept pouring in until there were around two hundred in the town. Thirty or forty of the colored militia were gathered in an old warehouse used then as an armory and drill hall. Rifles and ammunition supplied by the United States Government were stored there. General Butler offered to stop the prosecution if the rifles and ammunition were turned over to the state. Late in the afternoon it was seen that nothing would be done. Then the shooting started. It was never known who fired first. The negroes fired from the warehouse and the whites from whatever shelter they could find. A rifle ball from the warehouse struck McKie Meriwether in the head and killed him. McKie Meriwether was a young man, only 23 years old, and a member of a prominent Edgefield family. The whites were incensed and began to fight in grim earnest. Georgians came across the bridge from Augusta to help as they had promised to do in time of need. An old cannon was found and was fired at the warehouse. This demoralized the colored militiamen so that they climbed down a ladder in the rear of the warehouse and escaped to hiding places. The white men hunted them out and rounded up thirty of them. In this fray seven negroes were killed and four wounded. One white man was killed and two wounded. All the wounded recovered. Attaway, negro lieutenant and member of the legislature, and Cook, the town marshal, were killed. Just two weeks before, Attaway had made an incendiary speech at Barnwell, urging war against the white people until they were run out of the state. Some of the captured were told to run and shot as they ran, according to some testimony. Those remaining were released.

This fight was of importance because it came just when the white people were equally divided on their future action. Mississippi had overthrown Reconstruction government the year before and established white rule. The victory in Mississippi, the one state with a larger negro majority than South Carolina, had put new hope into the hearts of South Carolinians, and the demand was coming from all over the state to adopt the Mississippi plan. This was to win the election by any means and by any cost of life or money necessary to do so. Opposed to this plan were those who thought that a presidential election year would cast too much lime-light on South Carolina for this to be accomplished. They wanted to avoid the hostility of Washington and get behind Chamberlain, the best of the Reconstruction governors, and help him be decent and straight. Public opinion wavered between die desire to follow the "Mississippi Plan" to fight and the fear of making Washington angry.

The situation was very much like the early months of 1776 when the Tories were on one side and the Whigs on the other, and a great many men stood doubting. The Democratic State Convention which had met in May, 1876, had adjourned without deciding on any action in State affairs. General Mark Gary and General M. C. Butler, both from Edgefield, denounced Chamberlain. General Kershaw and General McGowan were eager for action too, but were overruled by men like General Wade Hampton, who thought it wiser to "watch and wait."

The Charleston News and Courier exerted a great influence on public opinion through the statewide circulation of its paper. Captain F. W. Dawson wrote editorials arguing for a compromise and cooperation with Chamberlain. The Democratic nominee for president was another cause for worry to South Carolinians. The South hoped for his election but there was fear in their hearts that he might be willing to sacrifice Southern white people for the party. Many feared, that if Tilden's plans were followed, the State would be surrendered to Chamberlain or some other worse Republican. Nobody felt sure that Chamberlain's reform professions were sincere. The people of South Carolina were truly between "the devil and the deep blue sea." The weight of prudence, of journalistic power, and pressure from the National Democratic Party and Washington were pulling for compromise until the riot in Hamburg. That charted the State's course of action and future, and with this event the uprising and revolution against Reconstruction misrule in South Carolina was launched.

When the account of the trouble was first written in the papers, all of the facts were not given, and the killing of unarmed negro prisoners by white men caused people to shudder and protest. Then the facts and incidents leading up to the riots began to come in. Some newspapers in the South and many in the North had overdone the denunciation. As the facts were learned, South Carolina began to resent the description of its men as brutal, cowardly butchers of innocent, unoffending victims by those who were either ignorant of or deliberately disregarding the facts and provocations. The "Journal of Commerce," only a few months old, demanded fair hearing for the white people of Edgefield and Aiken Counties, and Augusta, involved in the Hamburg riot and postponement of judgment until evidence was heard. New subscriptions poured in, all with money enclosed, and the paper collected its mail in tall wicker baskets. The "News and Courier" had denounced the white participants as cowardly, cruel, and murderous. It was deluged with canceled subscriptions. Subscribers refused to take it from postoffices, or returned the copies unopened. Public opinion was molded, there was no more indecisiveness, the uprising had started at Hamburg and had spread to the mountains and the sea. The fight at Hamburg had turned the white people in South Carolina from Compromise with Chamberlain and the Republicans to the "Mississippi Plan" to fight. The change took place in four days.

The middle of July the State Democratic Committee issued a call for the Democratic State Convention to reconvene at Columbia, August 15th.

After more than 3 weeks delay the Coroner's jury in the Hamburg tragedy was rendered. This verdict was made up of more than 30,000 words of testimony, all by negroes. Prince Rivers, the Hamburg trial justice, was the coroner. C. C. Turner, negro foreman of the jury and one other juror were fugitives from justice, under indictment in Richmond County, Georgia, for burglary. Ten of the twelve jurors signed their names with marks (x). This jury, made up of ignorant and criminal negroes, found ninety-four white men guilty of murder, including M. C. Butler, Ben R. Tillman, A. P. Butler and others of the most prominent men in Aiken and Edgefield Counties, South Carolina, and Richmond County, Georgia.

The result of this indictment in Aiken County was that the Aiken County Democratic Convention, with Captain G. W. Croft presiding, adopted resolutions demanding immediate adoption of the Mississippi Plan for a Straight party ticket. Other counties did likewise and the Straight-out sentiment continued to spread.

On August 10th, a demonstration was staged at Graniteville and Aiken. Fifty-five of the sixty-one men from Aiken County accused of murder by the Coroner's jury met at Graniteville to surrender to Sheriff Jordan of Aiken. They rode to Aiken, cheered by a procession of citizens all along the way. They were surrendered to Judge Maher, while the crowd cheered and shouted with laughter. Their side of the fight was presented in 130 affidavits, telling of the threats against the whites by negro leaders in Hamburg and its vicinity before and during the day of the fight. They also told that Meriwether was shot from the Warehouse Kef ore the whites had fired, that General Butler was away from Hamburg when the killing of the negroes took place, and that one man named by the jurors as a participant in the fight had been dead six months. General Gary and Governor Bonham represented the prisoners, all of whom were released by putting up $1,000.00 bail each. This demonstration in Aiken County was followed by a stirring torchlight parade at Sumter. Some of the slogans were "1776-1876" and "What we did in 1776 we will do in 1876." Other demonstrations followed.

The Republicans in the North had played up the first bloodcurdling accounts of the Hamburg affair and exaggerated them so, even to the extent of printing false stories of the mutilation of the bodies of the negroes killed, that they were put in a very bad light by the publication of the affidavits presented at Aiken. The fact that no inquiry into the death of young Meriwether was made and the strong evidence that negroes had fired first caused a revulsion of feeling in the country, and, in South Carolina resentment grew against the Republicans and Conservatives for their quick criticism of the whites.

The State Democratic Convention held its meeting in Columbia, August 15th. The Straight-out or Mississippi Plan was adopted (Colonel Sam Ferguson, a native South Carolinian but then a resident of Mississippi had come to South Carolina several weeks before to give instruction in the Mississippi Plan). This meeting, with its nomination of Wade Hampton for Governor, closed the ranks of the whites of the State and cemented them more solidly than ever before or they ever have been since.

From that day no business matter, no work, was as important as electing Wade Hampton, Governor. The men, women, and children of South Carolina placed themselves under the orders of "A. C. Haskell, Chairman." Fathers, sons, wives, and daughters rode or walked, rain or shine, through swamps, hills, and woods to carry messages that men were wanted, when and where. This occurred again and again. It was this unity of purpose and willingness to work and sacrifice that brought victory to the State.

Stirring meetings were held all over the State, among them, one at Beech Island, Aiken County. At a meeting at Abbeville, the procession was three miles long, including 500 negro Democrats. There were four bands in the parade, including one colored band. One hundred Veterans of the Hampton Legion marched in the procession. Many of the horsemen had on red shirts which had been introduced into South Carolina at the Charleston meeting. The women of South Carolina had a job of making all the red shirts. At the meeting at Laurens there were two thousand four hundred horsemen. Dial Township alone sent 275 men on white horses. On the 14th of September, Newberry held its meeting with 4,000 mounted horsemen. At this meeting the regularly uniformed Red Shirts appeared for the first time. Colonel A. P. Butler's men at Aiken had worn cotton shirts painted red and the Greenville firemen had worn their red shirts.

On the 15th of September the Ellenton riots started. The fighting took place in Aiken and Barnwell Counties. There is strong circumstantial evidence to show that there was a horrible plot of a general negro uprising organized by underground influence. Riots in Charleston had begun September 6th, the rice field riots which had been suppressed started again September 14th, the Ellenton riot began September 15th, and a labor strike in Barnwell County began September 16th. At the same time, incendiary fires in Aiken County and threats to burn Georgetown were reported. A large shipment of arms and ammunition, including Enfield rifles, were sent into the low country from the North, but were intercepted by the whites and confiscated. The trouble began near Silverton in Aiken County near the Barnwell line, about twenty-five miles from each of the 4 places, Aiken, Barnwell, Hamburg, and Augusta. Mrs. Alonzo Harley, a respectable white woman was at home with her son while her husband was working in the fields, when two negroes knocked her down and beat her. She managed to reach her husband's gun and she and the boy screamed an alarm and the men fled. When Harley and neighbors arrived and heard the description of the negroes, they were careful to keep within the law and swore out a warrant before a negro magistrate, against a man they believed to be one of the assailants. Carrying the warrant and duly deputized, they found and arrested the man, Robert Williams. Williams confessed, according to the witnesses, and Harley, enraged at the attack on his wife, struck him with his fist. Williams ran, and was fired upon but not killed. The negroes gathered rapidly. Most of the white men had gone in pursuit of Williams' accomplice. The white men reported that, greatly outnumbered, they sent a flag of truce by a colored woman, asking surrender of the assailant. They were invited to send six men to look over the crowd and satisfy themselves that the man was not there. The whites claimed that these men were attacked and escaped injury or death only by the pleading and argument of one negro man. The whites said, after both sides had agreed to disperse, they had begun to leave, when they saw that the negroes not only were not leaving but were being reinforced. The firing began, it is not known who fired first. The negroes retired after three had been wounded. That night, the negroes derailed a freight car, fired into it, and tore up the track of the Port Royal Railway at Jackson Station. Help was requested of the Governor, who ordered a detachment of troops from Hamburg to go to the scene. General Ruger commanding troops in South Carolina, ordered the detachment not to move. News traveled slowly then and before rumors reached the outside the section, now in the "H-Plant Area" from Jackson down into Barnwell was in turmoil and danger. Both sides were sending out runners and receiving reinforcements. A. P. Butler, with a force of Edgefield and Aiken County men started for Silverton, picking up men as he went and leaving word for everybody who could drive or ride to find a horse and follow. Riders were soon coming from three counties toward the section that had become a battlefield.

Monday, the 18th, John Williams, White Democrat riding in the road near Rouse's Bridge was shot from his horse by negroes and beaten to death after he fell. Sam Dunbar, white Democrat was shot and severely wounded. The white women and children of this section had been brought into the station and gathered into houses under guard of white men, while other white men patrolled the road, skirmishing with parties of negroes. Both sides were dodging through the woods and swamps, the whites mounted, searching out the negroes; the negroes, generally on foot hiding along roads in ambush to pick off the white men. Aiken could spare no more men. The drums beat in the part of town where several hundred negroes had gathered. The whites gathered at Lyceum Hall and sent out patrols through the streets and back lots.

On Tuesday morning, September 19th, Alfred Aldrich was awakened at his home at Barnwell by a messenger reporting the riots at Ellenton and asking for help. Aldrich gathered together 35 men and started for Ellenton. Runners were sent out and soon riders from all over the country were galloping through Barnwell in response to the call for help. Two companies of mounted men, one composed of colored Democrats, rode from Orangeburg to Bamberg and camped there awaiting orders to march wherever needed. General Johnson Hagood, secured legal authority from Judge Wiggin who was in Barnwell at the time, and with Sheriff James Patterson started for Ellenton. He stopped along the way to send out couriers for help. The Sheriff riding on ahead was shot by negroes in ambush and desperately wounded. G. W. Croft gathered twenty more men from around Aiken and started for Rouse's Bridge on the 19th. The same morning two companies of Edgefield men under Captain Bussey and Bohler rode through Augusta to Sand Bar Ferry where they crossed the Savannah on their way to Ellenton.

Captain Lloyd with two companies of United States troops from Aiken where they were stationed had arrived and persuaded the men of both races to disperse. The United States troops returned to Aiken on the 20th and reported everything quiet, but even while they were returning to town, the sky was lighted with incendiary fires. Negroes made a raid on the home of Joseph Ashley near Silverton, fired his gin, and shot at him. He returned the fire and drove the raiders away. The same night negroes burned M. T. Holley's gin, only four miles from Aiken. An ambuscade had been set and if he had left his house to save the gin he would have been shot. Thomas W. McKie's home in Belvedere section was attacked and many shots fired into it. He fought from the windows and killed one negro, Nelson Hunter. Dr. Wallace Bailey's home, mill, and gin were set afire and burned and attempts were made to burn the little town of Hattisville in Barnwell County, fifteen miles from Ellenton.

On the 9th of October Chamberlain issued a proclamation putting Aiken and Barnwell Counties under martial law and ordered all rifle clubs to disband. The rifle clubs held meetings on horseback and dissolved themselves, and immediately reorganized under new names. Chamberlain appointed Lewis F. Merrill, detested in the State for his activity against the Ku Klux Klan in eastern counties, as Deputy Marshal in charge of Aiken, Barnwell and Edgefield Counties.

Hampton arrived at Aiken October 20th. The Speakers' stand was on Chesterfield Street and it was covered with garlands of flowers. A flower covered arch over the stand bore the inscription "Hampton—We Love, Welcome and Honor Him." General Hampton was the guest of J. N. Wigfall, intendant, who entertained him at Mrs. Delivan Yates residence which was covered with evergreens and flowers. Colonel Louis Ely, veteran of the War of 1812 and 84 years old was one of the first to welcome General Hampton. The Graniteville and Augusta bands were on hand and cannon fired salutes. A four horse carriage, with General Hampton riding in it led the procession to the Speakers' stand. Behind it rode one thousand Red Shirts. The procession moved first to the camp of the Federal troops at Coker's Spring and stopped there to cheer them. A large choir of ladies and children sang the "Hampton Song" as the General approached. James Aldrich called the meeting to order. Colonel G. W. Croft presided, with J. G. Porter, J. St. Julien Yates, and C. J. Wessels acting as vice-presidents. Hampton, who was cheered loud and long, was the first speaker. He was followed by Colonel Simpson, General Gary, LeRoy F. Youmans, W. W. Woolsey, a New York man, and James Aldrich.

The day was ended with another raid of deputy marshals who arrested A. P. Butler, John Bowers, Luther Ranson, A. W. Atkinson, Frank Dunbar, Claude Hammond, Samuel Page, Thomas Page, George O. Walker, Dunbar Lamar, and Anson Miller, some of the most respected men of the county and jailed them on the usual charge of intimidation. The Negro Democrats had a big barbecue that night and sent the choicest of it to the prisoners in jail. On October 31st, the Democrats of Aiken and Barnwell Counties held a mass meeting at Rouse's Bridge near Ellenton, with a thousand Red Shirts present. At the same time the Republicans held a meeting at Ellenton with only a handful present. Speakers at the Democratic meeting were Messrs Everett, Jordan, Yates, Sawyer, Asbill, Bettis, Martin, Thomas Elsey and Thomas Hayne, colored. The Republican meeting at Ellenton was addressed by E. P. Stoney, colored and F. A. Palmer. The Republicans tried to spoil the Democratic meeting by sending deputy marshalls who arrested twenty-nine men. The Red Shirts fell in behind the prisoners, cheering them along the way to Aiken.

On November 1st, Porthmann and Hausman, two German White men, were found dead in the ashes of their home, five miles from Aiken, their mill burned also. Property belonging to them was found in a number of negro houses in a nearby negro settlement. A number of negroes were arrested and jailed, five of whom were hung May, 1877, by Sheriff M. T. Holley. I was present with my father and brothers at the hanging. One of the prisoners was so tall the rope stretched and his feet touched the ground. Sheriff Holley gravelled the earth from under his feet with his hands (On Oct. 24, C. E. Drayton, who later became Editor and owner of the Aiken Recorder, was arrested. He was placed in the same cell with A. P. Butler and Frank Dunbar. It was said that they gave the largest and most fashionable reception of the season.)

On the 7th of November Red Shirts rode from poll to poll seeing that the Democrats voted first and holding back Republicans as long as possible. Everything was done according to Hampton and Haskels instructions. The first precinct to turn in its vote was Graniteville which went overwhelmingly for Hampton. Election day, thanks to the Red Shirts, passed without disturbance or bloodshed. Excitement reigned all that day and for days as reports came in showing Hampton well ahead. However, both sides contested boxes and claimed election, and it was still uncertain that Hampton would be allowed to serve as Governor. The long struggle now began before the canvassing boards, continued in the courts and Congress from Nov. 10th, 1876 to April 10th, 1877. The Aiken vote was contested by the Republicans. A. P. Butler was elected State Senator from Aiken County and C. E. Sawyer. J. J. Woodward, L. M. Asbill, and John Guignard were elected to the House of Representatives.

On the 28th of November, United States troops were stationed in the State House. Democratic members were required to surrender their arms as they passed in. Republicans were allowed to enter without question. There were two Houses at this time: The Mackey House, or Republican House, composed of 59 members, three of whom were white, including Mackey the Speaker; and the Wallace or Democratic House, of whom Claude E. Sawyer was the youngest member. Those who had certificates from the Secretary of State could go and come as they pleased. There were two governments and two legislatures in South Carolina now. Chamberlain was inaugurated on December 7th and Hampton on December 14th. It was still to be settled which government would win and who would be seated as Governor.

January 8th, a mass meeting was held in Aiken and most of the other counties and it was decided to pay no taxes to Chamberlain's government, but to pay the 10% called for by Hampton immediately. Chamberlain said he would collect taxes in the usual way. In February referring to Chamberlain's boast, President Grant said the only way he knew to enforce payment of taxes was to sell property and property couldn't be sold where nobody who could pay would dare buy.

A little incident showed how the sentiment in the nation had changed. Frederick A. Palmer, Radical from Aiken, made a speech before the congregation of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, New York, in which he dramatically described the Ellenton riots and alleged atrocities of the Red Shirts of Aiken County. Henry Ward Beecher remarked that from what Mr. Palmer had said he felt that he and his congregation would have done just what the whites of Aiken had done. Beecher was applauded and Palmer was laughed off the rostrum.

Hampton began to remove Republican County officers and replace them with Democrats and as the Hampton government had collected the taxes they held the reins because they could pay the salaries, and the Chamberlain government could not. In response to more calls for help to Grant by Chamberlain, he exclaimed: "The entire Army of the United States would be inadequate to enforce the authority of Governor Chamberlain. The people have resolved not to resort to violence, but have adopted methods more effective than armed resistance." This showed how great were the leaders in South Carolina in her time of need. It was not long before Hampton was recognized as Governor by the United States Government. Troops were withdrawn from the State House on April 10th, 1877 . Chamberlain left the Governor's office on the 11th and Hampton was given the keys. Thus, South Carolina lying prostrate the day of the Hamburg Riot, hopeless and desperate, had risen, gloriously alive to join her sister States and to fight for many years to overcome the wounds of Reconstruction.

WALLACE HOUSE-ORGANIZED NOVEMBER 28, 1876

OFFICERS-70 John T. Sloan, Clerk; 71 W. McB. Sloan, Asst Clerk; 72 W. R. Williams, Reading Clerk; 73 J. D. Brown, Sgt.-at-Arms; 74 D. R. Elkins, Asst. Sgt-at-Arms; L. N. Zealy, Door Keeper. 76 Judge Thompson H. Cooke, of the Eigth Circuit, who administered the oath of office to the members.

ABBEVILLE-1 W. R. Bradley, 2 R. R. Hemphill, 3 F. A. Conner, 4 William Hood, 5 T. L. Moore.
AIKEN-6 C. E. Sawyer, 7 J. J. Woodward, 8 L. M. Asbill, 9 J. G. Guignard.
ANDERSON-10 H. R. Vandiver, 11 R. W. Simpson, 12 W. C. Brown, 13 James L. Orr.
BARNWELL-14 Issac S. Bamberg, 15 John W. Holmes, 16 L. W. Youmans, 17 M. A. Rountree, 18 Robert Aldrich. BEAUFORT- 19 T. Hamilton, Rep., 20 N. B. Myers, Rep.
CHESTERFIELD J. C. Colt, 22 D. T. Redfearn.
COLLETON-23 H. E. Bissell, 24 Wm. Marce, 25 J. N. Cummings, 26 I. E. Parler, 27 Robert Jones.
EDGEFIELD-28 W. S. Allen, 29 J. C. Sheppard, 30 James Callison, 31 T. E. Jennings, 32 H. A. Shaw. GREENVILLE-33 J. F. Donald, 34 J. Thos. Austin, 35 J. W. Gray, 36 J. L. Westmoreland.
HORRY-37 L. D. Bryan, 38 John R. Cooper.
LANCASTER-John B. Erwin, 40 J. C. Blakeney.
LAURENS-41 J. B. Humbert, 42 J. W. Watts, 43 D. W. Anderson.
LEXINGTON-44 G. Leapheart, G. Muller.
MARION-46 J. G. Blue, 47 James McRea, 48 R. M. Rodgers, 49 J. P. Davis.
MARLBORO-50 Philip M. Hamer, 51 Thos. M. Edens.
NEWBERRY-52 S. F. Bridges, Rep.
OCONEE-53 B. Frank Sloan, 54 John S. Verner.
ORANGEBURG-55 W. H. Reedish, Rep.
PICKENS-56 D. F. Bradley, 57 E. H. Baston.
SPARTANBURG-58 W. M. Compton, 59 John W. Wofford, 60 P. S. Allen, 61 Charles Perry.
SUMTER-62 J. H. Westberry.
UNION-63 W. H. Wallace, 64 C. D. Fuller, 65 Wm. Jefferies.
YORK -66 A. E. Henderson, 67 J. A. Gist, 68 W. E. Byers, 69 B. H. Mowery.


Chapter V
From 1877-1889-RECOLLECTIONS OF MONTMORENCI

My father, R. J. Wade, J. J. Woodward, Wiley Woodward and John C. Wade were among those who pledged sufficient funds for a three teacher school for the community. The Rev. Mr. Hawes and his two daughters were engaged to teach for a seven month period. They lived in the old William Woodward residence and taught during the years 1877 and 1878 (The Rev. Mr. Hawes was also pastor of the Montmorenci Baptist Church.) This school was an improvement over the one we had had heretofore.

In 1879, we went back to the old one-teacher school taught by Mrs. Nellie Cumbee Woodward, wife of Furman Woodward. She was a good teacher and worked up interest in her pupils by devoting much time to school exhibitions. She gave one hour of the ten-hour school day every Friday to practicing recitations, dialogues and speeches for Exhibition Day. My older brother, Dr. Charles Toole, who passed away in San Antonio, Texas, was the leading figure on these occasions. Very often he gave the Welcome and the Closing addresses. I remember on one of these occasions he had ten separate speeches and long dialogues to give. The exhibition exercises always ran late into the night. Among the approximately 40 students attending there, I can only recall one beside myself now (1957) living—Mrs. Johnnie Johnson, formerly Carrie Chapman. One of the successful highpoints of Mrs. Woodward's teaching was her continual striving to make certain her students would always remember the multiplication table backwards and forward through the twelfth line. She would put the whole school in one class and stand us up around the room, making us practice the multiplication tables by singing them. If she thought a pupil did not know a certain table, she would stop and quiz him.

I recall an incident that happened at my father's store in 1879 which impressed me very much. Mr. Hotchkinson had bought the "Vale of Montmorenci" and was living there. He did not want any one to walk on or cross his land, and he was most emphatic about this. It had been the custom for the Adkinson boys, near neighbors of ours, to carry sacks of corn on their shoulders down a pathway which crossed a field of the "Vale of Montmorenci" and on down to Mr. Greenberry Redd's mill, a distance of about two and one-half miles. There was no straight road going to the mill at that time, and people cut across fields and woods to get there. On the particular day in question, Alfred Adkinson, who was about twenty years old, was halfway across the field with the usual sack of corn on his shoulders when he was abruptly hailed by Mr. Hotchkinson. Mr. Hotchkinson yelled, "Get off these premises and stay off. I am not going to have anyone crossing my fields." Alfred went on to the mill. Whether he returned the same way, I do not know.

However, this happening caused what occurred later in the week at my father's store which was also the postoffice. There were several barrooms in Montmorenci at the time, and on this occasion Alfred visited one of these before coming to my father's store for groceries and his mail. Unfortunately Alfred arrived in front of our store as Mr. Hotchkinson was coming out with his mail. Yelling, "You are the man who ordered me out of your field," Alfred hurled the quart bottle of liquor he was holding straight at Mr. Hotchkinson, hitting him on the forehead. Mr. Hotchkinson dropped with a thud, bleeding like a stuck pig. My father came running out of the store, we carried him inside, and my mother bandaged and treated the wound as best she could.

Mr. Hotchkinson was taken home and put to bed where he stayed for several days. Whether this blow caused it or not, I do not know but he never did seem the same again. I later inquired, but could learn of no prosecution or any action whatsoever taken against Mr. Adkinson.

This incident impressed me very much as a boy, and probably made me more lenient in later life toward those who used my land for their own good. Large numbers of people have hunted and fished on my land, especially the Wise Mill Place on Bridge Creek. The present Outing Club pond and the Salley pond site were on this place and were used by the public before I sold them. I have never put up any trespass notices or tried to keep people off my land, but have taken my chances and let the game go as it would. I think that even though you have authority, it is well to always use it sparingly and exercise it with caution.

In the early summer of 1880, I had a harrowing experience in a race with a mad cow. My father had instructed me to go to our "upper place" to plow. There were two ways to go—one up the railroad across James Moseley's place and one, a nearer route, which ran up the hollow south of the present road to the old Toole place. We traveled the first route with a wagon or buggy. As I was riding muleback, I now chose the pathway or second route mentioned. When I had rounded a short curve in the hollow, I saw a cow, standing directly in the path. As I neared her, she lunged at the mule, and I saw that she was foaming at the mouth. The mule reared on his hind legs and then started to run. He tore through the woods, closely followed by the cow. I lost my hat and lunch, and was too badly frightened to do any thing but cling to the mule's neck. Just when the cow had almost caught up with us and was bearing down on us, the mule veered to one side and the cow dashed on. I drove the mule across the woods and reached the farm in a few minutes. Later, I heard that the cow really was mad. This happened just before the "No Fence Law" came into effect when cattle were allowed to roam at large. This law was quite a political question then and quite a few political heads fell because of the stand taken on this question.

School advantages in the Montmorenci community, through no fault of anyone in particular, were not sufficient to prepare one for entrance to college. Therefore in 1881, my father sent my brother Charlie and me to Lexington to the high school taught by two good teachers, Professor Schoenberg, who later lived in the Perry section of Aiken County, and Professor Raymond. Unfortunately, I stayed there only four months because my father was unable to keep me there. I remember well my drawing and orthography lessons.

Andrew T. Woodward, youngest son of J. J. Woodward, persuaded my father to send my brother Charlie and me to the University of South Carolina where he was a student. The College had been rehabilitated from Republican management. Charlie was prepared to enter the freshman class, but as I was three years younger than he, I had to take preparatory courses. We roomed in Legare College which at that time was over the post office. Each student furnished his own furniture, bedding, linens, fuel for heat, lamps, and kerosene. I remember that I would go down to Mr. Neary's store on South Main Street and get half a gallon of kerosene at the time. I took an agricultural course to begin with and was a member of the Clairosophic Society. Later, my son Frampton, joined this same society.

It was the custom to "haze" the new students. The hazers, composed mostly of sophomores, came to our room one night, but as we did not resist, my brother and I came out with only a little snoot smeared on our faces. We entered the fun good-naturally, joined the crowd, and with the snoot on our faces, went with them to the rooms of other new students.

Everything went along all right until we reached the room in which McKeever Williamson and several other boys lived. The leader of the band of Tiazers" boldly opened the door and rushed in. The Williamson boys were sitting at a table studying by the light from a large kerosene lamp with a white globe. McKeever stood up, saying "What can I do for you, gentlemen?" The leader answered, "We have come to initiate you." McKeever reached over and grabbed a large pistol and waved it in front of the crowd yelling, "Get out of here." The leaders, who had been very brave in the other rooms, backed out of the door, and McKeever and his room-mates were not molested. McKeever, who had chosen an agricultural course, graduated, and later in life, as a successful farmer, initiated the Williamson Corn Plan. This plan consisted of planting corn in deep rows, applying very little, if any, fertilizer at planting time. Then, with the second working when the corn was knee high, nitrogenous fertilizers were applied about one foot from the corn row, and the corn was laid by by turning the soil toward the corn, filling the furrow. The idea in this method was not to grow so much stalk but better ears by applying the fertilizer late, making it go into the making of ears instead of stalks.

I was handicapped throughout my college attendance by my unpreparedness for college. I did not make as good marks as T would have liked, but I have always been glad that I kept my pledge to receive no assistance on examinations, and retained my honesty, instilled in me by my parents. Cheating was not uncommon and some were expelled because of it. What I did not learn by study, I learned by absorption and contacts. I made good use of the Clairosophic Society to practice debates and public speaking. Whenever I was appointed to speak, I fulfilled my obligation to the best of my ability. The election of officers of the society was very exciting and the fraternities vied with each other to elect its candidates. Not being a member of a fraternity, probably he-cause of lack of funds, I was a "free lance," and naturally, the fraternity boys would seek the support of the non-fraternity boys. In 1884, I was identified with the prevailing majority to fill die various offices of the society and they rewarded me by making me librarian. These experiences gave me a taste for politics.

Another experience I will relate carries a little fun with it. Senator D. S. Henderson from Aiken County had just succeeded in having passed the state anti-duelling law. It required that an anti-duelling oath be taken by every official entering into office and still does. This oath is as follows:

DUELLING OATH

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I am duly qualified according to the Constitution of this State, to exercise the duties of the office to which I have been elected (or appointed), and that I will to the best of my ability, discharge the duties thereof, and preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of this State and of the United States. I do further solemnly swear (or affirm) that I have not since the first day of January in the year 1881, engaged in a duel as principal or second or otherwise; and that I will not, during the term of office to which I have been elected (or appointed), engage in a duel as principal, or second or otherwise. So Help Me God." This oath was later incorporated as one of the provisions of the South Carolina Constitution of 1895.

Posterity should not only have gratitude for the efforts of our Senator D. S. Henderson of Aiken in persuading the legislature to pass this law but also in the Constitutional Convention to include it in the provisions.

The passage of the anti-duelling law was the occasion for a very amusing college prank. Some students at the University decided they would have a little fun with a sham duel. A student named Humbert, from Colleton County, and Arthur Townsend, from Aiken County but whom we had not known prior to our college days, sent a group along with some other students to our room about 8 o'clock one night. My brother arid I invited them in. The spokesman for the group said, "Boys, we have some bad news. Humbert and Townsend nave quarreled and cannot settle their dispute except by a duel." He informed my brother that Townsend wanted him to act as his second. Charlie took the matter seriously and said, "Don't you know this is a violation of the laws of South Carolina. Senator Henderson has just t had an anti-duelling law passed and I won't be a party to this unlawful act." The duelling party kept insisting that his friend from Aiken County was calling on him in his time of need and that he would be letting Townsend down if he refused to act for him. Finally, having a little more adventuresome spirit, I got up and told Charlie I was going out to the duelling grounds with them. He jerked me around and tried to keep me from going, saying, "You little fool, you had better stay here." This amused the boys so much that I began to suspect there wasn't much to it. Charlie, not being able to keep me in my room, went along to take care of me.

The crowd retired to the eastern outer walls of the college grounds about where the Melton Field is located. It was a very dark night. The leaders stepped off the distance between the antagonists and Townsend and Humbert took their positions facing each other. Charlie, under the stress and excitement, decided to act as his friend's second. The crowd was made to stand out of range of the gunfire. The duel was carried out according to the duelling procedure of that day, especially at Sand Bar Ferry where, history says, Governor Hammond furnished the spot and the munitions for many duels. All arrangements having been completed in this sham battle, the leader called, "One—Two—Three-Four—Fire." Both fired their pistols; excitement ran high; Townsend fell at Charlie's feet. The crowd ran to him and he appeared to be struggling for life. They knelt over him, struck matches, and the quick flare of the matches showed blood flowing from him. Some one exclaimed, "He is bleeding to death." One man was dispatched for a doctor, and my brother was given a telegram to send to Townsend's mother. He thought it was real; but before he could get across the campus I stopped him, and thus ended a duelling drama that never existed. The cartridges were blanks, and the blood was red ink.

Joseph McCullough, from Greenville, who later was a colleague of mine in the legislature, Judge Thomas Perrin Cothran from Greenville County, who was my wife's cousin and who later became associate justice of the Supreme Court, Copeland of Laurens, and Towers of Anderson were our nearest roommates. They were well prepared for college, having come to Carolina from other institutions. Tump and Jim Kennedy of Troy came from Due West College. Professor Patton, a former professor at Due West College was a professor of languages (Greek and Latin). John T. Roddey of Rock Hill, though a small man, was top jumper on the campus. There was no gymnasium in those days, but gymnastics was given on the campus. All the students were not saints, and there were some liquor drinkers among them. Very often pranks were performed to relieve the monotony of study. Late one night, during the session of 1884-1885, the whole college was disturbed by the alarm of "Fire." Five or six students, some drinking, had pulled off gates at some of the teachers' homes and, with the use of kerosene, had succeeded in making a large bonfire. After the fire was well started they either hid out or mingled with the crowd that had gathered. Later the names of these students were discovered, and they were expelled. Thus even in those days fool acts were performed by college students, such as I still read about in the newspapers of today.

While in college I attended the legislature regularly and learned much from the proceedings and debates. During the fall of 1882, whenever I was not in classes, I attended a famous trial of a doctor from Vaucluse who had committed an unmentionable crime upon his wife. The criminal case had been transferred to the Rich-land Court. Colonel George Johnson of Newberry defended the doctor, and after the case had been called the wife refused to testify against her husband. I heard both sides as they thrashed out the question of whether a wife could be forced to testify against her husband—a question which had previously been unsettled until the trial judge in this case ruled that the court could not force a wife to testify against her husband, even if the crime had been committed against her. I well remember how prepossessing Colonel Johnson, who later became Congressman, was as he walked up and down outside the railing of the bar in front of the audience with his hands behind him. Thus, as a boy of fourteen, I obtained some good experience and knowledge of court procedure which I never forgot.

In 1885, with the consent and advise of my father, I moved to what we called the "Upper Place," later owned by Dayton L. Toole and John W. Toole, sons of my brother Marion. Having taken an agricultural course during the two years spent at the university, I planned to put some of the theories learned into practice. During 1885 and 1886 I looked after this farm and the croppers, and for this my father allowed me eight acres for a crop of my own. Five bales of cotton made on this land gave me a profit of $250, part of which I expended for a horse and buggy. I had raised a milk cow from the heifer calf given me by my father. In those days no family was equipped without a cow for milk and butter. I also raised some chickens and though Caching" it, I began to get the place in shape to yield a comfortable living.

The happenings of 1886 were very impressive to me. A sermon preached by Rev. Welcome Moseley at a revival meeting at Levels Baptist Church, August 31, and attended by me especially impressed me, all the more so because of what happened immediately after. The subject was "Who will be able to stand on Judgment Day?" Speaking without notes and without hesitation, he warned his hearers frequently that "We know not the day nor the hour when we will be struck down, and even today or tonight may be our last/' Within an hour it was forceably brought to my mind that he must have had a premonition to warn us. I had left the church and was riding toward home, thinking over the sermon as I galloped along. When I had reached the Bill Wade and Brooks Woodward places, my horse suddenly fell to his knees, thrown there by the first shock of the Earthquake of 1886. The shocks then came every minute or so. In the distance I could hear the trees shaking as in a windstorm. I rode on to my brother Ransey's place south of the railroad and found the negroes there all out in their yards yelling and praying. I hurried home to find the family there out in the yard frightened and greatly excited. The shake lasted two or three days—nothing like this had happened before in this region, and at first many thought it was the end of the world and judgment day was here.

In commenting upon the scrapbook of his father, Mr. Selby, who is 83 years old and a retired vice president of the R. L. Bryan Company of Columbia, said, "Those were hectic days in Charleston. Men and women remained outdoors in the parks, or stayed in the open spaces as much as possible. Everyone was afraid that the buildings would fall upon them. My father was the first newspaperman to get the message of the earthquake to the Columbia newspapers. We all recalled those days, which we believed would be our last."

The following week after the earthquake, the annual protracted meeting was held at the Montmorenci Baptist Church. Partly due to the experience of the earthquake, church attendance was especially good. Under the good preaching of Rev. Hiram L. Baggott I was converted and united with the church, along with many others. The following Sunday, baptism was held at Mr. Greenberry Redd's Mill Pond about three miles south of Montmorenci. I was among the many who were baptized. I will never forget what my mother said at the dinner table when Rev. Baggott was a guest at our home during this meeting. She remarked, with tears in her eyes, "I am so glad that I have lived long enough to see all of my children, including Ren, the youngest, become members of the Church." I have always remembered this as one of my happiest days, and her words have always been a comfort to me, for only a few days later she passed away, September 21, 1886. In this I met the first real disaster of my life. Never has man had a more devoted and Christian mother.

My mother had owned both the "Upper Place" of 200 acres and the original "Old Place" of 150 acres, adjoining the "Vale of Montmorenci." Having property of his own sufficient for his own support, my father relinquished his legal right of one third of her estate to his nine living children. The older boys thought it wasn't practical to divide the land and my brother Ransey brought suit for a partition. Since I was a minor, being only 19 years of age, Charlie was appointed my guardian. The proceedings for partition was put through the court at Chambers, and it was decreed that it be sold the first Monday in December, 1886.

Before the sale, Frank, Charlie and I heard of some good cotton land (the Denby land) to be sold at Bradley. Not knowing that we would purchase the lands from our mother's estate, but Snowing that we would realize something from the estate that we could invest we went to Bradley to look over this land. While there we visited our kinsman, Jack Woodward, who had married a Miss Cook and lived between Child's Crossroads and Hard Labor Creek on the Abbeville-Edgefield public road on land adjoining the Childs and Wideman lands. Jack Woodward told us that Mrs. Samuel Perrin, a widow living about one mile from his place, had land she wanted to sell. He took us in his brake to visit Mrs. Perrin to inquire about the sale of her land. She received us very graciously but was undecided whether she would sell or not. While we were assembled in the parlor, her young step-daughter who was also her niece, May Perrin, came in to get permission to visit a friend, Belle Youngblood. In this way, I met my future wife and a year later we were married. Though this visit to Bradley did not accomplish much in land buying, it was one of the most important in my life.

As the day drew near for the sale of the land from my mother's estate, I became more and more concerned because I wanted to obtain some of the land for myself. My older brothers had accumulated some land and property and could well afford to buy the land, but I had no money and no collateral. The sale day came and the Master began the auction.

The less valuable property, the 150 acres, was put up first. My brother, Charlie, already settled and practicing his profession as a doctor, was not very much concerned about owning any land. I felt that I had to act for myself and, without consulting Charlie, boldly bid off the land to the highest bidder in the name of Dr. Charles Toole and G. L. Toole, Jr. This created a dilemma after the sale because I was only 19 years old and under age.

After the sale of the other tract of land, bought by Ransey and Frank, it was found that I had bought the first tract at such a low figure that I had more than enough from my share of the estate to pay for my half of the land Charlie and I had bought. I at once employed Capt. John N. Hankinson as surveyor and we divided the place between us, getting 75 acres apiece. Charlie let me have the northern part with the house, and he took the south side adjoining the Dibble land. I at once moved on to my part, with my horse, buggy, cow, and chickens and set up bachelor's quarters there in the early part of 1887. The first thing I did was to dig a well, and at the depth of 32 feet got a good supply of fine water near the house. While my father had lived on this place, we had no other source of water than a spring about 200 yards from the house.

Wells were not very prevalent in the early days of my father's life. How easy it was to have water so near at hand for a cost to me of only $30. Though a minor, I was now established on my own homestead and had started my life as an independent young farmer. The first year I made a very good crop of five bales of cotton, and planted six acres of Cobb Gem Watermelons for shipment. The seed originated in Alabama and the tough rind stood shipping. I sold two carloads of these melons for $225. Uncle Jabe Cushman, my father's half brother, gave some very much needed assistance in my farming venture with a crop loan. Uncle Jabe who was considered one of the best cotton fanners in Aiken County, established the first steam gin in the community and soon made 100 bales of cotton each season. During his lifetime he bought out many of his adjoining neighbors (the Saddlewaite place, the Arthur Cushman place, the Bill Wade place, and Mrs. William Woodward's place) and became owner of 1000 acres of fine cotton land. He reared a fine family of children who have done well: Mr. Geddings Cushman, Sr., Mr. Edward C. Cushman, Sr., Mrs. Oscar Dukes and Mrs. Bessie Lunger.

My father, through Jack Woodward's assistance, met Mrs. Fannie E. Perrin with whom I had talked about her land at Bradley. Before very long they were married at her home by Rev. Mr. Smart. I attended the wedding and renewed my acquaintance with May (her step-daughter). My step-mother gave up her Bradley residence to her step-son, Thomas C. Perrin, and her step-daughters, May and Sarah Lee. May and I were married at my father's home in Montmorenci on October 11, 1887. Had I looked the world over I could not have found a more loving and co-operative helpmate, and our marriage was blessed with much happiness.

Shortly after our marriage, I rented my newly acquired home and land at Montmorenci and moved to the old Perrin home, "Cotton Levels," and farmed there in 1888. I attended the old Horeb Baptist Church and voted in the primary in Abbeville County. "Cotton Levels" an old Colonial mansion, was large enough for two families, and Brother Ransey and his wife had an apartment with us. He had bought the Wideman place on Hard Labor Creek, adjoining the Perrin place, and was farming it. The Perrin and Wideman land, though good cotton land, was hilly and rocky. Ransey and I had no experience with this kind of soil. Our sweeps and tools would often have to be sharpened at noon or replaced because of breakage. We made a crop and cleared some money, but we were homesick for the Sand Hills of Aiken where the land was level and the rows were long. I moved back to the "Old Place" in 1889 and Ransey moved to the old South-waite place owned by him at the time, now owned by Lafayette, son of Mr. and Mrs. Wiley Woodward.

Shortly after this, I found it necessary to return to "Cotton Levels" to visit my brother-in-law, Thomas Chiles Perrin, who had remained on the old Perrin place. I made this trip of fifty miles in a buggy—driving my young three year old mare, Jeannette, that had been raised on the Perrin plantation. I traveled on the Abbeville Road by way of Trenton and Edgefield Courthouse.

When I arrived at Turkey Creek about eight miles beyond Edgefield, I found the waters in floodstage from the heavy spring rains. The bridge had washed out several years before, and since the county had not replaced it travelers had to ford the creek. I stopped the mare and got out of the buggy to take a look at the crossing. Because the water was well over the banks and about seventy-five feet across, I hesitated to attempt to ford the creek. However, the afternoon shadows were lengthening and I still had a long way to go. Therefore, I decided to risk the waters and trust the mare to carry me and the buggy safely across. The water was muddy and turbulent, but I had not realized the depth until I had already driven the mare out into the stream and saw that she would have to swim across hampered by the buggy. The landing on the other side was not clear, and I now knew that I had made a mistake and that it was doubtful if the little mare, fighting so valiantly, would be able to make it across. It was impossible to turn the buggy around. I held the reins in one hand and grabbed the mare's tail with the other. I tried to guide her to the landing, all the time talking to her and urging her on in her struggle with the waters. It seemed that the swift current would carry us past the landing before we reached it, and that we would be swept down steam and drowned. I jerked the mare, struck her, and urged her on again. She made a desperate plunge and landed on the road on high ground. I got out of the buggy and patted and talked to the mare, praising her; and as I looked back at the turbulent waters, I knew that with a less gallant horse I would have been lost.

I did not reach my brother-in-law's that night, but spent the night with Charlie Fuller, my wife's uncle, who lived at Liberty Hill on the Abbeville Road. He reprimanded me very severely and told me over and over that I had a very narrow escape from drowning. Charlie Fuller was a very prominent citizen of Edgefield County. He and his hah0 brother, William Y. Quarles, were partners in a country store for many years after the War Between the States.


Chapter VI
1880-1890

The courage of our people after the War is shown in the manner in which they came back to their ruined homes to rebuild the state they loved. Sometimes it takes more courage to live than to die and the struggle to overcome the burdens of taxation, misrule and oppression, the courage with which the government of our state and county was wrested from the carpetbagger and negro will ever be an inspiration for men to risk everything for the liberty so dear to them. With the election of Wade Hampton, a white man's government was established in South Carolina which has lasted to this day, but many problems beset the government in the days of Wade Hampton.

Reconstruction had brought business collapse. Pensions had to be paid to Confederate Veterans, and in addition South Carolina had to help pay pensions to the Northern soldiers, and to contribute to the nation's war debt. Besides this, Carpetbag Rule had almost trebled the State debt. Railroads had to be repaired. Schools, closed for years, had to be reopened. Industries had to be encouraged. Some way had to be found to live peacefully with the freed negroes. Farmers could not raise money to pay taxes, much less for fertilizer and labor to raise crops.

As farming was the chief business of the state, the first great need was to help the farmer. The Legislature passed a "Stock Law," requiring cattle raisers to fence in their stock to prevent the ruin of crops by stray cattle, and a "Lien Law," making it possible for farmers to borrow money to buy fertilizer for their crops. The lien law authorized the farmer to give a lien over his future crop thus enabling the little farmer to carry on. The cotton factor would buy cotton, store it, and later sell to the mills to meet the demand. They advanced "crop money" mostly to the large farmer who would sign an agreement to ship his cotton to the firm with which he had made the agreement. The cotton firm would then buy the cotton to sell or to store it to sell later, charging a commission and paying the farmer the current price. Cotton was often sold by the farmer in the early fall at a sacrifice, the speculator holding it for 5 or 6 months and making 5c or 6c a pound profit on it. Likewise, the local merchant would advance the farmer during the year under his lien notes. He, too, would handle the crops of the small farmer, buying his crop and making a profit by holding the cotton for future sales to supply the demand from month to month.

Even with these laws the farmer's lot was still a hard one. Working to feed and clothe the world, he had no say-so in fixing the price of what he produced. Neither did he, as a consumer, have anything to say in fixing the price he had to pay. Naturally, these conditions harried the feelings of the farmer. Cotton had dropped from 14c per pound to 10c per pound, and finally to 5c per pound. Much cotton was left in the field unpicked. Three-fourths of the people of the state depended upon cotton for a living. In the early days of Barnwell District not much cotton had been raised in what is now Aiken County, but under the system of "Share-Cropping" and small farms this crop had grown in importance in Aiken County. The farmers now grumbled about the hard times and began to feel that the "aristocratic" leaders of the state were to blame. They felt that since they number three-quarters of the state, they should control the legislature.

These conditions were such that the time was ripe for a "Moses" to come forth as a champion of the small farmer. Strangely, this new leader on the political scene, was a large and successful farmer. This young farmer of Edgefield, Benjamin Ryan Till-man, inherited the audacity of the Tillman name, many of whom had served in war and peace. His brother, George D. Tillman had served in the House and Senate of South Carolina and was at this time Congressman from this district. Benjamin R. Tillman had championed the cause of the farmer in the papers and on the stump. At a meeting at Bennettsville, August 1885, he took to task the political rulers of South Carolina for their negligence and mismanagement. He blamed the aristocrats for the condition of the down-trodden farmers. This political agitation continued from election year to election year. Farmer Tillman and his followers met at the Democratic conventions and worked to get their ideas adopted. However, the Democratic conventions were controlled by the aristocratic officers. It was they who actually nominated all state and county officers, and the "Tillmanites" got practically nowhere in getting their reforms carried out. The agitation, however, had taken roots and many joined the Tillman movement from all over the State, particularly in Laurens County, where a man named Shell, and a lawyer and farmer named J. L. M. Irby were prominent in the movement.

Before the regular Democratic convention, the farmers authorized Shell to issue a manifesto to the people of the state, calling for a convention to be held at Columbia to select nominees for state offices to run on the Independent ticket. This call received an enthusiastic response from every county in the state. The famous Shell Manifesto was successful in impressing the majority of South Carolina that Tillman was right and under the influence of these men the Farmers' Alliance or Reform Movement captured the Democratic Party of South Carolina.

The Aiken Democratic Club, the largest in the county, was under the influence of the majority of lawyers at Aiken among whom were D. S. Henderson, G. W. Croft, and Quitman Davis, and others who opposed the Tillman movement. Among those championing the cause of the Tilhnanites were John Gary Evans, a young lawyer from Edgefield, who had settled in Aiken, O. C. (Boll) Jordan, and John T. Gaston who had formerly been a Sheriff of Edgefield County. The result was a mixed delegation from Aiken of conservatives and Tillmanites.

The County Convention held a warm session with exciting speeches made on both sides. I was put on a slate with O. C. Jordan and E. B. Tyler, as delegates from Aiken County to the District Meeting at Edgefield held to nominate a Congressman (the primary was not then in vogue).

At this Democratic convention in 1890 the election rules were changed putting into effect the Primary System as we know it to-day. B. R. Tillman was elected Governor and Ernest Gary of Abbeville (who later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of South Carolina) was elected Lieutenant-Governor. Governor Tillman and his political followers gained control of the state. From this point on Aiken County progressed industrially and agriculturally. Aiken Town grew to be the Sports Center of the South and the Queen of Winter Resorts.

John C. Wade

JOHN C. WADE-Son of Drayton Wade and brother of R. J. Wade, Sr. a farmer who

Owen Alderman

became the owner of the Pascalis house where Gen. Kilpatrick had his headquarters. He married Theodocia Canfield.

OWEN ALDERMAN was bom, near Wilmington, N. C. and came to Aiken County to enter the turpentine business in 1884. He married Mamie Davis, sister of James E. Davis of Barnwell and Quitman Davis. He served as sheriff of Aiken County and as a member of the House of Rep. His daughter was Bessie Alderman Duncan and his son was Heyward Alderman.








 Chapter VII
1890-1900

MY FIRST POLITICAL ADVENTURE

In the early part of 1892, my good friend and neighbor, R. J. Wade, Sr., visited with us quite often. One evening, after some political talk, he suggested very emphatically, "Ren, you should run for School Commissioner of Aiken County. You can be elected and we need you in that job." With this encouragement, and the encouragement of other friends, I decided to make the race.

The year 1892 was the first time in Aiken County history that County Officers were elected by a mojority vote of the Democratic Primary.

Those who qualified for the campaign for School Commissioner that year were: Luther Williams, incumbent, Captain T. W. Whatley, Edward Kennedy, Ben Landrum, Monroe Gantt of Monetta, and myself.

Campaign meetings were held in all sections of the County, just as they are today. All candidates made their appeal for votes from the stump. Mr. Williams used his alloted time singing and playing the fiddle. Capt. Whatley was the most learned speaker, while I tried to confine my speeches to the need and importance of public education. I would begin my speeches with "Fellow Citizens, you have been entertained very well with song and the fiddle, which we all enjoy in their proper place, but I have read in history that the wicked Roman Emperor, Nero, actually played and sang while Rome burned. So it is today, the Honorable Incumbent, is playing and singing while Aiken County needs serious thoughts on its educational problems."

In the middle of the campaign, it was suggested by one of the candidates, that the speaking tour be called off because of the hot weather. I objected to this on the ground that I was young and not known throughout the County as most of my opponents. I had paid my entrance fee and I intended to make all scheduled appearances. As a result, all candidates made the speaking tour.

The first primary came to an end and the incumbent, Mr. Williams, led the ticket, but fell short of a majority. I was second, but approximately 400 votes behind Mr. Williams. Two weeks later, in the run off between Mr. Williams and myself, I was elected by a 500 vote majority.

In tribute to Mr. Luther Williams, I would like to say that he gave me valued assistance and advice after my election. I served two years with the best of my ability as School Commissioner of Aiken County, now known as Superintendent of Education. My salary was $600.00 per year, plus $100.00 per year traveling expenses. I covered the County visiting all County Schools, making speeches of encouragement to the teachers and student bodies. Travel was done at that time by roadcart or on horseback.

While serving as School Commissioner, I continued my farming operations and carried on my private business affairs with only moderate success. During this time, in 1894, I well remember taking a 500 pound bale of cotton to Graniteville for sale and received 5c per pound for it. On this trip,I met good Dr. Frampton Wyman, to whom I owed a large doctor's bill, and gave him a $20.00 gold piece out of the cotton money.

In 1896 I again entered the political arena, this time as a candidate for the House of Representatives. In the race were nine candidates, including myself, of which three would be elected, the others were Arthur W. Cushman, my first cousin, R. H. Tim-merman, J. M. Polatty, W. J. Creed, J. C. Garner, W. N. Marchant, H. F. Warneke, and J. A. Milhous. Cousin Arthur Cushman and Dr. Ransome H. Timmerman were elected on the first ballot. J. M. Polatty with 1046 votes and I with 1012 were in a second race for election.

Realizing that my opponent, a very successful merchant of Graniteville, had a great advantage over me because he lived in the famous Horse Creek Valley where the real voting power of the county lay, I recanvassed the county as completely as I could. The fact that Mr. Polatty was a most vigorous and outspoken campaigner made it all the more an uphill race for me. The result of the election was very close, giving me a majority of eleven votes. Mr. Polatty contested the election strongly and employed three lawyers to appear before the Democratic Executive Committee in his behalf. They were M. B. Woodward, John R, Cloy, and W. Quitman Davis. They protested in particular the Langley box, where I had a large majority vote. I did not employ legal counsel, but after a prolonged hearing in September the Committee declared me elected.

The 1896 and 1897 sessions of the General Assembly were most important in the history of South Carolina since they followed the new state constitution in 1895. In the Constitutional Convention our county was ably represented by D. S. Henderson, George W. Croft, R. L. Gunter, and F. Pickens Woodward. As history knows, the main purpose of the new constitution was to limit the voting power of the negro. This it did very effectively. Therefore, I repeat that the 1896 to 1898 sessions were most important due to the necessity of changing and amending many laws to make them conform to the requirements of the new constitution. The ablest statesmen of South Carolina joined together regardless of party affiliation. Reform Democrats and Conservative Democrats laid aside party interest in their joint effort of rewriting the state constitution and of carrying out its requirements. This is demonstrated by the fact that many Conservatives, such as our own D. S. Henderson, had returned to the General Assembly to help the laws comply with the provisions of the new constitution.

Attending the first session of the House in January, 1897, I found the Jerome Hotel to be the hub of political activity. It was the lodging place of the speaker of the House and other members of the legislature, lobbyists, and politicians. The Aiken delegation supported Frank B. Gary of Abbeville as speaker of the House. In the appointment of committees our delegation was well taken care of. Arthur Cushman was appointed to the Committee on Commerce and Manufactures, R. H. Timmerman was appointed to the Committee on the State Hospital and the Committee on Medical Affairs, and I was appointed to the Committee on Claims, on Privileges and Elections, and on Education.

I enjoyed my service in the House very much. It was new to me, I liked it, and I tried to give as close attention to the affairs of Aiken County as I could. I was successful in getting three bills on the statute books. The first was a bill to require county superintendents to make monthly apportionments of all moneys reported to them as collected by the county treasurers for the preceding month and to require county treasurers to pay out same. The second bill required the supervisor of county commissioners of Aiken County to provide for the dieting and maintenance of the inmates of the county poor house and prisoners in the county jail and on the chain gang. The third, was a bill to require the South Carolina and Georgia Railroad Company to erect and maintain bridges over the railroad cut on certain streets in the city of Aiken and to open up and grade crossings on other streets over the railroad and to maintain same.

A good friend and kinsman of mine, Martin B. Woodward, who was mayor of Aiken, requested my help in making the railroad construct a bridge over the cut on Fairfield Street. I succeeded in getting the bill passed to accomplish this. Mr. D. S. Henderson was senator from Aiken County at this time, but did not seem favorably inclined toward my bill.

The two years I served in the House at this time were of great benefit to me, for they gave me an insight into how government is conducted and increased my knowledge of parliamentary law. They helped me in my additional 12 years in the House and Senate. After I served this one term, I was not again active in politics until 1902 because I decided to return to the South College—now the University of South Carolina—to finish in law. In the fall of 1898 I matriculated in the law department there. John J. McMahan, who had been in college with me before, was at that time superintendent of education. He encouraged me greatly and secured for me a two-room apartment from a Mr. Hafers on South Main Street. Later, I rented a larger apartment. After the opening of the college, some of my student friends (most of them from Aiken County) suggested that I might help pay my way by furnishing meals for them. The college mess hall furnished meals for eight dollars a month. I decided to attempt this with the help of my wife and stepmother who lived with us. My stepmother had been a true mother to my wife and me; she loved our children as her own and they returned her love. At that time we had two children, Frampton seven years old and Cleora one year old.

We had regretted the fact that we had to take Frampton out of the school at Montmorenci where Professor E. G. Bomar was taking a great deal of interest in him. Mrs. Nellie Bonnett Woodward, daughter of A. Cooper Bonnett, the section master of Montmorenci, and wife of Chitty Woodward II, was in school with Frampton but several grades ahead of him. She was in his office the other day and reminded him of the first speech he had ever made. She remembered it word for word though we had forgotten it. It was, as she repeated it.

When I grow to be a man, I want to be the president. I think I'll take to politics and see how laws are made. I'll find out what "protection" is And all about "free trade."

And when I go to make a speech How folks will run to see! They'll wave their hats and fire their guns And name their babies after me.

Mrs. Woodward put in all the proper gestures as she recited it. She said it was the practice at that time to take bouquets and pelt the speakers with them if they liked their speeches. She said that Frampton "brought down the house" and I remembered this. She also told about another little boy in the primer class, Charlie Gingrey who was the son of Henry Gingrey, one of the founders of the Methodist Church in Montmorenci. She also repeated his speech as follows:

Birds in their little nests agree. Sugar and candy "does" with me. Grandma says, "It'll make me sick." But I'll get better "quick."

Professor Bomar believed in starting them off early. He wrote the speeches to suit the occasion. Mrs. Woodward still lives at Montmorenci where she and her son, Chitty, III, run a grocery store.

Professor Wardlaw, at the University of S. C, also took an interest in Frampton and asked to enroll him in the training school, maintained by the University for the practice of teachers. Frampton attended this school while we were in Columbia.

To make ends meet, I bought provisions for my mess hall from a Mr. Friday, located at the old stand to the north of the Jefferson Hotel. In passing there a few days ago I saw a marker erected in his memory. Mr. Friday was a wholesaler and I could buy good hams from him for nine cents a pound.

When I was in the legislature I had been appointed along with Dr. Sturkie from Orangeburg to audit the books of the treasurer of the State Hospital. Mr. Bunch, treasurer of the State Hospital, became my friend. He offered to order groceries for me when he ordered for the hospital at what it cost him. This saved me a great deal. I remember coffee was 10 cents per pound. Dr. Bunch was a fine man, a good friend, and a faithful and competent officer.

I remember well some of the students who took meals with us—Lueco Gunter and Arthur Brodie of Wagener, John Swearingen, George Swearingen, Dr. H. H. Wyman, and others. John Swearingen, who later became State Superintendent of Education, and I were in the same class on constitutional law. I saw him on Reunion Day at the University of South Carolina, June 5, 1954, and although blind, he recognized me immediately. He still lives in Columbia. His son holds a very responsible position with a firm in Chicago.

My mess hall helped me support my family and complete my law studies. I stood the bar examination before the Supreme Court and passed on May 5, 1899. I returned to Aiken to practice law and rented an office from George W. Croft for six dollars per month. Ex-Governor John Gary Evans had just vacated the office to move to Spartanburg. He left desks, chairs, books, and other furnishings for me. This set me up in a very fine office and I was ready for business.

The first day I opened my office at eight o'clock in the morning. A man peeped in the door and said, "I'm hunting a lawyer." "Walk in, Sir, and have a seat," I said. Upon learning that I was a lawyer, he gave me the first work of my career, making a small research and drawing a deed. He was from Augusta. The ten dollars for the work was another lifesaver, for I had not yet paid my rent for the month. I had rented three rooms from the Misses Quinby for my family.

I went along in my profession, but was not wholly dependent on it for a living as I still had my farm. I did not try to be a criminal lawyer, but was successful in the cases I did have in criminal court. I clearly remember my first case in court. Mr. John Vernon, the jailer, hailed me one afternoon as I walked by the court house. "Ren," he said, "there's a man over here in the jail who has been there about four months, and he wants someone to represent him." I talked to the young man who was from Hampton County and was charged with stealing a mule. He had worked with his uncle in Aiken County, and one Saturday had borrowed a mule to go to Hampton to visit his folks. He had never returned with the mule. It seemed to be an open-and-shut case for conviction.

Solicitor Claude E. Sawyer represented the state and I represented the defendant. The boy's uncle was bitter against his nephew and was determined that he should serve time. His mother came up from Hampton for the trial. She was a widow, dressed in widow's weeds, and I used her effectively as a witness for her son, helping her to the stand, etc. She made an excellent witness, and so did the boy.

At the beginning of the trial I had brought out some interesting law before the judge in questioning the indictment. I asked how the charge could be false pretense; if anything, I said it should be breach of trust. The judge agreed with me and had the indictment amended.

The trial proceeded. Mr. Sawyer thought he had a clear case for conviction. The young man testified that someone had stolen the mule from him and he had been afraid to return to his uncle without the mule. No one could refute this evidence. I addressed the jury, telling them that he had already been jailed four months, and pictured him as being persecuted. Mr. Sawyer followed and declared that the prisoner's guilt was obvious. The jury retired and returned in ten minutes with the verdict of "not guilty/' Colonel Sawyer rose behind his desk, picked up the indictment, and said, "May it please your honor, we will riot try another case before this jury this week," and threw the indictment dramatically on the desk. Of course, I said nothing.

Judge Aldrich directed, "Mr. Toole, prepare your discharge.  I see very clearly that the jury had grounds for the verdict that they brought in. Mr. Sawyer, What is the next case?"

GENEAOLOGY FROM "PERRIN FAMILY"
AIKEN, S. C, AUG. 29th, 1911

The following Births and Deaths were copied by May E. (Mrs. G. L. Toole, nee Perrin, from the old family Bible of Samuel Perrin, II now in possession of Thos. C. Perrin, Bradley, S. C, Aug. 15th, 1911.

Samuel Perrin, I, son of William and Mary Perrin, was born the 19th day of Nov., 1770. Eunice Perrin, daughter of William and Mary Agnes Chiles, was born the 28th April, 1776. Mary Ann Quarles, daughter of Wm. and Mary Yeldell, was born the 16th Dec, 1811. Samuel Perrin, II, son of Samuel and Eunice * Perrin was born Jan. 12th, 1818. Julia Ann Perrin, daughter of Hugh M. and Mary Ann Quarles, was born the 9th of March, 1832. Thomas Chiles Perrin, son of Samuel and Julia Perrin, II, was born June 20th, 1864. Mary Eunice Perrin, daughter of Samuel and Julia Perrin, II, was born the 21st of May, 1866. Sarah Lee Perrin, daughter of Samuel and Julia Perrin, II, was born 20th of Sept., 1869. Fannie Allene Perrin, daughter of Samuel and Julia Perrin, II, was born 19th December, 1873.

Samuel Perrin, I, died the 2nd day of September, 1828. Eunice Perrin died the 19th May, 1846. Hugh M. Quarles died the 6th November, 1844. Julia Ann Perrin died the 1st May, 1874. Samuel Perrin, II, died the 6th of May, 1880. Fannie Allene Perrin died 28th June, 1874. Mary Ann Fuller, died Feb. 16th, 1886. Sarah Lee Perrin, died September, 1892. L. H. Perrin, died Feb., 1923. Thomas C. Perrin, died Feb. 15th, 1930.

MEMBERS AND ATTACHES OF THE SOUTH CAROLINA
CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION OF 1895

AIKEN COUNTY: Governor John Gary Evans, 80; F. Pickens Woodward, 81; Robert L. Gunter, 82; and Daniel S. Henderson, 83.

ABBEVILLE COUNTY: Frank B. Gary, 151; W. C. McGowan, 156; C. Klugh, 157; R. F. McCaslari, 158; I. H. McCalla, 159; Robert R. Hemphill, 160.

ANDERSON COUNTY: Geo. E. Prince, 49; J. E. Breazeale, 50; D. H. Russell, 51; James M. Sullivan, 52; J. Perry Glenn, 53; L. D. Harris, 54.

BARNWELL COUNTY: Geo. H. Bates, 84; A. Howard Patterson, 85; W. C. Smith, 86; Robert Aldrich, 87; G. Duncan Bellinger, 88; C. M. Hiers, 89.

BEAUFORT COUNTY: James Wigs, 150; Josiah R. Reid, 152.

BERKELEY COUNTY: R. C. McMakin, 90; H. H. Murray, 91; A. H. DeHay, 92; E. J. Dennis, 94; Jas. B. Wiggins, 95; J. B. Morrison, 96.

CHARLESTON COUNTY: Geo. F. Von Kolnitz, Jr., 55; William Moseley Fitch, 56; Julian Mitchell, 57; Jos. L. Oliver, 58; W. St. Julien Jervey, 59; J. N. Nathans, 60; Theodore G. Barker, 61; J. P. K. Bryan, 62.

CHESTER COUNTY: T. J. Cunningham, 64; J. L. Glenn, 65; George Williams Gage, 66; R. O. Atkinson, 67.

CHESTERFIELD COUNTY: E. N. Redfern, 68; F. P. Taylor, 69; E. J. Kennedy, 70.

CLARENDON COUNTY: J. M. Sprott (died during Session), 25; Joseph S. Cantey, 26; Daniel J. Bradham, 27; John W. Kennedy, 28.

COLLETON COUNTY: M. P. Howell, 29; C. W. Garris, 30; D. H. Behre, 31; M. R. Cooper, 32; L. E. Parler, 33.

DARLINGTON COUNTY: Henry Castles Burn, 34; J. N. Parrott, 35; J. O. A. Moore, 36; A. J. H. Perwitt, 37.

EDGEFIELD COUNTY: R. B. Watson, 19; J. C. Sheppard, 20; W. H. Timmerman, 21; B. R. Tillman, 22; G. D. Tillman, 23; W. Jasper Talbert, 24. .

FAIRFIELD COUNTY: Richard Ashe Meares, 8; G. W. Ragsdale, 9; W. Brice, 10; W. L. Rosborough, II.

FLORENCE COUNTY: J. O. Byrd, (died during Session), I; W. F. Clayton, 2; R. M. McCown, 3; Brown B. McWhite, 4.

GEORGETOWN COUNTY: I. Harleston Read, 5; E. F. Mathews, 6; R. B. Anderson, 7.

GREENVILLE COUNTY: J. Walter Gray, 71; J. Thomas Austin, 72; Hugh M. Wharton, 73; Hugh B. Buist, 74; Henry J. Haynesworth, 75; G. G. Wells, 76.

HAMPTON COUNTY: William J. Goodling, 77; Charles J. C. Hutson, 79; Amos J. Harrison, 78.

HORRY COUNTY: J. A. McDermotte, 97; John P. Derham, 98; Jeremiah Smith, 99.

KERSHAW COUNTY: J. W. Floyd, 100; J. T. Hay, 101; C. L. Winkler, 102.

LANCASTER COUNTY: Ira B. Jones, 103; J. N. Estridge, 104; John W. Hamel, 105.

LAURENS COUNTY: John L. M. Irby, 130; Alex J. Smith, 131; J. H. Wharton, 132; R. L. Henry, 133.

LEXINGTON COUNTY: C. M. Efird, 119; J. L. Shuler, 120; E. L. Lybrand, 121.

MARION COUNTY: W. J. Montgomery, 122; J. Edwin El-lerbe, 123; E. B. Berry, 124; James D. Montgomery, 125.

MARLBORO COUNTY: Wm. Dewitt Evans, 134; Thomas Edward Dudley, 135; Robert Hayne Hodges (Died during the Session), 136; Thomas Irby Rodgers, 137.

NEWBERRY COUNTY: J. A. Sligh, 126; Jos. L. Keitt, 127; Geo. S. Mower, 128; George Johnstone, 129.

OCONEE COUNTY: Wm. J. Stribling, 144; J. C. Alexander, 145; O. M. Doyle, 146.

ORANGEBURG COUNTY: J. Wm. Stokes, 138; L. S. Connor, 139; I. W. Bowman, 140; E. H. Houser, 141; A. K. Smoak, 142; Oscar R. Lowman, 143.

PICKENS COUNTY: Wm. Thomas Field, 147; R. Frank Smith, 148; Wm. Thos. Smith, 149.

RICHLAND COUNTY: Willie Jones, 44; John Joseph Mc-Mahan, 45; J. B. Dent, 46; John T. Sloan, 47; H. C. Patton, 48.

SPARTANBURG COUNTY: W. E. Carver, 12; T. Earle Johnson, 13; A. S. Waters, 14; M. O. Rowland, 15; W. T. Bobo, 16; C. A. Barry, 17; Stanyarne Wilson, 18 .

SUMTER COUNTY: Shepard Nash, 38; R. P. Stackhouse, 39; Jas. H. Scarborough, 40; Geo. P. McKagen, Sr. 41; T. B. Fraser, 42; Richard D. Lee, 43.

UNION COUNTY: Jas. T. Douglas, 106; Wm. A. Nicholson, 107; C. H. Peake, 108; J. C. Otts, 109.

WILLIAMSBURG COUNTY: Thos. M. Gilland, 110; S. W. Gamble, III; William R. Singletary, 112; Geo. J. Graham, 113.

YORK COUNTY: J. Frank Ashe, 114; W. Blackburn Wilson, 115; J. S. Brice, 116; S. E. White, 117; H. H. White, 118.

ATTACHES: A. M. Jolly, Doorkeeper, 153; Reverend Abney Chaplain, 154; W. E. Evans, Clerk, 161; John McCalla, Page, 162; Drafts Caughman, Page, 163; Flanigan, Clerk, 164; Ulysses Brooks, Page, 165; N. H. Stansil, Sergeant-at-Arms, 166; P. L. Melton, Secretary, 167; F. R. Witherspoon, Doorkeeper, 168; A. H. Dagnall, Registered Clerk, 169; E. P. Jenkins, Mail Carrier, 170; Hughes, Page, 171; S. W. Vance, Secretary, 172.

(photo - unable to copy) J. DAVIS PROTHRO, prominent fanner and business man of Aiken (B. May 12, 1867— D. Nov. 17, 1948). Married Rosa, daughter of F. Edward Sommers, Sr., of Aiken. Children: Wilson, Julian, Joseph, Rosa (m. Dr. W. D. McNair), and Ruth (Mrs. Gregory).

First Legislature Under The New 1895 Constitution

SENATE

I. H. McCalla, D. K. Nonis, D. S. Henderson, S. G. Mayfield, Thos. Talbird, E. J. Dennis, J. H. Turner, J. H. McDaniel, G. L. Buist, L. M. Ragin, A. C. Sanders, J. S. DuBose, J. M. Gains, H. M. Staekhouse, W. A. Brown, D. J. Griffith, C. R. Wallace, B. F. Miller, J. T. Hay, W. B. McSweeney, Lieut.-Governor; R. B. Scarborough, W. H. Mauldin, A. H. Dean, L. G. Walker, J. E. Pettigrew, G. M. Ragsdale, J. W. Floydd, Sergt. at Arms; Geo. S. Mower, L. S. Connor, Jos. Alexander, W. T. Odell, John T. Sloan, E. L. Archer, J. R. Suddeth, Altmont Moses, J. T. Douglass, A. H. Williams, W. B. Love, W. S. Stewart, Reading Clerk; R. R. Hemphill, Clerk; R. G. Hemphill, Page; E. A. Perry, Bill Clerk; Geo. Anderson, Page.

HOUSE

Anderson County—J. M. Sullivan, W. H. Edwards, J. M. Glenn, Josh Ashley, R. Robinson;

Aiken County—G. L. Toole, A. W. Cush-man, B. H. Timmerman;

Abbeville County—Dr. A. J. Speer, Thos.

A. Graham, H. J. Kinard, D. H Magill;

Beaufort County—M. Hiott, J. Bailey, C. J. Colcock, W. C. Vincent;

Barnwell County— H. H. Crum, J. D. Kinard, M. W. Phillips, W. A. All, J. M. Skinner;

Berkeley County—J. A. Harvey, J. V. Breland, S. W. Russell, D. B. Henderson;

Charleston County—P. H. Gadsden, T. W. Bacot, R. C. Barkley, Julian Mitchell, Jr., J. C. Mehrtens, H. Sinklar, W. H. Thomas, E. M. Seabrook, R. M. Lofton;

Clarendon County—C. M. Davis, T. B. Owens, W. C. Davis;

Colleton County— C. W. Garris, A. S. Bedon, E. J. Limehouse, R. Fox;

Chester County— Geo. W. Gage, P. T. Hollis, S. T. McKeown;

Chesterfield County —W. P. Pollock, W. T. Stevenson;

Darlington County— A. J. A. Perritt, J. E. Miller, L. A. Moore;

Edgefield County—T. H. Rains-ford, S. McG. Simpkins, W H. Yeldell;

Fairfield County—J. G. Wolling, R. A. Mears, R. Y. Lemmon;

Florence County— B. B. McWhite, J. M. Humphreys, Wm. Ilderton, F. B. Gary, Speaker;

Georgetown County—M. W. Pyatt, R. B. Anderson;

Greenville County-J. A. McCullough, J. Blythe, J. O. Wingo, Thos. Westmoreland, H. P. Goodwin;

Horry County—Jeremiah Mishoe, C. J. Prince;

Hampton County—T. A. Hamilton, W. S. Smith;

Kershaw County-C. L. Winkler, D. M. Bethnne;

Laurens County—O. P. Goodwin, J. C. McDaniel, J. R. Smith;

Lancaster County—C. A. Plyler, T. Y. Williams;

Lexington County-D. L. Efird, E. S. Asbill;

Marion County—S. W. Smith; J. D. Haselden, L. M. Gasque;

Marlboro County—T. Y. Rogers, Knox Livingston, Rev. M. M. Kinard, Chaplain; J. F. McLaurin;

Newberry County—C. T. Wyche, J. F. Banks, A. Kibbler;

Orangeburg County—A. F. H. Dukes, L. K. Sturkie, J. S. Withers, R. Clerk; G. W. Fairey, J. H, Price, L. A. Carson;

Oconee County—C. R. D. Burns, E. E. Verner; Pickens County—Wm. Mauldin, J. H. Miller;

Richland County— J. P. Thomas, Jr., H. C. Patton, L. D. Childs, J. S. Reynolds;

Spartanburg County—T. E. Johnson, C. A. Barry, R. A. Lancaster, W. G. Austell, A. B. Layton, D. M. Miles;

Sumter County—W. A. Nettles, E. D. Smith, A. K. Sanders, J. H. Wilson, J. A. M. Carraway;

Saluda County—L. B. Lester, B. L. Caughman;

Union County—B. F. Townsend, C. W. Whisonant, J. S. Welch;

Williamsburg County—J. S. Graham, Geo. W. Davis, W. H. Kennedy;

York County-W. B. DeLoach, S. M. Epps, J. W. Witherspoon, L. K. Armstrong.


Archie Senn, Page; N. H. Stansell, Sergt. at Arms; J. W. Gray, Clerk; W. Brooker, Page; T. C. Hamer, R. Clerk; C. J. Jones, Clerk Judiciary Comm.; H. M. Taylor, D. Keeper; Joe Ashley, Page; D. Caughman, Page; Jno. McCalla, Page.

George Robert Webb was born in Saluda County, May 25, 1870. Married Carrie J. McCracken, Feb. 24, 1895. Later bought the "Horse Creek Valley News," of which he was editor for 12 years. Bought the "Aiken Sentinel" and edited the "Sentinel-Valley News" for five or six years. Served in the House of Representatives (1900-1904); Probate Judge in 1907 and 1908, and again from 1917-1936. Died September 16, 1947.


Chapter VIII
1900-1935

OPENING OF THE AUGUSTA-AIKEN ELECTRIC RAILWAY

The Aiken-Augusta Electric Railway Company built the Trolley Line from Aiken to Augusta which was completed in 1902 and was abandoned in 1929. This line served the people of Horse Creek Valley, North Augusta, Aiken and Augusta for 27 years. One of the most prominent promoters of the Trolley Line was Mr. James U. Jackson of Augusta, Ga., who later became a resident of North Augusta. He also promoted the City of North Augusta and his company first laid out the streets and developed the city. His brother, and nephew, who was a good lawyer helped him in these projects.

Mr. Jackson did a great deal in the development of the Western Section of Aiken County and also Aiken and vicinity. He promoted the Hampton Terrace Hotel, which was run for several years and was destroyed by fire. This hotel was located on a high ridge in North Augusta and was named after our famous general and governor, General Wade Hampton. Mr. Jackson also worked hard to form a new County with North Augusta as the County Seat, however, this was unsuccessful. Mr. Jackson was very fortunate in being able to secure some fine people to assist him in his company, and especially the Electric Railway Company.

Miss Clara Harrigal

One who stands out in my memory for his service to the people of Aiken, is Mr. E. C. Lowe who was the General Manager of the Aiken Office. The Headquarters for the Company in Aiken was in the Davis Pharmacy. This building was owned by Mr. Fabian Busch of Aiken and the building had a spur track from the main line on Park Avenue to the rear of the building for freight deliveries. I recall a funny little incident that happened in connection with the completion of the Electric Railway Line. On the day that was set aside for the opening of the line to the public, a gala occasion was held in Augusta and certain officials and invited guests were transported from Aiken to Augusta for the occasion by street car. My wife and I were invited to make the trip along with the City Mayor and city officials, Mr. L. M. C. Oliveros, one of the promoters, Mr. Lowe, Mrs. Clara Harrigal, our first Republican Lady who ran against "Cotton Ed" Smith for U. S. Senator, Mr. George Foster and others who attended the ceremonies that day. On the way back to Aiken on the street car and when we started up the Kennedy's Crossing Hill between Graniteville and Aiken the electricity was not strong enough to pull the loaded street car up the hill. A fuse must have blown because the street car not only stalled but all of the lights went out. We were all tired after the day's festivities and not a word was spoken. The whole group was just waiting in the silent darkness when suddenly Miss Clara Harrigal jumped up into the aisle and shouted, "George Foster, you quit trying to kiss me." Everyone on the street car laughed and the tension was broken. The lights came back on and the car slowly pulled up the hill and we completed our trip back to Aiken, but for many days thereafter my good wife would suddenly laugh out at the joke Miss Clara had played on George Foster that night.

CHILD LABOR LAW

In the election campaign of 1902, the candidates for seats in the general assembly were pledged to support any bills introduced that would benefit the mill people of Horse Creek Valley and of the state as a whole. During the following session, George R. Webb, a resident of the mill section of the county, in fulfillment of his pledge introduced "The Child Labor Bill." At that time children were allowed to work in the cotton mills without limitation as to age. Many children worked 12 hours per day under conditions, impairing their general welfare and health. Mr. Webb, my colleague and very close friend, became their champion with this bill to limit the age of children working in the mills. With my "Ten Hour Work Limitation Bill," I became the champion of the mill people as a whole. Both of us worked very closely with each other to get these bills passed.

When Mr. Webb's bill came up for consideration, I did all I could to help him impress the General Assembly with the great need for this reform. Just before the vote was to be taken, I went down to the Granby Cotton Mill to talk to the workers there. While there I was struck by the looks of an eleven-year-old boy at work. He was dwarfed and very pale, with the adverse effects of confinement and long hours of tiresome work written in his face and personal appearance. The thought struck me that anyone seeing this boy could not find it in his heart to vote against Mr. Webb's bill. I decided then and there to present him to the legislature that night. I looked up the mother, who was also working in the mill, and she agreed to bring him up to the State House for the evening session, and this she did. I introduced her to many of the legislators before the session opened. They were very interested and sympathetic and made up a small purse and gave it to the boy.

When I started to speak from the floor for the passage of this bill, I exhibited this boy in front of the speaker's desk. At the same time I called forward one of the pages, a robust healthy boy, much larger but of the same age as the mill boy. I compared them to show how the working of young children in the mills stunted their growth and impaired their health. This was very effective, the bill passed, and much to Mr. Webb's gratification became the first law to protect the children of the cotton mill people and to give them the chance to get an education and to become better and healthier citizens of the State of South Carolina.

THE TILLMAN STORY

In 1902, the campaign for governor between James H. Tillman and N. F. Ansel of Greenville was a very bitter one. Mr. Tillman was the son of Congressman George Tillman and the nephew of United States Senator Benjamin R. Tillman. At that time he was Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina. "The State," edited by a very brilliant newspaper man, N. G. Gonzales, opposed Tillman vigorously. The controversy between Mr. Gonzales and Mr. Tillman became very bitter and resulted in the election of Mr. Ansel who was inaugurated in 1903.

Legislators, in those days, received very little compensation for their services, and many of us were hard pressed to make ends meet. Not being able to afford the hotels most of us stayed at boarding houses. I, along with many others, stayed at an excellent one of moderate rates, run by Mrs. Bodie. It was located in the old Agricultural Hall next to where the Wade Hampton Hotel now stands. One day at the beginning of the 1903 session some other members of the legislature and I were in the boarding house when we heard a pistol shot. We came down stairs and were told that Mr. Tillman had just killed Mr. Gonzales. We went out on the street and saw Mr. Gonzales being placed in an ambulance to be taken to the hospital. This was a very regrettable incident, for Mr. Gonzales was a very influential man—a hero to a great many people of the State, especially the Conservative Party. Being a witty, brilliant writer, he had succeeded in making "The State" one of the best newspapers in South Carolina.

The leading attorney for Mr. Tillman was Honorable George W. Croft of Aiken, his partner . Mr. Tillman's attorneys succeeded in having a change of venue granted by the court. The trial, was held in Lexington County instead of in Richmond County. It has been said that, in preparation for Tillman's defense, a man was employed as a book agent to travel around Lexington County and to contact each man called for jury duty, presumably to sell books; but, in the course of the conversation he would show the photo of Tillman. By the way the prospective juryman reacted, he was able to test his feelings about the defendant, and in this way the lawyers weeded out those with adverse feelings. The case was bitterly fought by Solicitor J. W. Thurmond and other lawyers. In the end the jury returned a verdict of "not guilty," but this ended the political career of Mr. Tillman.

SPEECH OF REPRESENTATIVE G. L. TOOLE, OF AIKEN
COUNTY AS TO TEN-HOUR LABOR LAW IN COTTON MILLS

(Delivered February 8, 1905) Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen of the House of Representatives:

We have before us at this time, the consideration of Bill No. 8, limiting the hours of labor in cotton mills of this State to 10 hours a day, or 60 hours a week.

It has been well said that, "the sleep of a laboring man is sweet, whether he eat little or much; but the abundance of the rich will not suffer him to sleep." This is true, and under the provisions of this Bill, the laboring man will have at least more opportunity for sleep, which has been called "Tired Nature's sweet restorer." The subject under discussion presents no new question to the people of South Carolina. It received much attention in 1892 and 1893, with the result that the law enacted by the legislature at that time, and as it now stands on our Statute books, limits the hours of labor to eleven in one day. I mention this to show you that legislation along this line will be no radical change.

Mr. Speaker, I have no apology to make to any person or corporation for being the author of this Bill. I had the opportunity two years ago to present my views on this question to the legislature; but since I feel so deeply the need of further legislation on this line I again ask your attention while I try to emphasize my reasons for advocating a ten-hour law.

We now have in South Carolina about one hundred thirty cotton mills, which are working in the neighborhood of one hundred and twenty-five thousand operatives. It has been estimated that there are working in the mills of this State about thirty thousand children under the age of 15 years, thirty-five thousand women, and seventy thousand men. I give you these figures to show that we are legislating, or trying to legislate, for not a few of the citizens of South Carolina, but for a very large number of our people; and it seems to me that these good people should receive very careful and patient consideration at the hands of this body and their wishes granted, and their condition improved, if possible.

From my standpoint, although it may not coincide with the majority of this House, the true function of government is that our lawmakers should legislate so as to protect the weak from the strong; it should throw around them all possible safeguards in order that they may be shielded from all oppression, harm and danger that may be inflicted by the strong. I, for one, as the representative of my people, and a member of the general assembly, feel the responsibility upon my shoulders, arid shall honestly and fearlessly endeavor to discharge my duty as I see it. This House has from time to time passed industrial measures; for instance, the Immigration Bill, which brings people into the State; and also measures in the exercise of the police power of the State for the public good and betterment of the conduct of our people. And I repeat that it will not be out of the line of precedent for this legislature to enact a law further reducing the hours of labor.

The question which has been put to me is, "What demand is there for such legislation?" My answer is, that there is a demand at all times for the legislature to take up such questions, and legislate against the evils that amount to crime. We vainly legislate to protect the lives of our fellow men from the ready use of the handy pistol, but I say to you why not legislate to protect human lives that will prove more effectual. This is one of the answers.

But, you ask, is there a real demand for a further reduction in the hours? I answer, yes, I have talked with operatives of the cotton mills in Richland County and also my own county, and they tell me, "yes" we will be glad if you will pass this ten-hour law; we need more time to rest, sleep and be at home with our wives and children." I have presented for your consideration petitions from six counties of this State, asking that you pass this Bill. Those who oppose this measure have presented petitions from but two counties, asking that the Bill do not pass. Anderson is one of the counties, and she always has representatives here opposing this sort of legislation. Why? They even oppose the humane Child Labor law. I can't see why Anderson operatives are so different from those in Richland, and other counties. I call your attention to the petition printed in the Journal of yesterday, and particularly to the fact that there are many cross marks by the names on it. We have telegraphed and telephoned to four of the men, whose names are on the petition, asking their views on this Bill; but we have received no reply from any of them. We cannot understand this, unless it is due to the fact that they are afraid to say anything on account of their fear of these great corporations for whom they work. We hope that the signatures are genuine. If you will examine our petitions you will find that there are very few cross marks, if any, on them; but on the petitions of my friends from Anderson, nearly one-half are signed by cross marks. If this comparison and contrast of signatures means anything, is it not that the better educated mill operatives desire the ten-hour law?

What is the condition of the cotton mill operatives of this State? Those who oppose the ten-hour law say, "They want to be let alone." I fear it is because these people dare not come out and say what they think for fear of losing their jobs with the mills. Some of the operatives in the Richland County mills told me that they were in sympathy with the measure and wanted it passed, but they would not be able to sign the petition. Again, if you will listen to the opponents of the Bill they will tell you, and, actually have you believe, that the operatives are in "Hog Heaven," so to speak. I know that many of them work and slave, year in and year out, and yet are able to earn barely a living for themselves and family. God pity them in their earthly Heaven! And I say, in their condition, how can they help themselves without the aid of this General Assembly? They could not by themselves improve their condition, even if they get a great deal more for their labor, and continue to work eleven hours. We asked the president of one of the Anderson mills what he would say to a man who said he only wanted to work ten hours a day. He answered that he would tell him to get out, that he did not want him to work at all. I say to you, Mr. Speaker, and Gentlemen, that is what they will tell them at any of the mills in this State. I want to warn you, that if you kill this Bill now it will be enacted into a law within five years. Yes, it is a live question, and even if you reject it now, it will come with increasing strength before each legislature until you are forced to recognize its justice by your votes.

We want equality among our people. Let us look at the mill operative, let us consider him seriously and honestly, although they may say that this legislature is costing South Carolina one hundred dollars an hour. Let us give him one hour, yes, ten hours if necessary, for justice has no price. I would have you consider the mother in the early morning before the Monarch of Day has shown his face, rubbing her sleepy eyes, at the ringing of the factory bell, and saying to her children, "get up, don't you hear the bell?" They are pulled from their warm, but alas! frequently uncomfortable beds, hastily partake of a scanty breakfast, and through the early morning mist they wend their way to the mill. Thus poorly fitted, they are required to work eleven hours and often longer without counting the time necessary to reach their work and return home after the eleven hours labor are complete. Think of it gentlemen! Is there one of you in this House who could vote against this Bill, if you had your own children working in one of these mills, and could thus have brought home to you this deplorable condition of affairs? There are many in the mills who are as good, as honest and as deserving of consideration as you or your children, even as good as those operatives in Anderson County. It takes the operatives, as I have said, and as you understand, some time to get to the mill to work and to return, home at night, so in all he is actually engaged about thirteen hours. Think of it, gentlemen, nearly thirteen hours a day, and pity the mothers who cook for the family and yet work thirteen hours in the mill in addition to that. Tell me what time a man has to rest, kiss his babies, talk with his children and enjoy the company of his wife? After the poor man has eaten supper he is so fatigued from his long labor that he is unable to enjoy social intercourse with his family, which makes life happy and really worth living, he drags himself off to sleep and rest himself for another day's labor. It has often been said by those who have studied the human system that a man requires eight hours rest, but how is this to be done in South Carolina? If we have shorter hours the health of the operative, his wife and children will be better, and doctor's bills less. They will have more time for the improvement of the mind for social diversion, without which we cannot be happy. All these advantages promote health and happiness, and tend to make for our State a more religious people, a better citizenship and a higher statemanship.

"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." This is just as true today as at any time in the distant past, and especially is it true in its application to the cotton mill operative, who is now forced to work and toil for eleven long hours, having no time for rest, recreation or the general enjoyment of life. If you pass this ten-hour law there will be nothing lost to the mill men, or to the operative, because the operative will then have time to improve himself mentally and physically ill the sixty hours a week fixed by this bill, and thus being in better health and spirit he can do the same amount of work in ten hours that he did before in eleven and the work will be done better than it has been heretofore. The operatives themselves have told me that a man can do more work, if he works ten hours a day instead of eleven. The statistics show that men who work eleven hours a day lost 15 per cent of the time on account of sickness and overtaxed condition of their bodies. I tell you, I believe that if a man works ten instead of eleven hours he will really accomplish more, and the work, when finished, will be more satisfactory to all concerned.

What is the mill's side? This is a new industry, the resources of the State should be developed, and capital should be encouraged. But I say this should not be done at the expense of the bone and sinew of our land, those good people who make their living by the sweat of their brow. I do not think that we should be called upon to sacrifice the manhood and the spirit of our people, which is so dear to all South Carolinians. And, as I have said, the improvement of the State should not be accomplished by oppressing the laboring man, nor should it be built up at the expense of this deserving class. I feel sure that with a ten-hour law, the cotton mills of South Carolina can successfully compete with those of the New England States; because of the natural advantages of the South over those of the frozen North. Our climate is ideal for work in the cotton fields, and, if necessary, our mills can buy cotton from the wagons of the farmer. There is a difference in the price of cotton here and in the New England States of about one cent a pound. And I appeal to you gentlemen, to give to the poor mill operative at least a portion of the natural advantage of the "Sunny South," where they have been born and raised, and whose honor they have always loyally defended.

But our opponents say that all these labor troubles have come from the New England States, and that they have been sending men here to join in agitating this question. I say that is not a fact; but, even if it were true, I contend that it does not make any difference who agitates it, or who supports it, whether it be a New England man, whether he be white or as black as the ace of spades, the question to be considered is, is it right or wrong?

Does any laboring mail iii South Carolina work more than eleven hours a day outside of the cotton mill? I answer no. Ten hours is considered a day's labor on the public roads of the State, and even the convicts in the State penitentiary are only required to work ten hours a day. They return home one hour before the good people whose cause I am advocating. Reflect, gentlemen, and say by your votes if you will deny to the mill operatives as short hours as are enjoyed by the convicted criminals of this State.

Mr. Doar stated that the lumber mill operatives in Georgetown work more than eleven hours a day and are satisfied with the conditions and their pay.

Mr. Toole: Yes, and I have been asked to include them in this Bill.

Mr. Doar: The workmen are not asking for it. I merely wanted to show you that you don't know what you are talking about.

Mr. Toole: And you don't know nearly as much as you think you do.

We should not bow our heads to the golden calf; nor should we forget personal rights in our greed for gain of money, and above all, never let us overlook social and moral culture, nor the immortal soul.

This is a hard question to get fairly before the people. It is even hard to get the newspapers of the State to give, free, full and correct reports of the discussions of the questions. They will not give both sides and their side seems to be that of the cotton mills. No doubt many of you have received marked newspapers claiming that the people want no legislation. But you never see the other side—the people's side. And who is it that writes these newspaper articles? It is some inspired little reporter in some corner of the State, where you will likely find a mill president. The only time that we can hear the other side is tonight when the Bill is being discussed, because the poor operatives have no money to fee the newspaper reporter, or to send lobbyists here on the floor of this House to work for the passage of the Bill. Numbers of you in this House, who, now listen to my words, have told me that you are in sympathy with me and the Bill, but you are under such obligations that you cannot vote with me this time. But thank God! Some have asked their people for themselves if they should vote for the bill. In compliance with their wishes are you going to vote for it?

Everything the mills do is paraded before the public and this Legislature in bright colors. They tell you of the schools and churches they have built. I admit this is commendable, and in behalf of the people, I sincerely thank them, although it is nothing more than charitable, right feeling people should do for their unfortunate fellow beings. But do not let this keep us from doing our duty; let these laborers have the ten-hour law, so that they may enjoy health and be bright and happy and desire to go out on Sunday morning to these churches to give thanks unto the Lord, and there hear and receive the blessed word of our Saviour Jesus Christ. This building of the churches by the mills should not influence ministers on questions that affect the temporal welfare of the laboring class. Don't forget that Esau sold his birthright for a mess of pottage. Don't let us sell the birthright of these poor operatives, but let's hold on to it for them. After our love for God should come our fellowman, and this embraces his protection and improvement.

Leigh Hunt has said in his beautiful poem, entitled, "Abou Ben Adhem's Dream," that he dreamt a dream as to the recording angel writing the names of those who loved the Lord. And Ben Adhem requested the angel to record his name as one who loved his fellow-man. The angel departed. It came again with a great awakening light, and showed the names of those the Lord had blessed, and "Lo! Ben Adhem's name led all the rest!"

A FIGHT WITH A BULL

In the summer of 1917, a venture in the cattle business brought me a narrow escape from death in a entanglement with a very fine bull, which I had bought as a calf in 1915 from Dr. Fort of Nashville, Tennessee. This episode happened one afternoon when some friends and I were on our way to look over some land, west of Vaucluse, advertised for sale. The addition of a herd of cattle and about sixty mule-foot hogs on my Bridge Creek place had proved very successful, and as we had to pass through this place on the way to Vaucluse I invited the party to inspect my farm and especially the young Holstein bull which now weighed over twelve hundred pounds. With me were Wade H. Franklin, a successful farmer living about three miles south of Langley on the Pine Log Road, Abner W. Reynolds, a speculator in land at that time, Jason W. Woodward, my nephew and associated with me in some land deals, and my son Frampton.

It had been my custom to enter the pasture without fear, catch the bull by a chain kept around his neck, and curry him. This I attempted on this occasion to my sorrow. The bull, previously friendly became angry and began to fight me. Afraid to turn the chain loose, I held on for dear life. Everyone was horrified and became nervous and excited, rushing around, talking loudly, and looking for something with which to kill the bull. Seconds seemed like hours to me. Finally the bull succeeded in knocking me down, but I still held to the chain. He put his head on my chest with all his weight attempting to gore me with his horns, but my clinging to the chain hampered him. He kept butting me, trailing me around, and trying to gore me, and I kept trying to hold him off. My breath became short, and I knew that I could not hold out long. My friends had been too frightened to do anything but yell loudly and rush around. Realizing that Jason was an experienced cattle-man, that his weight of over 200 lbs. might have some effect, and that he was a man of iron nerve, I called to him to grab the bull in the nose. In answer to my call he unhesitatingly came over the fence and tackled the bull. With the help of Frampton, who had also come over the fence in answer to my cries, he managed to get the bull's head off my chest. I could not rise immediately, but finally stumbled to my feet, still holding to the chain which had worked up around the bull's horns.

Though the bravery of Jason and Frampton had won for me a reprieve, the battle was not over; and, now they, too, were in danger. The bull still put up a terrific fight, and Jason holding the bull's nose, was getting winded. I realized that it would be only a matter of seconds before the bull would break loose again and get one of us. I had in the past seen blindfolded mules, and therefore thought of calling to the colored house nearby for a sack to blindfold the bull. At last our cries were heard, and it arrived in the nick of time. Frampton and Mr. Reynolds put the sack over the bull's head while Jason and I held him. We then turned the bull loose and ran for the fence. Some went over it and some went under it, but we made it safely.

I was bloody, bruised, and cut up, and it took me several days to recover, but I was thankful that I had kinsmen and friends who were not afraid to "take the bull by the horns," so to speak. Needless to say, I got rid of the bull, but an excavation big enough to set a house in remained in the pasture where the bull had pawed and served to remind me of the debt I owed to those who had risked themselves to save me from certain death.

Gasper Loren Toole II

Photo of the author taken at Camp Jackson while he was serving in the YMCA during World War I.

SAMUEL COX

In 1926, I was married to Sarah Cox of Washington, D. C, who is related to both the Cox's of Maryland and the Lee's of Virginia. Her uncle, Samuel Cox, because of his friendship for the Confederacy, got into a lot of trouble which cost him one plantation and almost cost him his life by unwillingly aiding John Wilkes Booth, the assassin of Abraham Lincoln. This is the story which I find authentic from the testimony of my wife who nursed her uncle in his last illness and others who knew the facts.

After the assassination of Lincoln at Ford's Theatre, Booth had left his planned escape route to go to the nearby home of Dr. Samuel Mudd for medical aid because of the leg injury received when he leaped from the President's box to the stage, crying "Sic Semper Tyrannis." After receiving medical assistance from Dr. Mudd, he met Oscar Swann, a negro, who led him to the home of Samuel Cox on the night of April 15th. Booth probably went to Cox, who lived only ten miles from Dr. Mudd, for assistance because he knew Cox to be sympathetic to the Confederate cause-Maryland, a border state, was strongly divided in the "War Between the States." Cox's plantation was situated geographically to be of great importance to the Confederacy, being the only route open for spies and mails to pass from Bichmond through the Federal lines to Washington.

The meeting took place the night my wife's father, William Cox, and her mother, Nellie Nevitt, were married. The wedding reception was held at her Uncle Samuel's home, but was over, the guests had gone, and her uncle had retired when Booth and his follower, Herold, appeared. It was after midnight when Booth knocked. Col. Cox opened an upstairs window and asked who was there and what they wanted. Booth said he could not tell his business out loud and thereupon Col. Cox went downstairs dressed in his trousers over his nightshirt and stepped outside. Col. Cox had never seen Booth, but Booth identified himself by initials tatooed in his hand, told him that he had shot Lincoln and asked his assistance. Col. Cox treated him very coldly and asked if he had done the deed for personal reasons. Booth replied he had done it for the South. Then Col. Cox exclaimed, "You young fool, don't you know you have hurt the South? Lincoln would have been lenient with the Confederacy. Now the politicians will be free to take revenge on the South."

Some historians say that Col. Cox took Booth and Herold into the house and talked with them there, but according to the testimony of Mary Swann, a negro girl who worked on the place, Booth never entered Cox's home, and my wife says that her uncle did not take Booth into the house. She says that Mary Swann always claimed to have saved Marse Samuel's life. When Booth left, he showed how displeased he was with his reception by Col. Cox by dramatically throwing a penny at Cox's feet and exclaiming, "For your hospitality, sir, and that is too much." According to some reports Cox promised Herold food and a boat because Herold had been a playmate of his adopted son. Thomas Jones, a stepbrother of Cox carried food and newspapers to the assassins who had hid out in the woods on Cox's plantation, and provided the boat in which they escaped across the Potomac on Friday, April 21st. Though both Cox and Jones were arrested and jailed for several weeks, they were never brought to trial. At least one historian says that Col. Cox himself stated he sold one plantation for $16,000, every penny of which he spent to save his life. It has also been stated that he pensioned Mary Swann for life, but I cannot verify these facts. My wife says that Mary lived and died on her uncle's place which is still in the family.

Samuel Cox later became a member of the state legislature and while there was influential in getting the railroad built from Baltimore to Pope's Creek. The village there, Cox's Station, which is about five miles from the County seat of La Plata, was named for him but was later changed to Bel-Alton. Samuel Cox was a generous, kind-hearted man. He had given a nice house and land to his brother William, my wife's father as a wedding present. He died a fairly wealthy man, but he left most of his property to his adopted son, a lawyer, also named Samuel Cox. My wife says that her uncle never turned the needy from his door, and that the desperate circumstances of Booth, without food and injured, made her uncle render him assistance though he did not condone the deed he had committed. History has shown that Cox was right and that in Lincoln's death the South lost her best friend and was left at the mercy of Staunton, Seward, and other ruthless and unscrupulous politicians.

(photo - unable to copy) Relatives of my wife, Sarah Cox Toole, pictured at Pohick Church, Fairfax County, Virginia, April 7, 1957. All of this group live in the Washington, D. C. area and most of them are members of the church which was built in 1773. George Washington surveyed the neighborhood and chose the site as centrally located. He served on the Building Committee and as a member of the Vestry for 22 years. Ewell Nevitt, my wife's brother-in-law, celebrated his 94th birthday on March 22 and is Pohick's oldest living member.

Rear row, left to right: Francis M. Nevitt, Ellen C. Nevitt, Douglas R. Nevitt, Mrs. Thomas C. Hoy, William H. C. Nevitt, Frances E. Nevitt, Dorothy R. Dens-more, Walter C. Densmore.

Middle row: Sarah Ann Nevitt Rappolee, Mary Cox Nevitt, Ewell J. Nevitt, Mary Ellen Nevitt, John W. Nevitt, Nancy Dove Nevitt, Mary Le eDensmore, Sadie Nevitt Terry, Mabel C. Nevitt, Louise Terry Reed.

Front row: Rev. Albert N. Jones, Rector of Pohick; Mary Alice Rappolee, Cary Douglas Nevitt, Gary Francis Nevitt, Judith Lorraine Nevitt, John W. Nevitt, Jr., Barbara Reed.

WHY VOTE "NO"

Address delivered by Hon. G. L. Toole at the First Baptist Church, Aiken, on August 19th, 1934.

On the 28th of August, we are called upon to vote again on the Liquor Question which we all had good reason to believe was settled in the election last November, the Drys, having won the election fairly and squarely by a majority of about 4,000. I have not asked for the election, neither have you; yet the Wets were bad losers and have brought this before us again, and I trust that we will snow them under so that they will not bother us with this question anytime soon.

The 18th Amendment was a Democratic enactment and we enjoyed greater prosperity under Prohibition for the twelve years following it than from any other legal enactment in history. And I believe that the Brewers and the Wet organization have done more to bring on our present depression than any other force. They cried, "give us back liquor and we will have prosperity," but under the repeal the depression is still on in spite of the noble efforts of our great President. They told us the revenue would be so great that the Government's Treasury would be filled. This has proved untrue. Already the expense of repeal is far greater than the revenue from the sale of liquor.

The best medical and scientific authorities of the day say that liquor is a poison to the human system. This poison is now and has ever been the greatest enemy of mankind.

The Wets tell us they do not want bar rooms. A rose is a rose even if called by another name. Whiskey, whether sold in a bar room, dispensary, or parlor you cannot make respectable, and has the same blighting effect, lowering virtue, debauching our citizens, both men and women, often making them steal and lie and ending in premature death. It is the greatest enemy of the most precious things in life, the family, the home, the church.

I could cite record after record from hundreds of the largest cities of the United States, showing that drunkenness has increased from 37 per cent to 75 per cent since repeal. It is enough for me to say that in our own beloved South Carolina automobile wrecks from drunkenness have increased over 50 per cent since the sale of beer. The innocent driver on our roads puts his life in a drunkard's hands. Legal sale of more poison would increase this danger twofold.

Yes, we have whiskey now, but the amount is often exaggerated, and if the Wets would join hands with the Drys and work one-half as hard to uphold the law, illegal sale of whiskey would be negligible.

We all know entirely too many of our relatives and friends are drinking this vile poison, it is ruining their lives, and the lives of their innocent families. If we were to go to them and beg them to quit, our efforts may not be appreciated. Scratch out the "Yes" and vote "No" for them.

I love my country and my state, and all its people, and if I knew that I only had five minutes more to live, I would shout to all, "Don't drink, don't experiment with liquor." I would say, "Touch not, handle not, the unclean thing," for at the last "It bitest like a serpent and stingeth like an adder."

"Lead us not into temptation." No church member or Christian, can afford by his vote, to put the bottle to his brother's lips. "He who sins against his brother, sinneth against Christ." Let us vote "No" for the girls and boys of the present and the succeeding generations. An old man who had traveled across the creek on a log for nearly a lifetime, decided he would build a bridge for others to pass over after he had gone.

"Old man, said a fellow Pilgrim near— You are wasting your strength in building here; Your journey will end with ending day; You never again will pass this way; You've crossed the chasm, deep and wide, Why build you the bridge at eventide? The builder lifted up his old gray head, Good friend, in the path I've come, he said, There followeth after me today, A youth whose feet must pass this way. This chasm that was nought to me, To that fair youth may a pitfall be; He, too, must cross in the twilight dim; Good friend, I am building the bridge for him.

Left to Right: R. Bruce Carter, formerly a business man and lawyer of Aiken, Ex-governor Ransome Williams, the author, and Ex-governor Robert A. Cooper. Photo taken at the Ottaray Hotel, Greenville.


Chapter IX
1935-1958
THE COMING OF THE H-PLANT

On the morning of Nov. 29, 1950, the newspapers of South Carolina and Georgia carried the news item which heralded a great change in the lives and habits of all the people of this section of the country. This news covered a release from the Atomic Energy Commission of the Federal Government, announcing that an Atomic Energy Plant would be built in Aiken and Barnwell Counties at a cost of nine hundred million dollars, and that 215,000 acres of land would be needed for this project, including the town of Dunbarton in Barnwell County and the old historic town of Ellenton in Aiken County. This meant that all the people living on land needed for the project would have to leave and find homes elsewhere. It was like a bolt of lightning from a clear blue sky to these people who loved their homes, many of which had stood as a haven of security for their families during the War Between the States and many over a hundred years old. They did not want the plant and they did not want to move. The families of these communities were bound together by many ties of friendship and common interests, and they could not bear to see these ties broken. The sympathy of all went out to the people of the towns to be sacrificed as they prepared to abandon their homes, "pull up their roots," and start anew somewhere else. The people of the surrounding towns, satisfied and happy with their lives as they were, awaited with alarm and trepidation the changes to take place.

Soon the influx began. Trailer cities sprang up. The peaceful, sleepy little villages suddenly became bustling, hustling little cities. Many problems beset the people of this area. The water supply could not accommodate the many housing projects. The schools overflowed and double sessions were in effect. Traffic jams and accidents became common occurrences. Aiken and surrounding area with a population of nearly 8,000 soon had a population of 35,000. It has been estimated that during the construction period over 200,000 people were added to this area. Businesses, schools, churches, and governmental departments hard pressed to meet the demands thrust upon them mushroomed in growth. New businesses sprang up, new churches and schools were erected, and new roads were built. We acquired a new addition to the hospital arid a new county health building. The old Aiken was soon gone arid a bustling little city took its place. More land was needed for the project including part of Allendale County and the lower Three Runs.

This gigantic and sprawling project, the largest in the world, is operatea by the Du Pont de Nemours Co. of Wilmington, Delaware. Though unwanted and resented by most of the natives of the area, it has aided materially in the civic, cultural, and religious life of the vicinity. The employees of the Savannah River Plant, as it is now called ,are men of learning, men of culture, and men with a deep sense of civic duty. They have joined with the Aiken-nite of long residence in building up Aiken County.

(Photo - unable to copy) Groundbreaking ceremonies at the site of the Vaucluse Road Memorial Baptist Church—Left to right, Edward Cushman, W. P. Williams, Furman E. Cullum, G. L. Toole (chairman). Others in photo are Mrs. W. J. Kimball, Mrs. G. L. Toole, Miss Walter Ann Cox of Washington, D. C.

TRIBUTE TO THE TOWN OF ELLENTON,
SOUTH CAROLINA (By Mrs. W. B. Turner) "To die is gain"—Philippians 1:21

The once lovely little town of Ellenton is no more.

When the telegraph wires just two years ago sounded the death knell, the people were stunned, yea paralyzed; but time is a great healer. So-to-day on the sites of their beloved homes is rising the world's greatest project, the Hydrogen Bomb Plant.

Was it hard to give up home and loved ones and go out into new places and among new people—(many of them in advanced years had to do this).

Surely the test of highest manhood and womanhood is to meet bravely and heroically the conditions facing us. We feel that the Ellenton citizens have done this as brave soldiers.

The old rocking chair had to be taken from the chimney corner—as we were moving it we gazed down into the face of that first darling that we had held so tenderly and rocked to sleep-Memories, yes memories.

We looked at our churches where we had pledged our lives and services to the Master's work. We saw the schools where our boys and girls had struggled to reach the heights in art and literature to be men and women of to-day—we glance at the stones in the cemetery where we bade an earthly farewell to a loved one. All is past history.

But—but—out of the ruins of the past the day may not be too distant when we can say to our Ellenton friends, "Your sacrifice has been great but thy destruction may be the salvation of our lovely Southland, the preservation of our beloved America.

Rejoice friends, rejoice.—Your sacrifices have laid the foundation for a mighty Protector—the Hydrogen Bomb. It is being made to defend us—to preserve American ideals, traditions, civilization and the opportunity to be the Christian Salvation of the world.

God bless the givers and the gift to his service.

One day the memorial may be written:  "The little country town of Ellenton, South Carolina, saved the World."

W. B. TURNER - (photo - unable to copy)

MRS. W. B. TURNER - (photo - unable to copy)

WILLIAM BUSH TURNER, born in Barnwell County January 4, 1862, was a merchant, farmer, and bank president. His paternal great-grandfather came from London, England and settled on the Savannah River in old Barnwell District where the village of Ellenton was later located. His father, John Mountjoy Turner, was a surgeon in the Confederate Army. While farming at Johnson's Landing on the Savannah River, he also conducted a small mercantile business, ginnery, and cotton depot. In 1902, he settled on one of the poorest farms in the Ellenton section and through intensive farming brought this farm up to a high state of productivity. Upon its organization in 1908, he became a director of the Bank of Western Carolina of Aiken and in 1921 he became president of this bank, the largest in South Carolina with nine branches. He served as president of this bank for eleven years.

Mr. Turner was married twice, first to Julia Philistia Bush, daughter of Captain and Mrs. David Bush, farmer and legislator of Barnwell County. Mrs. Turner died in 1912. His second marriage was to Meta Allen, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Basil Allen, a farmer of Anderson County. He was an elder in the Christian Church of Augusta, Georgia. He was vice-president of the State Board of that church for South Carolina and a trustee of the Atlantic Christian College at Wilson, North Carolina. Mr. Turner died February 2, 1935.

HONORABLE JAMES JULIEN BUSH was born October 2, 1890, at Ellenton, Aiken County. He was a member of the Barnwell bar and for many years was a member of the law firm of Honorable Edgar Brown. Mr. Bush was graduated from the University of S. C. in 1914. Later he was elected from Aiken County member of the House of Representatives. In fraternal line he had a great, great uncle, Col. Isac Bush who achieved fame as a Revolutionary soldier. At present (1954) Mr. Bush is holding a responsible position as Executive Director and General Counseler of the S. C. Security Commission, Columbia, S. C. Mr. Bush is a half brother of the late Honorable Eugene Buckingham of Ellenton.

HONORABLE EUGENE R. BUCKINGHAM of Ellenton was born August 22, 1871. This town was named in honor of his mother, Ellen Dunbar Buckingham, who was born there, daughter of Robert Dunbar, the town having been built on her father's plantation.

His grandmother on his father's side was Esther Gildersleeves, one of the oldest families in England. Richard Gildersleeve arrived in America in 1630 and was head of this family in America. Mr. Buckingham served several terms in the S. C. Legislature, and fought against many new bureaus and offices in South Carolina and was a close friend of Gov. Coleman Blease.

Aiken Library

(photo - unable to copy)) DIBBLE-AIKEN LIBRARY OPENED-The Aiken County Public Library was officially opened recently when Senator John Henry Williams (extreme right) cut the ribbons and handed over the keys to Miss Josephine Crouch, head librarian.

In the center is shown W. B. S. Winans, chairman of the Aiken County Public Library Commission. Standing to his left is Mrs. E. B. Coleman.

Reading from left to right are Mrs. Joseph Wagner, Mrs. Dayton Toole, and Mrs. E. A. Moore. Standing beside the Senator is his daughter, Sandra.

The American Legion Auxiliary Unit No. 26, entertained throughout the afternoon and evening, with civic groups and presidents of the Aiken Garden Clubs assisting.

The present library is housed in the former Dibble Memorial Library, which was built in 1926 with funds donated by residents over a period of years. This year a new wing has been added by the county and the whole interior rearranged and modernized.

The new furniture and a large part of the book collection has been provided by the county and the library is supported by an appropriation from County funds.

The library operates a bookmobile which serves the County at scheduled stops, schools and branch libraries. An expansion program is planned to extend this library service to other communities.

THE GAS EXPLOSION OF 1953

On Tuesday, January 27, 1953, ten persons lost their lives and approximately two million dollars worth of property was destroyed in what has been called the worst disaster in Aiken's history. An electric spark in the gas-filled building of Jones Electric Company set off the explosion which rocked the greater part of the city at 8:31 in the morning, destroyed the building in which the explosion took place, caused the fire which leveled buildings occupied by the seventy-five-year-old R. W. McCreary's Dry Goods Store, W. J. Platt's Drug Store, the Diana Shop, and Lile's Drug Company (formerly Harm & Company's Grocery Store). Holley Hardware, though damaged, was saved by a fire wall and by the efforts of the fire fighters. Many windows in an area of four square blocks were shattered. I was in my son's law office on the second floor of the Bank of Greenwood Building (now the State Bank and Trust Company), and in order to get to my car parked in front of Franzblau's Army Store on Richland Avenue I had to walk on glass scattered all over the streets. Stunned as I was by the tragedy, I could not help saying a prayer of thankfulness as I walked along, that if the explosion had to happen—it had occurred before shoppers had gone into stores and before there were many on the streets. Later, when I learned more about the explosion and how some had so narrowly escaped death, I said another prayer of thankfulness that so many had been spared.

Fire-fighting units from the Savannah River Project, Augusta and Graniteville joined the local fire-fighters in their frantic efforts to stop the fire and to rescue those trapped. Giant cranes, bulldozers, and trucks from the Savannah River Project worked around the clock, tearing down dangerous walls and assisting the workers in removing beams and tons of brick and rubble in order to recover the bodies of the victims of the holocaust. Patrolmen, guards, ambulances, attendants, and medical equipment were sent by the duPont Company. The State Highway Patrol, the Red Cross, the Atomic Energy Commission, Mr. Herbert Steiffel, Messrs. Albert and Jake George, and many others rendered valuable assistance. The disaster brought newsmen, photographers, and representatives from television and radio networks from all parts of the nation to write, photograph, broadcast, and televise the catastrophe.

Martial law was declared in the city because of the dangers and because many windows fronting stores had been blown out or broken by the explosion.

Jimmy Jones, son of W. O. Jones who owned Jones Electric, had gone to the basement of the store when he smelled gas. When he turned on an electric fan to clear the air of the fumes, the explosion occurred and he was blown from the building. He was hospitalized with first degree burns, but the fact that he was thrown from the building saved his life.

Mr. Ernest McCreary missed death by a narrow margin. He had just stepped out of his store when the explosion occurred. He had started working in the store fifty years before when his father had owned it. He had to be restrained forcibly from re-entering the store. "McCreary's" has been missed by the residents of Aiken and its vicinity, for the high standard of merchandise sold by this store and the courtesy and fair treatment of its customers had given it a reputation surpassed by no other business in Aiken.

Miss Mae Weeks, life-long resident of Aiken, and an employee of "McCreary's" for thirty-two years lost her life in the flames. She was a devoted member of the First Baptist Church, and was loved by all for her kindliness, courtesy, and unselfishness. When it was found that the large beam pinning her down could not be removed in time, she calmly told Dr. Liles, who had rushed there from his store on the corner, "Please give me a shot or something and then go about your business." She met death calmly with her thoughts on the welfare of others.

Miss Emily McCarter who also perished in the explosion was a native of Aiken and a member of St. Thaddeus Episcopal Church. She had been an employee of Jones Electric for several years. She had just entered the store, and, when one of the employees had remarked that if the gas fumes were not stopped the whole place would be blown sky high, she had replied that "this kind of gas does not explode." Russell Owens who had become nauseated from the fumes and gone for a cup of coffee missed death by a few seconds.

Others who perished in Jones Electric were: J. S. Watson, a resident of Salley and a native of Johnston; Jack Holley, a young musician from Graniteville; Jack Neibling, head electrician; David O. Rutland of Aiken; Mrs. Lena Bible Duncan, a native of Tennessee; Mrs. Ruth Mabrey; Mr. Nelson Long; and Bubba Moseley, janitor of the store. Grim tragedy is always a terrible thing, but when it strikes citizens whom we respect and love it becomes all the more heartbreaking.

Holley Hardware has been repaired. Platt's Drug Store, The Diana Shop, and Liles Drug Store (now the Aiken Drug Company) have been rebuilt. Jones Electric has a new establishment on Hayne Avenue. A new Woolworth Store now occupies the space where Jones Electric and R. W. McCreary s had been. Mr. Ernest McCreary has now gone into the partnership of Owen, Thomas, and McCreary. Visible evidence of the explosion has disappeared, but long will the citizens of Aiken remember this tragedy and the throat will tighten and a tear come to the eye as it remembers.

(photo -  unable to copy) CAPT. W. W. WILLIAMS, son of John Williams who played an important part in bringing; the railroad to Aiken.

(photo - unable to copy) EX-GOVERNOR AND MRS. JAMES J. BYRNES, now of Columbia, are shown above at the Aiken Trials Saturday, March 23, 1957. Mr. and Mrs. Byrnes came down for the day to attend the Trials and to visit relatives.

BYRNES TESTIMONIAL BANQUET

During the spring of 1954 the Aiken Chamber of Commerce sponsored a Testimonial Banquet for the Honorable James F. Byrnes, a former Aikenite, in recognition of a half-century of public service. The toastmaster of the occasion was the Honorable Strom Thurmond, U. S. Senator from Aiken, S. C, with the guest speakers including Honorable Bernard Baruch, Senator Charles E. Daniels, Congressman John J. Riley, and Honorable Donald Russell, President of the University of South Carolina.

The affair was held in the gymatorium at the Senior High School.

Each public office is a public trust Then public service is a public must And the ballot box is the only voice That should decide the public choice.

AIKEN COUNTY DEMOCRATIC PARTY
Aiken, South Carolina County Convention March 5, 1956

The following officers were elected: Permanent President. G. L. Toole; Permanent Vice-President: Herbert E. Gyles; County Chairman: J. R. Hayes, Sr.; County Vice-Chairman: Mrs. Otis Baughman, Sr.; County Secretary: D. J. Wardlaw; State Executive Committeeman: Ernest E. Jones.

LIST OF AIKEN COUNTY PRECINCTS AND NAMES OF EXECUTIVE
COMMITTEEMEN FOR THE
1956 PRIMARIES

Precinct listed with names of committeemen following: East Aiken, Stathy Verenes; West Aiken, Carroll Pridgen; Bath, Leroy Coker; Beach Island, J. George McElmurray, Belvedere, Fleet Rush; Carolina Heights, R. H .Gentry; Chinquapin, C. L. Oswalt; Clearwater No. 1, John R. Goodwin; Clearwater No. 2, Fred Powell; Eureka, J. Price Timmerman; Gloverville, Mavis Coley; Graniteville, J. R. Hayes; Jackson, A. A. Webb; Langley, Woodrow Wilson; McTeer, J. C. Jones; Millbrook No. 1, L. W. Chapman; Millbrook No. 2, Ramie Yonce; Monetta, C. M. Swearingen; Montmorenci, Lee W. Garvin; New Ellenton, Joseph Katz; New Holland, H. E. Derrick; North Augusta, N. F. Manley; Oak Grove, James Ready; Perry, A. L. Pridgen; Rocky Springs, Clarence Garvin; Salley, E .E. Jones; Shaws Fork, H. C. Scott; Shiloh, R. R. Cook; Tabernacle, L. F. Jowers; Vaucluse, J. M. Cotton; Wagener, Otis L. Baughman, Jr.; Ward No. 1, Ira M. Scott; Ward No. 2, E. P. Cumbee; Warrenville, Homer M. Clark; White Pond, T. A. Williams; Wnidsor, K. C. Byars.

AIKEN COUNTY DEMOCRATIC CLUB
Aiken, South Carolina

East Aiken. Managers—Mr. Thomas H. Crouch, Mrs. Warren Long, Mrs. Oscar Coplon, Mr. Otis L. Courtney, Mr. George A. Townes, Jr., Mrs. John P. Walker.

West Aiken: Managers—F. E. Ardrey, Frank Sloan, R. E. Kenny, Jr., John Shuler, Oliver Biggs, W. R. Davidson, Mrs. Mable Beasley, Mrs. Mary Ellen DeGeorge.

Bath: Managers—Mrs. F. L. Armstrong, Mrs. William Sawyer, Miss June Coker, Mrs. Sarah Barnes.

Beech Island: Managers—R. J. Foreman, Mrs. W. E. Yonce, Mrs. George McElmurray, Mrs. Gussie D. Holmes.

Belvedere: Managers—J. B. Whitt, George Thompson, C. M. Bowen, Mrs. Edward Lawless, Mrs. J. T. Cooper.

Carolina Heights: Managers—George W. Freeman, J. W. Beverly, Mrs. W. F. Floyd, Mrs. Laura Slate.

Chinquapin: Managers—Howard Oswalt, Homer Oswalt, J. E. Eargle, Jr., J. E. Wacker.

Clearwater No. 1: Managers—Louie Scott, Birt E. Riley, Mrs. Ellie G. Goodwin, Lumbard Arthur.

Clearwater No. 2: Managers—Helen Norris, Sam Foreman, Eula Smith, Mrs. Rudolph Beard, Alma Mattox.

Eureka: Managers—J. R. Williams, C. H. Seigler, Mrs. Ben Steele, J. C. Johnson.

Gloverville: Managers—C. H. Polatty, James S. McKenny, Audrey Hamlet, Dorothy Wooten.

Graniteville: Managers—W. A. Cortez, Rob Arender, Claude R. Randall, Cora Lee Hayes, Ollie Crouch, Nell Dean.

Jackson: Managers—A. A. Webb, Earl Pou, Mack Foreman, Fred Brinkley.

Langley: Managers—Thomas Maxey, Billy Twilley, Frank Garvin, W. C. Flanders, Joe Mitchell, Mildred Lambert.

McTier: Managers—T. C. Fox, M. H. Fox, Sr., Ralph Fox, Mrs. Lena Fox.

Millbrook No. 1: Managers—Fulley Sizemore, Susie S. Chapman, Florine Holley, Pawnee Chapman.

Millbrook No. 2: Managers—J. R. Johnson, Mrs. Daisy O. Greene, George W. Yonce, Carole Owens.

Monetta: Managers—C. M. Swearingen, William DuBose, Horace Rankin, Joe B. Asbill.

Montmorenci: Managers—Mrs. O. L. Beck, Mrs. Laura Rear-den, Mrs. John Nahring, Mrs. Bernice Jenkins.

New Ellenton: Managers—Charlton H. Shaw, H. H. Jones, Jack Horner, Grace Russell.

New Holland: Managers—Mrs. Lottie Thomas, Mr. Sammie Thomas, Mr. E. H. Seigler, Mrs. William Posey.

North Augusta: Managers—C. H. Templeton, C. D. Langham, J. A. Baynham, Harold Wright, Clyde Carter, Charles W. Ken-worthy, J. R. Ededfield, J. R. Butler.

Oak Grove: Managers-Bert Hall, W. O. Hutto, Broadus Collum, Mrs. U. E. Hutto.

Perry: Managers—Sam Poole, Alderman Whetstone, William Joyner, W. D. Brown.

Rocky Spring: Managers—Clarence Garvin, George Rish, Leon Heath, Ben T. Garvin.

Salley: Managers—Mrs. Florence Martin, Mrs. Rosa Lee Sal-ley, H. N. Salley, Mrs. Margaret Newman.

Shaws Fork: Managers—Mrs. Lillie Woodward, Mrs. B. E. Plunkett, Mrs. J. R. Woodward, Mrs. Hastings Woodward.

Shiloh: Managers-G. C. Taylor, Holbrook Piper, T. J. Dorn, J. C. Piper.

Tabernacle: Managers—H. L. Cook, J. W. Brodie, Jr., O. E. Garvin, E. S. Gunter.

Vaucluse: Managers—Ossie Lott, Mrs. Tressie Yonce, Mrs. Marian Harris, Mrs. Irish Franklin.

Wagener: Managers—C. J. Asbill, M. W. Gunter, W. L. Cor-der, Murray Gantt.

Ward No. 1: Managers—Jammie P. Randall, E. R. Sanders, Vinson Fox, Willie B. Rhoden.

Ward No. 2: Managers—Mrs. Sarah Cumbee, Mrs. Ruth Cum-bee, Mrs. Geneva Raborn, Harold H. Cumbee.

Warrenville: Managers—Miss Annie Laura Williams, Mrs. B. C. McCary, Sr., Mrs. Lucious Eubanks, Jr., Mrs. Wyman Clark, Edgar Couch.

White Pond: Managers—Cole L. Page, Hugh Whaley, H. L. Scott, Delia S. Woodward.

Windsor: Managers—Scott Johnson, Foley Johnson, Frank Mizell, Harris Byars.

BOARD OF REGISTRATION

1902: Samuel A. Woodward; Gideon C. Moseley; Oscar Moyer.

1904: Gideon C. Moseley; C. H. Mover; B. F. Sorgee; John Stevens; Benny Johnson.

1913: Dr. J. H. McGinn, Langley, S.C.; W. F. Beard, vice; T. L. Hahn, North Augusta, S.C.; L. B. Lott, Monetta, S.C.

1917: J. M. Everett, Beech Island, S. C; J. O. Hays, Wagener, S.C.

1925-1929: Murray Craig; Everett B. Tyler; A. W. Sanders; T. Holley, II.

1936: B. K. Keenan; Ed Holsenbach; Ida Craig; Ida Keenan.

(photo - unable to copy) Our President smiles during a visit to Augusta in 1956.

REPUBLICAN PARTY OF AIKEN COUNTY-1956

About thirty-five people interested in forming a Republican Party in Aiken County, Aiken, S. C. met in the Aiken County Courthouse on Feb. 5th, 1956. At this time the people present announced that they would adhere to political principles of Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln and Dwight D. Eisenhower.

On February 25th, 1956 in accordance with the South Carolina Election Laws the West Aiken Precincts were organized. The officers of each precinct were as follows: East Aiken, Fred J. Kaufman, Jr., President; Bromise Dunnington, Vice President; Harvey Anger, Secretary; Eugene England, Treasurer; A. Fayette T. VanZile, E. J. Hennelly, William H. Keeder, Delegates to County Convention County Committee.

West Aiken, Osgood Holt, President; Naomi Donahue, Vice President; Jeanne VanZile, Secretary; Jeanne VanZile, Treasurer; Mrs. Philip McNair, Daniel Miller, Jackson Ahern, Delegates.

On March 5th, 1956 the County Convention was held and following officers were elected: County Chairman, A. Fayette VanZile; County Vice Chairman, L. M. Arnett; Secretary, Nancy Bancroft; Treasurer, Osgood Holt; Executive Committeewoman, Mrs. Philip McNair.

Delegates to the State Convention were: John Allen, Edward J. Hennelly, David Burns, A. F. T. VanZile, William Keeder, Daniel Miller, Mrs. Philip McNair, Sr. Alternates were: Mrc. Nelson J. Donahue, Mrs. Lewis C. Bancroft, John Lwombly, Calvin Loew, Fred J. Kaufman, Jr., Joseph E. Wagner, Mrs. Osgood Holt, Mrs. W. V. Baster.

At the State Convention in Columbia, March 27, 1957, Mr. David Burns of New Euenton was elected an alternate delegate from South Carolina to the National Republican Convention. Mr. Burns attended and voted to Nominate President Eisenhower, and Vice Pres. Nixon to run as President and Vice President on the Republican ticket in the 1956 election.

Mrs. P. K. McNair was named as Republican Elector from South Carolina on July 26, 1956. The North Augusta precinct organized a club and the following officers were elected: President, David A. Ward; Vice President, William H. Burris, Jr.; County Committee, David Ward; Secretary, Mr. E. C. Laird; Treasurer, Mrs. J. R. Smith; Delegates, David A. Ward, and William H. Burriss, Jr.

On July 26,1956, the New Ellenton precinct was organized and the following were elected: President, David Burns; Vice President, James D. Sprague; County Committeeman, David Durns; Secretary, Mrs. Marthila Burns; Treasurer, Mrs. Marthila Burns.

In the Presidential election Aiken County went Republican by over 2000 votes. This is the first time Aiken County gave a plurality of its votes to the Republican party since 1876. The following precincts gave a majority to the Republican party: East Aiken, West Aiken, North Augusta, S. C, Belvedere, and Graniteville.

On January 31,1957 the N. Augusta Municipal Republican Club was organized with the following being elected: David Ward, Wm. H. Burris, Jr., James W. Hill, Ellen S. Smith. At present the North Augusta Party has put full slate of Candidates up for Mayor and Council in the present North Augusta City election.

EISENHOWER CARRIES COUNTY IN 1956

The results of the presidential general election, Nov. 6, 1956, was a surprise for it put Aiken County in the Republican column for the first time since reconstruction days in 1876. Aiken County was easily carried by Dwight D. Eisenhower who received the plurality vote but not the majority of votes cast. The president's popularity and the fact that the people were aroused over the question of civil rights brought about the largest general election vote turnout in the history of this county. A total of 12,296 votes were cast as follows: Republican, with Dwight D. Eisenhower as nominee, 4,346; Independent Democrats, electors uninstructed, 4,002, and the Democrats, with Adlai Stevenson as nominee, 3,948.

Eisenhower carried the following boxes in Aiken County (in most cases by a large majority): West Aiken, East Aiken, North Augusta, Belvedere, and Graniteville. Richmond County, across the river in Georgia, also went for Eisenhower. Eisenhower's "Little Whitehouse" has been in Augusta ever since he was first elected president. He frequently comes down to Augusta to play golf and he has made many friends in this area.

The election was determined more by the personalities of the nominees of both parties than anything else. Stevenson antagonized the South by his flagrant backing of civil rights to gain votes in the North. Eisenhower, though approving this issue, soft-pedalled it. Many people, Democrats all their lives, could not vote for Stevenson and would not vote Republican. Not wanting to choose between "Charybdis and the Deep Blue Sea” they voted the Independent Ticket, splitting the Democratic vote and giving the election to Eisenhower in Aiken County.

THE DIAMOND JUBILEE OF POLO CELEBRATION

The series of polo games played in 1957 were part of a program to celebrate 75 years of polo here. Whitney Field has been proven to be the only field in America used continually for three-quarters of a century. In March, 1932, the Fiftieth Anniversary was observed with a parade of horses, carriages and costumed persons.

The parade held this year on March 31 followed the motif previously set to depict "old Aiken." The portrayal was assisted by a group of persons from Newberry, S. C, who arrived costumed for the celebration of the Hundredth Anniversary of Newberry College.

The entire celebration was sponsored by the Aiken Chamber of Commerce, under the leadership of John A. May, local attorney and member of the House. John Tygard served as parade chairman and Seymour Knox, Sr., as honorary chairman. The day's activities, which were covered by two national magazines as well as press and radio, were well publicized.

Among the notables were G. Muenuddin of the Pakistan Water Delegation in Washington, D. C, and his wife, and Major General Hayaud-Din of Pakistan. Also attending were Lt. Colonel J. R. Johnson, D.S.O., M.C., and Mrs. Johnson, of the British Joint Service Mission, also from Washington, D. C. The American, Pakistan and British national anthems were played and the visitors from Washington received certificates of recognition, presented by Mayor H. Odell Weeks.

The day's program was concluded by the awarding of the Chamber of Commerce trophy to the winning team, followed by a reception at Mayfields, the home of the general chairman.

(photo - unable to copy) THE MEMBERS OF THE AIKEN COUNTY BAR ASSOCIATION GATHER

AT THE AIKEN County Court House for a 1957 group picture. The members of the association are, reading from left to right, (seated) Frampton W. Toole, Sr.5 Elmore S. Henderson, G. L. Toole, III, Tom Horton, Marion Powell, Dorsey Lybrand, Charles Simons, (Seated at the table) Randolph Patterson, Clerk of the Court; Mrs. Evelyn Roe, Deputy of the Court; John F. Williams, Sr., (standing), Benjamin Surasky, Robert Johnson, Julian Salley, Alfred Dufour, Frank Cormany, Lonnie Garvin, Herbert E. Gyles, George H. Grant, G. Loren Toole, II, publisher of the Aiken County History, "90 Years in Aiken County", Mrs. Millie Dufour, Judge E. H. Henderson, Judge 2nd. Judicial Circuit, Mrs. Irene Rudnick, P. Finley Henderson, President of the Aiken Bar Association, Arthur Rich, Howard Williamson, John H. Williams, Jr., Edward Cushman, Frampton Toole, Jr., Henry Busbee, Manning Poliakoff, Marvin Smith, Allen Coker, Leonard H. Williamson, Solicitor 2nd. Judicial Circuit, McNary Spigner and Douglas Smith.

(photo - unable to copy) ALUMNI DAY-UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
MAY 31, 1957

Gasper Loren Toole, II, of Aiken was presented the Omicron Delta Kappa cane, which signifies the oldest living alumnus of the University of South Carolina, during Alumni Day ceremonies at the University on May 31, 1957. He was 90 years old last April 13.

Tom Moore Craig, who was president of ODK in 1928 when the cane was first presented, delivered the handsome gold-mounted walking stick to Mr. Toole at the annual Alumni Day luncheon in the Russell House.

In his remarks prefecting the presentation, Mr. Craig stated that Mr. Toole, an alumnus of the class of 1886, was born in Aiken County in 1867 and had spent his entire life in that area, being a widely known lawyer and farmer in Aiken before retiring several years ago. It was further stated that Mr. Toole had attended the University, then known as South Carolina College, from 1882 to 1884 and had later studied at the Law School in 1898-99, being ad-Page One Hundred-three admitted to the Bar in 1899. In reference to Mr. Toole's political career, it was remarked that he had served as Aiken County Superintendent of Education, six terms in the South Carolina House of Representatives and one term as State Senator from Aiken County. Mr. Moore concluded his remarks by stating that Mr. Toole had also served as national representative of the South Carolina Woodmen of the World on three occasions and that he still took an active part in civic affairs, being presently a member of the Aiken Chamber of Commerce.

Mr. Toole, in accepting the cane, addressed the luncheon group as follows:

ADDRESS BY HONORABLE G. L. TOOLE, SR., UPON PRESENTATION TO HIM OF THE GOLD CANE PRESENTED TO OLDEST LIVING ALMUNI OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA, AT 1:00 P.M. IN RUSSELL HOUSE, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA, COLUMBIA, S. C. ON MAY 31, 1957: MR. PRESIDENT, FELLOW ALUMNI, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN:

This is a happy occasion for me. I am in my 91st year. Little did I know when I first entered South Carolina College as a freshman in 1882, that after a period of 75 years, I would be the recipient of the honor which I have received.

As I walked around the campus recently, my thoughts turned to the many changes made at this great university since my student days. The old wall still stands which my fellow students and I raced around for exercise. There was no gymnasium in use at that time. But today, the university has expanded many times beyond these walls. I personally do not know the present territory covered, but my wish is that they shall continuously expand, ever working for a greater Carolina.

Carolina has always been noted for hard working presidents, and Dr. J. M. McBryde, who was president in 1882, was no exception. I can remember it as if it were yesterday, President McBryde standing on the horseshoe of the main campus, directing the plowing of the campus and the planting of Bermuda Grass.

All of us have our memories of the University Marshall. At that time, the Marshall's name was Mr. R. S. Morrison, who I particularly made friends with when first coming to the college. In addition to his other duties, he looked after the mail. He was a plain clothesman, and continually carried a walking cane, with the authority of a weapon. His job was to keep order among the students, who were very little different then than now. I remember on one occasion, several students made a campus bon fire of the wooden gates from the professors' yard fences. Mr. Morrison, with the cunning of a detective, promptly ferreted out the parties and they were suspended.

The Clairosophic and Euphradian Literary Societies were flourishing, as at present, and I was the librarian of the Clairosophic Society for a period. There were many hot debates, which, I, at times participated in. These societies have been one of the greatest assets of the institution.

If time permitted, I would love to tell you of other happenings, but I know brevity is golden.

I had the honor and privilege to attend this institution for the second time. For in 1898, I returned to attend law school under the venerable Dean Joseph Daniel Pope, the man who wore a cape, and who would frequently dip his snuff during lectures.

I could not conclude my remarks without saying something of President Donald Russell. As most of you know, President Russell is a fellow alumnus of the university. His administration has witnessed great progress, both in physical accommodations and academic standards. As time rolls on, Russell House, will ever remind the men and women of Carolina of his great and progressive administration.

In conclusion, may I say, that I wish to express my profound appreciation for the honor received today, and I look forward to seeing all of you here many times in the future.

I thank you.

Dr. Daniel W. Hollis, acting Executive Secretary of the Alumni Association, concluded the presentation by thanking Mr. Toole for his long active participation in Alumni affairs.

At Commencement ceremonies held prior to the Alumni luncheon, the following Aiken Countians received degrees from the University:

Aiken, Blair Clarke Burgess, B.S. in E. E.; Leona Glass Chafee, A.B.; Eleanor Claire Courtney, B.S.; Lollice B. Courtney, B.S.; Robert Earl Gunnels, Jr., B.S. in B.A.; Emanuel Anthony Lask, B.S.; Louise Hall Mallette, Cert, in Sec. Science; Philip Marion Moody, B.S. in E. E.; David Schurman Neilson, B.S. in Bus. Adm.; Helen Carol Shockey, A.B. in Ed.; Edgar Gray Swingle II, B.S. in Bus. Adm.; Elizabeth Gordon Tyler, A.B. in Ed.; Carolyn Rutherford Woodward, A.B. Bath: Billy Rhodes Morris, B.S. in M.E. Granite-ville: Charles Howard Carpenter, B.S. in Bus. Adm. Langley: Lynn Ergle Johnson, A.B. in Ed.; Beverly Entrekin Quarles, A.B. in Ed. North Augusta: Alvin Ethezage Morris Jr., B.S. in Pharm. Salley; Tom Whetstone, B.S. in Bus. Adm. Wagener: Doris Nell Warner, B.S.

(photo - unable to copy) Photo taken at University Banquet of Guests at the presentation of the Gold Cane.

Left to right: Seated—Thomas H. Williamson (Aiken Co. Treasurer); Senator G. K. Langey, G. L. Toole, II, Walter C. Thomas, Columbia, S. C; Herbert A. Moses, Sumter, S. C. Standing—Mrs. Mary Durban Toole, Gasper L. Toole, III,

E. Maxwell MnNaull, Rock Hill, S. C; Mrs. Eleanor Toole Going, Columbia; Walter

F. Going, Jr., Columbia; S. Perrin Toole, Walter K. Murray, J. C. Hungepiller, Hartsville; Leonard A. Williamson (Solicitor, 2nd Jud. Cir.); Mrs. G. K. Laney, Mrs. Leona G. Chafee, Mrs. Betty M. Toole, Mrs. Julia Toole Mclntosh, Frampton W. Toole, Jr., Mrs. Floride Goddard.

USC ALUMNI HOLD REUNION (photo - unable to copy)

University of South Carolina alumni gathered on the campus June, 1956 for their annual reunion. Upper left, Douglas McKay, Sr., of Columbia, whose class of 1906 celebrated its 50th anniversary, is greeted by President and Mrs. Donald Russell at the coffee hour at the Russell home. Upper right, G. L. Toole of Aiken, 90-year-old member of the class of 1886, was the oldest alumnus attending. He registers, as his wife (center of picture) and registrar Fred Wingfield look on. Lower left, some of those attending gather around a registration desk. Lower right, Lt. (jg) Flora Jeffries, class of 1954, is greeted by the Russells and by Alumni Association president, Paul Sansbury of Darlington. (Record photos by Nebbia).


CHAPTER XII
OUR SCHOOLS

Mr. A. J. Rutland, Aiken County Superintendent of Education (1946-1957). Born in Ridge Spring Nov. 14,1902. A. B. Degree from Newberry College, M.Ed. from University of South Carolina. Appointed to position of Area Superintendent of Aiken Attendance Area July 1,1957. His record is unsurpassed and he is nationally known as an educator.

Mr. Charles F. Kneece with his wife, Mrs. Abbie Mann Kneece, and their children. Reading from left to right, the children are: John Elliott, Brenda Lynn, Kathy Jo, Callie Angie, Charles III, and Cynthia Gale. Mr. Kneece has just entered his first term of office as Superintendent of Education for Aiken County.

MARIE SAMUELLA CROMER (photo - unable to copy)

CECIL H. SEIGLER (photo - unable to copy)

Cecil H. Seigler assumed duties of Superintendent of Education of Aiken County on January 15,1909. He, with the assistance of Miss Marie Cromer, then principal of the Talatha two-teacher school but later his wife and Mrs. E. P. Kennedy organized a School Improvement Association in practically every white school in Aiken County during the first two years of office. The associations were the forerunners of the Parent-Teacher Associations in Aiken County. In his first year of office, he also organized Boys' Corn Clubs in several sections of the County, and initiated the County Spelling Contests. Next year the contests were extended to include other subjects and athletics and a day was set aside for these exercises, known as County Field Day. Seventeen of these annual contests were held, or as long as Mr. Seigler was Superintendent of Education. The annual county-wide Field Day was the incentive for the establishment of the Aiken County Fair.

In 1910, he assisted Miss Marie Cromer in the organization of the first Tomato Clubs from which the Home Demonstration Work was born. In 1911 the "Good Roads Association7' of Aiken County was organized with Mr. Seigler as Secretary. So much improvement in roads was made that the people became enthused, the United States Government built a sand-clay road from the Barnwell line to Edgefield via the City of Aiken, probably through the influence of James F. Byrnes in Congress. On this road, the first paved road was built, running from Aiken to Eureka. Mr. Seigler sponsored consolidation of high schools. The first consolidation was that of Burcalo and Kitchings Mill. He was one of the finest Superintendents Aiken County ever had and initiated more improvements than any other Superintendent up to that time. He did much for the educational system and the betterment of Aiken County. After his long term of office, Mr. Seigler retired to his farm at Eureka.

Miss Marie Samuella Cromer, native of Abbeville County, but a teacher and resident in Aiken County, is known as the Joan of Arc in a crusade of Southern women in agriculture. She organized the first Tomato Club in the United States with 12 members while a teacher at Talatha School. Then she and County Superintendent of Education Seigler organized the County Clubs with 46 members from the Schools of Aiken County. She ran into great difficulties at first, but surmounted every obstacle. As soon as she had organized the County, she offered a one-year scholarship to Winthrop College to the prize-winning member, though she did not know where she would get the money, for her salary was very meager. She went twice to Mr. Rockefeller for financial assistance but he turned her down each time. Finally Thomas Hitchcock, great benefactor of Aiken, furnished the money for the Scholarship. The United States Department of Agriculture became interested. Miss Cromer was made State Organizer, thus becoming the first Home Demonstration Agent and the Tomato Clubs began to grow on a national scope. Within a year the organization had extended to five Southern States and Miss Cromer was teaching 3,000 girls to can. An appropriation of $5,000.00 was secured and the General Education Board of New York City furnished her with a $25,000.00 fund, to help meet the expenses of the organization. Sometime later the Girls' Tomato Clubs were converted into the Girls' 4-H and Women's Home Demonstration Clubs. From this work also came the Home Economics Classes in the high schools of the county. The present versatile use of tomatoes as a food product can be largely attributed to the energetic efforts of Miss Cromer.

In 1912, Miss Cromer and County Superintendent of Education Cecil H. Seigler were married. They lived for some years in Aiken and then moved to their farm at Eureka where they still live, loved and honored by the people of Aiken County and our country.

EDISTO ACADEMY

Edisto Academy, a Baptist co-educational school located at Seivern, Aiken County, S. C., was founded in 1915 and closed in 1934 due to conditions resulting largely from the economic "depression." While primarily a high school, it offered work in the elementary grades and, for a while, one year of college work.

W. H. Canada, previously a missionary to Brazil, was its first president, although preliminary promotional work was done by T. H. Posey, a nearby pastor. M. B. Webb, principal for three years, became president in 1930. The plant consisted of three buildings and 331 acres of land. Student enrollment at the peak was 112.

The academy was operated by trustees elected by the Aiken, Edgefield, Lexington, and Ridge associations until 1922 when ownership was transferred to the Baptist state convention. The school was discontinued by the convention in 1932 "with profound regret," but continued under associational control until 1934.

(photo) AIKEN HIGH SCHOOL FACULTY 1957

First row: G. L. Toole, Author and guest of the faculty; Mrs. Archer H. Futch, Jr., Mrs. Peggy Lambert, Mrs. A. J. Rutland, Mrs. Manning Owen, Miss Margaret Cato, Miss Elaine Franzen, Mrs. W. E. Winter, Mrs. E. P. Kennedy, and Miss Elizabeth Teague.

Second row: U. S. Senator Strom Thurmond, Miss Peggy Cantrell, Miss Katherine Anthony, Mrs. Ann Casey, Mrs. E. M. Hutto, Mrs. Gordon Butler, Mrs. Jean A. Simpson, J. O. Willis, L. K. Hagood.

Third row: Mrs. D. C. Willis, Mrs. J. A. Wheat, Mr. William Knight, W. C. Guy, L. S. Beard, C. L. Courtney, J. B. Eubanks, C. M. Sloan.

Fourth row: Mrs. Ruth Goans, Mrs. Martha S. Blakewood, Miss Zella Crisp, Hubert Turner, Robert P. Stutts, William T. Slaughter, Alvain H. Hawkins.

G. L. Toole, Senator Thurmond, Mrs. E. P. Kennedy and Miss Elizabeth Teague are not members of the school faculty. Miss Teague is a former member of the faculty.

DIRECTORY OF SCHOOLS Aiken Area No. 1

AIKEN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL-J. O. Willis, Principal; Miss Katherine Anthony, Miss Mary Lou Barlow, L. S. Beard, Mrs. Martha S. Blakewood, Mrs. Margaret Bobo, Mrs. Gordon Butler, Miss Peggy Cantrell, Mrs. Ann Casey, Miss Margaret Cato, Carroll L. Courtney, Miss Zella Crisp, John B. Eubanks, F. L. Fowler, Miss Elaine Franzen, Mrs. Arthur H. Futch, Mrs. Ruth Goans, Miss Norman Gunter, Walter C. Guy, Alvin H. Hawkins, Mrs. E. M. Hutto, William Knight, Mrs. Peggy S. Lambert, Mrs. Flora Meadows, Mrs. Betty T. Owen, Leroy Parris, Mrs. Blanche K. Rutland, Mrs. Jean A. Simpson, William T. Slaughter, C. M. Sloan, Roland P. Stutts, Mrs. J. A. Wheat.

AIKEN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL-K. S. Lowman, Principal; Miss Katherine Ann Martin, Mrs. Mary Carroll, Miss Joanne Stie-fel, Mrs. Lena Linn, Mrs. Emma Nance Thomas, Mrs. Florence Johnston, Mrs* Aiiita Woodward, Miss Flora Bell McLeod, Mrs. Margaret McCraney, Miss Thelman Hammond, Mrs. Ruth Pope, Mrs. Mary Oswald, Mrs. Louise Boss, Mrs. Sara Hosea, J. B. Hunt, Mrs. Era T. Weeks, Mrs. Barbara Sharpe, Bobert Eisner, Mrs. Elizabeth Murphy, Mrs. Anne Rahner, Mrs. Anne Grieve, Mrs. Emma B. Salley, John H. Ford.

AIKEN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL-P. E. Beasley, Principal; Miss Frances Connor, Miss UUainee Copeland, Mrs. Emily P. Mays, Miss Jeanice Midgett, Mrs. Billie Bailey, Mrs. Susie Corley, Miss Margaret Thorpe, Mrs. Selona Murph, Mrs. Franzouria Taylor, Miss Lallah Wyman, Mrs. Martha Ellis, Mrs. Josephine Magee, Mrs. Pauline Shuler, Mrs. Marjorie Neilson, Miss Jewell Pettigrew, Mrs. Martha J. Coleman, Mrs. Elizabeth Wardlaw, Mrs. Alice Bond, Miss Bessie Garvin, Mrs. Ruth E. Sitterson.

CENTER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL-Jesse D. Lever, Principal; Miss Lottie Brodie, Mrs. Helen H. Cain, Mrs. Hattie D. Hay, Mrs. Jacqueline Derrick, Mrs. Pearl P. Hankinson, Mrs. Ruby W. Johnson, Mrs. Diantha Stagner, Mrs. Grace B. Williams.

EUSTIS PARK ELEMENTARY-Theodore B. Willis, Principal; Mrs. Dorothy Stephens, Mrs. Christine B. Mattocks, Miss Myrtle Hammond, Mrs. Pearl Bonnette, Mrs. Terue Sawyer, Miss Donie McClendon, Mrs. Kella Clamp, Mrs. Mary Garrison, Miss Annie Laurie Brown, Mrs. Margaret Tyler, Mrs. Mary Clamp, Miss Rosella Rankin, Mrs. Hilda Converse^ Mrs. Jewell Maxwell, Miss Catherine McLeod, Miss Gretchen Salley, Mrs. Betty K. Howell, Miss Frances Hentz, Mrs. Kathleen Davis.

MILLBROOK ELEMENTARY-P. E. Beasley, Principal; Miss Theresa Woodward, Mrs. Lois Nance, Mrs. Reba Courtney, Mrs. Anne Meadows, Mrs. Elizabeth Cato, Mrs. Margaret Brown, Mrs. Caroline Farmer, Mrs. Aline Hughes, Mrs. Amelia Beasley, Mrs. Lila Hart, Mrs. Martha Wood, Mrs. Jane Harris, Mrs. Helen Bradley, Miss Carol Bedenbauch, Miss Floride Bowers, Mrs. Lois Henry.

NORTH AIKEN ELEMENTARY-Mrs. Gussie K. Johnson, Principal; Mrs. Betty Craft Shealy, Mrs. Helen B. Adams, Mrs. Patrice Doherty, Mrs. Elizabeth C. Guy, Mrs. Ernestine B. Hed-rick, Mrs. Elise F. Herlong, Miss Geneva Porter, Mrs. Frances C. Sanderson, Mrs. Faye Stevens.

TALATHA-HAWTHORNE ELEMENTARY-J. C. Miller, Principal; Mrs. Gladys B. Arthur, Mrs. Irene H. Jones, Mrs. Rose W. Kyzer, Mrs. Eleanor W. Lail, Mrs. Sally R. Meetze, Mrs. Clustus Geneva D. Oxner, Mrs. Eulalie M. Pike, Roy Homer Proffitt, Mrs. Margaret H. ProflBtt, Mrs. Mamie H. Wertz, Mrs. Ruth S. Wes-singer, Mrs. Ethel O. Yonce. Jackson Area No. 2

JACKSON HIGH SCHOOL-Harry R. McGowan, principal; Mrs. Sarah Reece Sullivan, Joseph John Mancino, Mrs. Julia Ann Spears Mancino, Lester Rufus Ruth, Jr., Mrs. Esther F. Long Clamp, Mrs. Helen Jobe Maxley, Mrs. Grace T. Brinkley.

JACKSON ELEMENTARY-Mrs. Ruby F. Webb, Principal; Mrs. Anabel M. Holstein, Mrs. Jane Kearney Warner, Mrs. Rose Puette Osteen, Miss Christine Satcher, Mrs. Ruby Price Barnett, Mrs. Francis Fariss Gattis, Mrs. Kathleen Lomax Rankin, Mrs. Willa Plunkett Chapman, Mrs. Elizabeth J. Dabney. Graniteville Area No. S

LEAVELLE McCAMPBELL HIGH-Daniel C. Willis, Principal; Louise M. Togneri, Charles E. Reames, Miss Katherine E. Guess, Mrs. Eulalie G. Busbee, Mrs. Dorothy C. Ward, Miss Mary L. Waters, Mrs. Grace K. Duncan, Mrs. Thelma K. Cushman, Mrs. Mary R. Walton, James O. Teal, Mrs. Mildred T. Mays, Wilbur W. Mover, James A. Kitchings, Mrs. Lillian R. Duncan, Mrs. Ella W. Garner, Sidney C. McLaurin, Mrs. Ruth B. Togneri, Mrs. Julia C. Jameson, Timothy R. Campbell, Herbert B. Hurst, Mrs. Lillian W. Eckman, Mrs. Marian S. Kring, James K. Howell, Stanton N. Lott.

LEAVELLE McCAMPBELL ELEMENTARY-Mrs. Mae T. Stead-man, Principal; Mrs. Margaret S. Camp, Miss Katherine Whitten,

Mrs. Mae T. Steadman, Mrs. Juanita C. Schroder, Mrs. Anne L. Rountree, Mrs. Martha W. Bland, Mrs. Faye W. Powell, Mrs. Mary L. Nichols.

BYRD ELEMENTARY-Mrs. Essie E. Atterbery, Principal; Mrs. Ruby H. Yonce, Mrs. Dorothy B. King, Mrs. Grace D. Walton, Mrs. Lucy J. Boyd, Mrs. Miriam C. Padgett, Mrs. Martha B. Arnold, Mrs. Elese F. Addy, Mrs. Mary E. Edge worth, Mrs. Frankie H. Berry, Miss Mary E. Lindler.

VAUCLUSE ELEMENTARY-Patrick N. Wise, Principal; Mrs. Nina B. Wise/Mrs. Gladys B. Hamilton, Miss Margaret B. Nichols.

WARRENVILLE ELEMENTARY-Thomas A. Robinson, Principal; Mrs. Edith M. Bailey, Miss Mary E. Atterberry, Mrs. Louise S. Kenney, Mrs. Faustine S. Holman, Mrs. Lillie D. Burnett, Mrs. Eunice R. Ramsey, Mrs. Sara C. Watkins, Miss O. Rebecca Lindler, Mrs. Katherine M. Day, Mrs. Lois P. Hurley. Langley-Bath-Clearwater Area No. 4

LANGLEY-BATH-CLEARWATER HIGH-L. B. Ergle, Principal; Lenwood L. Willis, R. D. McIntosh, Joe T. McConnell, Henry C. Caver, Louis M. Roberson, Alvand R .Williams, Mrs. Elizabeth C. Bates, Mrs. Evelyn C. Bolderson, Mrs. Ellyn B. Beaty, Mrs. Eleanor E. Kelly, Mrs. Mary Frances McKellar, Mrs. Mildred Shearouse, Mrs. Mary C. Wilson, Miss Phyllis Anne Wise, Mrs. Frances S. Moyer, Mrs. Margaret B. Watson, Mrs. Evelyn G. Roberson, Mrs. Mary M. Watson, Miss Alice McKenzie, Mrs. Norma T. Sikes, Mrs. Patricia M. Setzer, Miss Jeanne Montgomery, Miss Helen Hill, Mrs. Eva Jane H. Linn.

BATH ELEMENTARY-Andrew B. Clarke, Principal; Mrs. Marie P. Browne, Mrs. Ollie R. Randall, Mrs. Hall H. Armstrong, Mrs. Dorothy Sawyer, Mrs. Lula H. McGee, Mrs. Lillian M. Harmon, Mrs. Matilda G. Creighton.

BURNETTOWN ELEMENTARY-Mrs. Martha D. Parker, Principal; Mrs. Came L. Addy, Mrs. Ruth Culbreath, Mrs. Thelma B. Walters, Mrs. Clarice Wise, Mrs. Kate Rogers.

CLEARWATER ELEMENTARY-John L. Lutz, Head Teacher; Miss Winnie D. Kennedy, Mrs. Mary Anne K. Barrow, Mrs.

Marion M. Morgan, Mrs. Leila G. Dalton, Mrs. Novine H. Smith, Mrs. Josephine K. Nicholson.

GLOVERVILLE ELEMENTARY-Joseph E. Cato, Head Teacher; Mrs. Marguerite McKinney, Miss Annie L. Williams, Mrs. Gladys J. Edwins, Mrs. Ruby C. Smith, Mrs. Polly C. Hartley, Mrs. Nora B. Crouch, Mrs. Carrie B. Willis.

LANGLEY ELEMENTARY-George R. Mayfield, Head Teacher; Mrs. Louise H. Morris, Mrs. Helen H. Kirkpatrick, Mrs. Julia Mai McGraw, Mrs. Mary M. Anderson, Mrs. Audra P. Sapp, Mrs. Margaret L. Willis, Miss Grace A. Bodie, Mrs. Gladys R. Wright, Collie Glover, Mrs. Jessie S. Ergle. Monetta-Bidge Spring Area No. 5

RIDGE SPRING-MONETTA HIGH-Thomas C. Wright, Principal; Mrs. Frank Thomasson, Mrs. Artie C. Culbreath, Mrs. Sara Hallman, George W. Sawyer, Mrs. Martha Grice, Mrs. Ann Burton, Mrs. Elise E. Altman, Mrs. Audrey K. Holmes, Mrs. Abbie Kneece, Mrs. Amanda Catherine Lott, Mrs. Birdie May E. Brodie, Mrs. Belinda S. Pratt, Mrs. Elspye Busbee, Charles F. Kneece, Thomas H. Ackerman, John Tosh.

RIDGE SPRING ELEMENTARY-Mrs. Mattie Lee Bonnette, Principal; Mrs. Jean W. Shealy, Miss Frances Hendrix, Mrs. Agnes Pugh, Mrs. Elizabeth D. Truluck, Mrs. Mary S. Gunter, Miss Margaret Jennings, Mrs. Carolyn B. Hutto.

MONETTA ELEMENTARY-Ray Ephriam Goff, Principal; Mrs. Eula Lee Cato, Mrs. Leola Mitchell, Mrs. Faye Cato, Ira B. Cromley, Mrs. Dosia Collum, Miss Louise Asbill, Miss Louise Stevens, Mrs. Ruby H. Redd.

WARD ELEMENTARY-Mrs. Idelle B. Edwards, Principal; Mrs. Ola Mae J. Lester.

North Augusta Area No. 6

NORTH AUGUSTA HIGH-Samuel E. Stillwell, Principal; Samuel J. Buist, Webster D. Grayson, Miss Mary L. McCarty, Mrs. Vivian D. Croxton, Mrs. Elizabeth B. Murphy, Miss Frieda Sawyer, Miss Grace Barker, Mrs. Elizabeth A. Godfrey, Mrs. Caroline F. Pippin, Mrs. Joyce F. Holley, Mrs. Marguerite Hammond, Ernest F. Bryant, Miss Jean Clark, Miss Hugh Rice Jenkins, Miss Lois J. Greene, Miss Margaret B. Dawson, Miss Gladys M. Keller, Miss Frances M. Todd, Miss Lenna Morrow, Mrs. Sarah D. Jones, Thomas H. Leutzey, Harry A. Bouknight.

NORTH AUGUSTA JUNIOR HIGH-John J. Boyd, Principal; Mrs. Catherine Dnimmond, Mrs. Charley Standifer, Miss Shirley Gosenell, Mrs. Carolyn Baxley, Mrs. Alyne J. Turner, Miss Mary Langford, Mrs. Dorothy Flanagan, William S. Sandel, Mrs. Theo Blevin, Calhoun F. Gault, Mrs. Edith Alexander, Mrs. Inez A. Hutchinson, Mrs. Ada S. Stillwell.

BELVEDERE ELEMENTARY-Mrs. Elizabeth M. Bradley, Principal; Mrs. Mittie H. White, Mrs. Louise B. Williams, Miss Corrie L. Havird, Miss Carolyn Leary, Mrs. Alice M. Knight, Mrs. Carolyn Greene, Mrs. Thelma F. Avant, Mrs. Pearle S. Denny, Mrs. Florence Flanders, Mrs. Richard Cushman, Miss Evelyn Johnson.

DOWNER ELEMENTARY-Mrs. Dalene Foreman, Principal; Mrs. Grace Zeigler, Mrs. Callie Rickenbaker, Mrs. Margaret Walker, Mrs. Frances F. Hill, Mrs. Geneva Bickerstaff.

NORTH AUGUSTA ELEMENTARY-Anderson L. Baxley, Principal; Miss Estill Scruggs, Miss Katherine Bell, Miss Bessie Mae Bell, Miss Jennie Nance, Miss Bertha Creighton, Miss Hazel Anne Turner, Mrs. Jeanne Sanders, Mrs. Louise L. Banks, Miss Margaret Stapleton, Miss Ivy Claxton, Mrs. Birch C. Jorgensen, Miss Katy Mathis. Mrs. Faye Wood Allen, Miss Winona Mills, Mrs. Essie B. Seigler, Mrs. Irene H. Kennedy, Mrs. Frances Bell, Miss Louise Russell, Mrs. Fay E. Bryant, Mrs. Mildred Boyd, Mrs. Christine Weeks.

HAMMOND HILL ELEMENTARY-J. Taft Sherman, Principal; Mrs. Cecelia Beaufort, Mrs. Priscilla Levan, Mrs. Sue Mc-Kenzie, Mrs. Mary O'Shields, Mrs. Addie Still, Mrs. Polly Flowers, Mrs .Lucille Wells, Miss Martha Hill, Miss Lucile Lemmon, Mrs. Johnnie Friedrich, Mrs. Helen Barton, Mrs. Clara Thomasson, Miss Mae O. Johnson.

SUMMERFIELD ELEMENTARY-L. L. Croxton, Principal; Mrs. Mary Q. Harley, Mrs. Arline D. Jones, Mrs. Dorothy Toney, Mrs. Ruth McCollum, Miss Freeda Padgett, Mrs. Anne H. Barnes, Miss Marie King, Mrs. Harriette J. Hamrick, Miss Nelle Bush, Mrs. Loraine Gilman.

Salley Area No. 7

SALLEY HIGH SCHOOL, Salley, S. C.-Walter D. Henson, Principal; Mrs. Dorothy C. Bonnette, Miss Marian Grier, Miss Rose K. Hallman, Mrs. Julia M. Northrup, Nathan R. Salley.

SALLEY ELEMENTARY-Mrs. Sallie Mae Faust; Mrs. Dorothy M. Salley, Mrs. Gladys R. Hickman, Margaret B. Murdock Kinard, Miss Louise Etheredge, Miss Katherine M. Martin.

Wagener Area No. 8

WAGENER HIGH SCHOOL-Wayne C. Gunter, Principal; Mrs. Ioneene B. Huggins, Mrs. Roberta M. Peeples, Mrs. Lula P. Carrington, Spencer C. Smith, Mrs. Bernice W. Shealy, Mrs. Ernestine Y. Jeffcoat, Mrs. Sara M. Gantt, Samuel D. Schofield, Mrs. Sara T. Corbett, Miss Sara Carole Owens, Roderick Powers, J. W. Tosh.

WAGENER ELEMENTARY-Wayne C. Gunter, Principal; Mrs. Dora H. Redd, Mrs. Jacqueline C. Gleaton, Mrs. Arnie F. Sheppard, Miss Emma Salley, Mrs. Lelline C. Smith, Mrs. Annette L. Brooks, Mrs. Estelle S. Lybrand, Mrs. Mattie S. Fulmer, Mrs. Prude M. McCord, Mrs. Virginia C. Faris, Mrs. Charlotte Tyler.

NEW HOLLAND ELEMENTARY-Mrs. Evelyn W. Kneece, Principal; Mrs. Alma W. Shealy.

WINDSOR ELEMENTARY-Mrs. Cleora Toole Murray, Principal; Mrs. Beatrice R. Hydrick, Mrs. Constance K. Boylston, Mrs. Elizabeth B. Folk, Mrs. Peggy M. McGill, Mrs. Mary S. Moore, Mrs. Eleanor Lawrence.

AREA BOARDS

Aiken Area No. 1:  J. R. McTeer, Charles H. Marvin, P. F. Henderson, Geddings Willing, F. L. Eaves.

Jackson Area No. 2:  W. T. Phillips, Dr. G. W. Burroughs, Roy A. Steed, Paul Green, Fred C. Brinkley.

Gregg Area No. 3:  William C. Lott, John W. Posey, G. M. Walton, Dr. E. E. Platt, Robert Franklin.

Langley-Bath-Clearwater Area No. 4 :  W. Fred Pitts, W. H. Jones, Asbill Hutto, J. E. Turner, Dr. W. K. Dennis.

Monetta-Ridge Spring Area No. 5:  B..H. Lybrand, R. H. Holston, Colin Fox, Rembert DuBose, Maynard Watson.

North Augusta Area No. 6:  J. Marion Adams, John E. McElmurray, G. B. Cochran, William Fallaw, Russell A. Blanchard.

Salley Area No. 7:  H. A. Sawyer. Earl Hallman, Van E. Clarke, L. H. Young, Elden E. Jones.

Wagener Area No. 8:  Dr. C. W. Williamson, Matthew Anderson, Curtis Johnson, Albert L. Brodie, Gus Culbertson.

Windsor Area No. 9:  Lewis Eubanks, R. E. Parker, C. R. Johnson, P. F. Beck, Henry Hutto.

AREA SUPERINTENDENTS

AIKEN AREA NO. 1: Mr. L. K. Hagood. JACKSON AREA NO. 2: Mr. C. H. Munch. GREGG AREA NO. 3: Mr. L. M. Togneri.

LANGLEY-BATH-CLEARWATER AREA NO. 4: Mr. John S. Reeves.

MONETTA-RIDGE SPRING AREA NO. 5: Mr. A. L. Brodie. NORTH AUGUSTA AREA NO. 6: Mr. Paul Knox.

Salley Area No. 7: None Wagener Area No. 8 Mr. Windsor Area No. 9: None

SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM-Mrs. Birdie W. Gowan, Supervisor; Mrs. Ella Kitchings, Assistant Supervisor; Miss Maggie George, Secretary.

PERSONNEL OF EDUCATIONAL CENTER

D. J. Wardlaw, Business Manager; R. L. Coffey, Director of Special Services; R. J. Worley, Supervisor of Transportation and Purchasing Agent; H. W. Hogue, School Psychologist; Mrs. Margie Blizzard, Speech Therapist; R. H. Rearden, Supervisor of Maintenance; E. S. Gunter, Shipping Clerk; Mrs. Eugenia D. Worley, Visiting Teacher; Miss Edith Beard, Secretary; Mrs. Dellaphine Ailor, Receptionist; Mrs. Joyce Dillard, Clerk; Mrs. Chloriene Stiefel, Clerk; Mrs. Rudy Dedmon, Payroll Machine Operator; Mrs. Virginia Gunter, Machine Operator; Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson, Film Librarian; Mrs. Birdie Gowan, School Lunch Supervisor; Mrs. Ella Kitchings, Assistant to School Lunch Supervisor; Mrs. Charlotte Miller, Stenographer; Miss Maggie George, Secretary, School Lunch Supervisor.

AIKEN COUNTY TEACHERS 1956-1957
(Colored)

AIKEN AREA NO. 1

Aiken Graded—Russell Lerone Nix, Principal; Julius A. Ashe, Assistant Principal; Margaret Weaver Banks, Jeanette M. Bland,

Ellen Jackson Brooks, Catherine J. Cherry, Lanie J. Coleman, Eva C. Connor, Gertie Dean N. Corbett, Bernice B. Cummings, Gertrude L. Eubanks, Charlotte L. Hammond, Flossie Mae G. Hammond, Esther T. Jenkins, Johnnie Mae Lites, Isabelle J. Moore, Esther B. Perry, Annie Laura B. Wessels, Justine W. Washington, Jeanes Teacher.

Greendale Elementary—Henry James Dicks, Principal; Cleo Allen, Messie Ree C. Busch, Mattie H. Bradley, Jessie C. Daniel, Mozella Hamilton, Mary W. Holley, Blanche Ryans, Lillian V. Thompson, Matthew Trotty.

Pinecrest Elementary—Boyd W. Tyler, Principal; Gussina M. Bush, Sara W. Cherry, Elizabeth A. W. Douglas, Virginia J. Marion, Florenia W. Marshall, Thelma V. Meacham, Willie Pearl H. McKissick, Carrie B. Smith, Retha Mae J. Tyler.

GRANITEVILLE AREA NO. 3

Freedman Elementary—Ivy F. Grant, Principal; Helen W. Gowdy, Minnie M. Jones, Annice B. Scott.

Jefferson High—Herman W. Fennell, Principal; Willie Andrews, Robert H. Barnwell, Robert C. Dean, Jr., Warren McFadden, Ruth M. Ashe, Mary Ann W. Bright, Nathaniel Irvin, Eddye Pearle Fennell, Maggie Peek Pitts, Annette S. Sherard, Thelma W. Watson, Bertha H. Williams, Marguerita B. Roberson.

Jefferson Elementary—A. T. Stephens, Principal; Edna Phoenix Bush, Shellie Garrett, Lucie A. Robinson, Abelle P. Nivens, Eunice S. Sttephens, Kathryne E. Hampton, Lillie Mae Ford, Lillian H. Johnson, Izenia C. Cook, Barbara W. Collins, Pinkie J. Howard.

MONETTA-RIDGE SPRING AREA NO. 5
W. L. McDuffie, Supervisory Principal

Ridge Hill High—Durham E. Carter, Walter J. Davis, Robert Hoefer, Sophronia Bates, Thelma V. Coleman, Eleanor W. Cunningham, Josephine C. Williams.

Ridge Hill Elementary—Walter Key, Jr., Head Teacher; Sophia R. Crawford, Ellen D. Hartley, Virginia Q. Hammond, Ethel Mae Medlock, Aniese M. Robinson, Lena W. Sligh, Eloise R. Thomas, Rosa B. Wilds.

Ward Jr. High—Joseph. F. Anderson, Ethel Lee Abney, Fannie H. Carson, Hermine E. Chapman, Mable V. Davis, Edith H. Doz-ier, Geneva R. Watson.

The Rev. Alexander Bettis did more for the members of his race in the State of South Carolina, than perhaps any other man. Just exactly 95 years ago he established, near Trenton, Bettis Academy. The school ran continuously for more than 90 years having closed some few years ago, as the educational methods of the world began to change.

Today there are thousands of the colored race that received their education from Dr. Bettis and his associates. The founder himself ran the school for practically half a century.

RANDOM SHOTS

"Free advice, generally, like the wind, passes on to others. We must not let our rulers load us with perpetual debt. When your hand is in the lion's mouth, handle him gently. It takes many muscles to produce a frown, but only one to smile. Two roads from which to choose, one to do something worthwhile, One to do nothing. Set thine own house in order.

When I was happy, I thought I knew men, but it was fated that I Knew them in misfortune only. Humility is the solid foundation of all virture. If you keep in the rut too long, it will get so deep, that it may

eventually become your grave. Time enough may mean none.

It is better to have tried and failed than not to have tried at all. One failure may be a stepping stone to success in another field. All men learn most by doing, success comes to many without a sheepskin.

Many an excuse, usually at best, is a white lie. Praise your wife, even if it frightens her at first. A man that pays his debts makes a good customer. A man that pays his debts has all the credit he wants. All men owe their fellowmen something."

MARTHA SCHOFIELD

Martha Schofield was born of Quaker parents, Oliver and Mary Jackson Schofield, at a country farmhouse in Buck County, Pennsylvania, on February 1, 1839. Her schooling was in an upper room, of the Schofield home. Her first teacher was Mary Bonsell who later married John Verlender. He and his second wife Rebecca Boyd continued to be Martha's good friends for sixty years. It was in their memory that the girls' dormitory at Schofield's School was named in 1907. Her education was continued at Jackson's famous boarding school at Sharon where she came under the influence of Susan B. Anthony's lectures in the City of Philadelphia on Woman's Suffrage. Later Susan Anthony visited and became very much interested in Aiken's Schofield School and gave freely her financial aid to the school.

Martha's first work in the interest of the colored race was on the Sea Islands off the South Carolina coast and at Wadmalaw Island. From the first Martha was filled with a zeal and devotion to this work bordering on mania. On October 16, 1865, she and Miss Mary Sharp had arrived there, met by H. A. Sharp, an agent of the Freedman's Bureau, and his younger halfbrother, a Mr. Fisk from New Hampshire. The four were to feed and clothe 1500 colored people who had followed Sherman's Army in its march to the sea, and who had been left there destitute by Sherman, Only one of these colored people could read and write (he was a mulatto son of his white master). Upon two women devolved the task of educating them. Martha and her woman companion endured great discomfort and hardships while carrying on this missionary work, and administering to these hordes of colored people, attending their religious devotions and ostracized by the white inhabitants. One colored preacher said, "Ye must tank the Lord. He had put in the hearts of dese people to come down h'ar an' teach ye to read his word—and now, if you don't want to slight de Lord don't slight dem he sent." After a stay of three years moving from island to island Martha was sent to St. Helena for her failing health. She had contracted tuberculosis, and had to seek a better climate. She left the work with the Freedman's Bureau and after a visit to her old home in Pennsylvania, she arrived in Aiken in November 1868.

With her savings of $468.00, Martha bought some land on the northern edge of Aiken where the Schofield School is now located. In the beginning of her school work in Aiken, she employed all white teachers. For necessary funds to run her colored industrial school, she visited northern sections of the United States and organized committees to solicit funds, old clothes, and castaway garments. The students sorted the clothing into bundles and sold them in her store room. She installed a printing press, shoe-repair shop and furniture and other crafts shops, thus furnishing employment to many students to defray their expenses to this eight months school. The Public Schools in the 1880's and 90's ran only three or four months. To run this school taxed Martha's mind and physical make-up, but she was so devoted to her work that she could not stop. After the school term, she traveled in the interest of her school, obtaining money to carry on this work. All of Martha's efforts and performances were handicapped by the open hostility to these efforts for the colored race. Scorn and threatened violence to stop her work only deepened her desire to push on in her work, and no doubt she used these happenings to stimulate help for funds to carry on her work.

In 1893, during the first year of my term as School Commissioner for Aiken County (following the lovable old man, Mr. Luther Williams, in office) she visited me at my office in the County Courthouse and gave me a pressing invitation to visit her school during a celebration in the Spring of the year. As head of the educational affairs of the county, I accepted. After inspecting the various departments of the school, I was very much impressed with the work being done, the work shops, class rooms, etc., which were more practical (at that time) than most of the schools I had visited. I was pressed to stay for dinner in her private home with herself and four other white teachers. Colored women served the dinner. The colored student body ate to themselves.

Miss Schofield's activities spread beyond her school at Aiken. She visited Bettis Academy which had been started by a colored minister, Rev. Bettis, to emulate the work of the Schofield School. One" of her former pupils, Rev. Alfred Nicholson, was a teacher there. On one of her visits she gave of her own meager funds, $100.00 toward a dormitory which is called Martha Schofield Hall. In 1888, Martha Schofield spoke at a meeting in Salley, S. C, sponsored by Mr. Daniels of Salley and Mr. Price who owned the hotel at Salley. This meeting was held in spite of much hostility in Salley. Mr. Price who had offered to entertain Martha Schofield at his hotel was prevented from doing so by threatened violence. Mr. Daniels who introduced Martha Schofield at this meeting told the audience that the schoolhouses had done more good than laws and Schofield School had done more for the colored race than Congress.

In 1953 during the term of Superintendent of Education A. J. Rutland, the Schofield School was deeded to the County of Aiken and State of South Carolina. Thus is perpetuated the name of Martha Schofield, faithful servant of the colored race.

A big celebration was planned for her 77th birthday, February 1, 1916. Ice cream had been ordered for 300 guests and the cooking classes had baked cakes and other delicacies. Sarah J. Taylor, Martha's closet friend was with her, and went into Martha's room on the morning of her birthday only to find that she had passed away during the night. Her old students who had gathered from all parts of the county to honor this woman on her birthday, remained two days for the funeral. After the sad funeral service they accompanied the hearse to the railroad station and as the train pulled out with Sarah Taylor standing by the casket, this mighty gathering of Martha's colored students sang that lovely Negro Spiritual "Steal Away to Jesus." The life of Martha Schofield always brings to my mind that command of Saint Paul in the 12th Chapter of Romans, 16th Verse, "Mind not high things, but condescend to men of low estate."

A BRIEF SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF THE
AIKEN PREPARATORY-SCHOOL

In 1916 Mrs. Thomas Hitchcock founded the Aiken Preparatory School. With the aid of Mr. Hitchcock and friends, among whom were Mr. E. P. Henderson, Mrs. Hitchcock purchased the old Pellew house on Barnwell Avenue, between Florence and Lancaster Streets, and the school was organized under the direction of Mr. F. A. M. Tabor. The school flourished and expanded rapidly. The acquisition of adjoining properties, to the extent of approximately seven acres, made it possible to enlarge the school considerably.

In 1938 the school was reorganized and incorporated as a nonprofit making institution through the efforts of Mr. George H. Mead and Mr. Seymour H. Knox. A board of trustees was elected, among whom were:

Mr. Seymour H. Knox of East Aurora, New York, Chairman of the Board
Mrs. G. Macculloch Miller of New York, Vice-Chairman
Mrs. R. H. Wilds of Aiken, S. C, Secretary-Treasurer
Mrs. J. Averell Clark of Westbury, New York
Mrs. Thomas I. Laughlin of Manhasset, New York
Mrs. Huston Rawls of Bernardsville, New Jersey
Mr. Thomas Hitchcock of New York
Mr. Eugene G. Grace of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
Mr. George H. Mead of Dayton, Ohio, and Mr. F. S. von Stade of Westbury, New York
Mr. Harold A. Fletcher, the present headmaster, was appointed to succeed Mr. Tabor.

The school property includes the main building, which consists of a dining hall, dormitory, and classroom facilities, and a gymnasium with two squash courts and a rifle range. An infirmary, and living quarters for the faculty members are adjacent to the main building. There are also three tennis courts and three large playing fields. Although the enrollment of the school is limited to fifty boys from the ages of nine to fourteen, today there are boys from many states in the school, and the alumni group, numbering approximately five hundred, is scattered about the world.

The school ranks among the best of the nation and is recognized in the educational world for its broad, comprehensive philosophy. Its teachers have come from Yale, Harvard, Princeton, .Notre Dame, Furman, and North Carolina, as well as many other universities. Its graduates have been enrolled in the leading schools and colleges of the country.

In recent years the school and the faculty have become a part of the life of Aiken and, in a quiet way, have made their contribution to the community life.

Mrs. Minnie Brown Kennedy, the daughter of Augustus Abraham and Elizabeth Howard Brown, was born April 19, 1876. She started teaching at the age of fifteen and taught continuously until she resigned to become District supervisor of Adult Work with thirty-six counties under her supervision. She has served on the County Board of Education for 23 years—12 yrs. of this time as Chairman of the Board. She pioneered in the work of the School Improvement Work, founding the first association in this county and one of the first in the state. These associations were later changed to the Parent-Teacher Association. She married Edward Kennedy. Their children are Gladys who married Mason McKnight, Lois who married William Wolfe, and Dr. Finley Kennedy who married Emma Whitten. Mrs. Kennedy has been a faithful and devoted member of St. John's Methodist Church. She was State Mother of 1950.

(photo - unable to copy) Picture of Trustees of Mead Hall, Episcopal Elementary School and Secondary School, in Aiken, South Carolina. The School was founded in June, 1955 on property given to St. Thaddeus Episcopal Church, Aiken, South Carolina by George Mead, Chairman of Mead Paper Corporation. Mead Hall offers, grades from kindergarten through the high school level for the benefit of all denominations, and couples sound education with the teaching of Christian principles and ethics. Classes are limited to a maximum of twenty in each class.

First row, left to right: Ralph McGill, Editor of Atlanta Journal and Constitution; George Mead, Chairman of the Board of Mead Paper Corporation; Rt Reverend Alfred C. Cole, Bishop of Upper South Carolina Diocese of the Episcopal Church; Mrs. M. A. Wilder, Director of Curriculum of Mead Hall; Honorable James F. Byrnes, former Governor of South Carolina, Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, and United States Senator.

Second row, left to right: Ernest E. Thorpe; Gasper L. Toole, III; Nelson Mead; Mrs. Sarah H. Busch; William B. Wood; William Nightengale.

Third row, left to right: Henry T. Busbee; Chauncey Heady; Harold Morgan; the Reverend George H. Murphy, Rector of St. Thaddeus Church and President of Mead Hall; the Reverend Walter Cawthorne, Curate of St. Thaddeus Episcopal Church; Herman H. Hahn; C. M. Patterson and Robert B. McKellar.

MEAD HALL
THE PAROCHIAL SCHOOL OF ST. THADDEUS
EPISCOPAL CHURCH, AIKEN, SOUTH CAROLINA

In the fall of 1955 Mead Hall opened its doors to students with an enrollment of 189 distributed from Kindergarten through the eighth grade and with a faculty of sixteen.

The school was housed in the winter estate of Mr. and Mrs* George H. Mead} Sr., who save the property as a memorial to their son, George H. Mead, Jr., the first Marine officer to give his life on Guadalcanal in World War II.

The work necessary to convert the estate into a school was largely contributed by volunteers under the direction of Mr. Charles H. Kern. The stables converted into classrooms, modern lighting was installed throughout the school, and necessary changes made throughout the buildings. Funds for material and equipment were provided by The Founders of Mead Hall.

In the summer of 1956, Dr. and Mrs. Huger T. Hall gave the school the property located at 525 Whiskey Road. This building was converted for school purposes and now houses three first grade classes, two second grade classes, and a lunch room.

During the 1956-1957 School year 274 students were enrolled. The staff included Mrs. W. A. Wilder, Director of Curriculum, Professor A. G. Boyee, Mrs. Milton Peterman, Mrs. Arthur Ellison, Mrs. L. J. Burckhalter, III, Mrs. Everett Summerall, Mrs. L. M. Spruell, Mrs. Furman Cullum, Mrs. E. A. Rachal, Mrs. Robert M. Wright, Mrs. M. V. Harper, Mrs. H. R. Lee, Mrs. William Nightengale, Mrs. Lucien Fox, Mrs. W. A. Cooper, Mrs. L. G. Anderson, Mrs. James GiafBs, Mrs. Chauncey Heady, Mrs. Edward Heady, Mrs. Richard Lewis, Mr. F. G. Ashhurst, Mrs. Lewis Trotti, Mrs. Arthur Gibson, Mrs. Charles T. Moseley, Mrs. G. E. McMillan, Mrs. George Cole, Miss Elizabeth Teague, Mr. C. M. Heady and Mr. Harold Morgan.

For the 1957-1958 School year, Mead Hall will offer kindergarten and grades one through ten. It is contemplated that an additional grade will be added each year until Mead Hall offers kindergarten through the twelfth grade of high school. Mead Hall was founded by St. Thaddeus Episcopal Church to provide a good scholastic education coupled with Christian ideals. It is the purpose of Mead Hall to help each child develop his abilities to the fullest. Classes are limited to a maximum of 20 students, and by increased attention and guidance, Mead Hall strives to help all students grow into well rounded men and women.

The scholastic standing of Mead Hall is checked by the Educational Records Bureau of New York. Mead Hall has consistently maintained an exceptionally high scholastic standing, an example being, that the students in the eighth grade of Mead Hall, had a grade rating equal to the first month of the eleventh grade of public school.

Mead Hall does not limit its enrollment to Episcopalians, but encourages enrollment from all denominations and faiths. Fifty per cent or more of its students come from religious denominations other than Episcopal.

SOUTHERN METHODIST COLLEGE, AIKEN-1957

On April 15, 1957, at 1:00 p. m. in the Chamber of Commerce office, the Southern Methodist College in Aiken became a reality. At that time a down payment on the "Mansion", a 32 room former winter resident's home, was made by the officials of the Southern Methodist Church. The college, which had temporarily opened in Greenville, S. C, moved to Aiken, where there was an absence of other colleges and a substantial building which could be converted into a permanent establishment.

A committee composed of Chamber of Commerce officials and the Mayor worked for several months to effect the change. The persons directly responsible were Mayor H. Odell Weeks; chairman of the Chamber of Commerce industrial committee, Rufus Gosnell; Ken Kilbourne, Chamber of Commerce Manager; Lewis E. Brown, of the Aiken City Council; Robert E. Kenney, Jr., and C. T. Coleman, President and Vice President of the Chamber of Commerce. Rev. Lynn Corbitt, President of the Southern Methodist Churches and Rev. Arlie Adkins, President of Southern Methodist Schools represented the Greenville institution.

The Southern Methodist College will be run and conducted under the system known as a "Bible College Movement", and will award many separate diplomas, all of a type of religious work other than pastors of churches, which will be open to all denominations.

The author believes that the Chamber of Commerce and the Committee has rendered to this community a much needed institution and deserves our high commendation for their successful efforts.


 Chapter XIII
ORGANIZATIONS AND CLUBS

SOME PROMINENT MEMBERS OF THE KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS, IN AIKEN, S. C. ABOUT 1908

First Row: Will Eubanks, Leon Coward, Reverend Snyder, George W. E. Thorpe, Sr.
Second Row: James F. Byrnes, Herbert E. Gyles, Dr. Harry H. Wyman, Robert G. Tarrant.

WOODMEN OF THE WORLD OF AIKEN WERE HONORED RECENTLY FOR LONG activity in the organization here. Among the members who have been active in the Aiken WOW from 26 to 50 years, the majority having been active some 40 years, are C. B. Shellhouse, L. W. Chapman (50 years), Robert Creech, L. H. Goss, Simkin Foreman, Dewey Chapman, Wiley Woodward (50 years), James E. Meyers, Johnnie Johnson, Harvey Hallman, W. F. Taylor (50 years), W. R. Sommer and Jessie Parker. All received pins for their long service records.

GEORGE K. TOOLE

AIKEN LODGE NO. 156-MASONS
*Deceased.

Aiken Lodge No. 156, Ancient Free Masons was instituted on November 16, 1870, by W. K. Blake, Grand Master, and Charter was also presented by him to Aiken Lodge No. 156, Ancient Free Masons.

Past Masters-*B. F. Brown, 1870, 71, 72, 73, 80; *H. B. Burchalter, 1874, 75, 76, 77, 78, 84, 85, 86; *J. Aldrich, 1879; *R. S. Agnew, 1881; *O. C. Jordan, 1882, 83; **C. E. Sawyer, 1887, 88, 90, 91; *A. J. Fryer, 1889; *D. H. Wise, 1892; *R. C. Rogers, 1893; *L. J. Parker, 1894, 95; *J. Glass, 1896, 97; *W. W. Muckenfuss, 1898, 99, 1900, 01, 02; *C. A. Humphrey (Montmorenci), 1903; *M. S. Polier, 1904, 05, 06; *J. L. McCarter, 1907, 08; *R. G. Tar-rant, 1910, 15, 16, 43, 44; *W. W. Edgerton, 1911, 12, 19; H. E. Gyles, 1913, 14, 20, 21, 29, 37; *D. M. George, 1917, 18; *J. E. Henderson, 1922; E. A. McCreary, 1923, 24; *R. D. Clowe, 1925, 26; M. Surasky, 1927, 28; *Dave Inglis, 1930, 31; J. M. George, 1932, 33; H. H. Quattlebaum, 1934, 35, 51; *J. Hiram Keel, 1936; Frank B. McCoy, 1938; Huger T. Hall, 1939, 40, 41, 42; Frank E. Ardrey, 1945; Walter K. Murray, 1946, 47; Nathan Persky, 1948, 49; Roy J. Lyons, 1950; E. C. Cushman, Jr., 1952; Ray P. Hydrick, 1953; P. G. Barnett, Jr., 1954; John D. Bryan, 1955; T. W. Bennett, 1956.

Distinguished Members

Hon. James F. Byrnes—Initiated as Entered Apprentice, May 27, 1910; Passed to Degree of Fellowcraft, July 27, 1910; Raised to Master Mason Degree, Jan. 20, 1911. He is now a member of Lodge in Spartanburg, S. C.

**Most Worthy Grand Master Claude E. Sawyer, 1894-95.

***Samuel J. Entriken, who accompanied Commodore Ferry to the North Pole.

Hon. H. Odell Weeks, Mayor of Aiken, S. C.

Ministers of the Gospel
*Deceased.

*Rev. G. H. Cornelsen; *Rev. W. J. Snyder; Rev. F. D. Jones; *Rev. Charles M. Wilkinson; *Rev. P. J. McLean, Sr.; Rev. P. J. McLean, Jr.; *Rev. John Ridout; Rev. Thomas L. Ridout; Rev. Jerome Morris; *Rev. John E. Henderson; Rev. L. N. Edmunds; Rev. J. Walter Johnson; Rev. M. J. Kippenbrock.

Some of the Old Members

*F. C. Bigby; *J. L. Courtney; *F. W. Hahn; *J. W. Lupo; *Ransey D. Toole; *G. A. Lucas; *G. C. Moseley; *G. O. Murray; *J. T. Shuler; *Harry Sudlow; *J. D. Wingard; *Lewis H. Saubes; *C. E. Monts; *William M. Smoak; *C. J. Wessels; *W. W. Busbee, Jr.; *Henry Campbell; *R. W. (Ned) Woodward; *Lewis Bradwell; *J. J. Brandt; *F. E. Cortez; *I. W. Fowler; *J. B. Heriot; *A. E. Hill; *B. L. Lanbert; A. K. Lorenz; Dr. G. A. Milner; *J. Will McCarter; *A. A. Siegler; *G. Kelly Toole; *H. F. Warneke; *D. C. Weeks; *Dr. Hastings H. Wyman, Jr.; *B. F. Grohmann; *B. M. Surasky; *G. W. E. Thorpe, Jr.; *Pope L. Courtney; C. L. Holley; *Theodore G. Croft; C. W. Busch; Charles H. Farmer; *Dave L. Fleming; *Sam K. Goodman; J. E. Grier; *Royal Holley; Herbert L. Johnson; *James Mackrell; C. G. Piper; *Judge H. F .Rice; L. G. Soward; *J. Tom Tarver; *F. P. Turner (Graniteville); Albert S. Willcox; *Harry Woodward; *Dr. E. H. Wyman; *F. S. Willcox; C. B. Anderson; J. W. Futch; *C. Lee Gowan; *E. R. Hafers; John E. Shuler; *P. W. Townsend; M. K. Kneece; Ernest A. Burkhalter.

Hold Long and Honorable Records
MOODY, MURRAY AND McCOY OF AIKEN AREA
AWARDED HIGHEST DEGREE OF FREE MASONRY

Three Aiken area men have been awarded the designation of Knight of the York Cross of Honour, this honorary degree the highest attainable in the York Rite Freemasonry.

They are Frank Brown McCoy, Sr. of Aiken, Stephen Howard Moody of Warrenville, and Walter Kirk Murray of 1105 Church Street. The honor is bestowed only on those who have held the highest office in each of the four bodies of the rite.

Only 6,411 members have so far received the honor in the past 27 years in North America, although there are four million members of the fraternity.

All three men were elected to membership in the Palmetto Priory on May 11. There are 55 priories of the Order in North America with a present membership of 5,175.

Mr. Moody served as Master of Bath Lodge of Masons in 1925; Hight Priest of Kadoshlayah Chapter, Royal Arch Masons in 1952; Master of Aiken Council, Royal and Select Masters, in 1946; Commander of Aiken Commandery, Knights Templar, in 1940.

Mr. Moody is District Deputy Grand Master of the Sixth Masonic District, and in 1948 and 1949 he served as Grand Commander of the Grand Commandery of South Carolina.

Mr. McCoy served as Master of Aiken Lodge of Masons in 1938; High Priest of Kadoshlayah Chapter, Royal Arch Masons in 1938; Master of Aiken Council. Royal and Select Masters, in 1953; Commander of Aiken Commandery, Knights Templar, in 1954.

Mr. McCoy has served as secretary of Aiken Lodge for the past 32 years and as secretary-recorder of the other Aiken York Rite bodies for over twenty-five years.

Mr. Murray served as Master of Aiken Lodge of Masons in 1946; High Priest of Kadoshlayah Chapter, Royal Arch Masons in 1951; Master of Aiken Council, Royal and Select Masters, in 1953; Commander Aiken Commandery, Knights Templar, in 1955.

BOY SCOUTS 1957

Boy Scouts of America have had an active program in Aiken County for approximately 35 years, having started in Aiken around 1922. Some of the pioneer workers in the Scouting program during its first 20 years in Aiken were Ernest Allen, John Ashhurst and Nathan Persky. Among those supplying leadership since that time have been Frank Sloan, Albert George, Thomas Maurice, Arthur Teckman, Dale Purcell, Garth Edwards, Kenneth French, Julian Ellett, Atomic Chemical Engineer. Through the efforts of many adults there are 41 Scout Units with a membership of approximately 1400 boys in Aiken County at the present time. A list of the present Scout Units, with the names of the sponsoring institutions and their adult leaders:

Cub Scouts Sponsored by Churches and
Other Organizations of Aiken County—1957

Saint Thaddeus Episcopal Church, Rev. George Murphy, J. C. Creadick, J. H. Boucher, C. M. Patterson, F. E. Kinard, Cubmaster, J. C. Andrews, Scoutmaster, M. L. Latimer, Explorer Advisor, T. E. Erving.

Graniteville Exchange Club, Walter Wilson, Cubmaster, Archie Dodger.

Horsecreek Mission, Gloverville, Father W, J. Croghan, Lamar Johnson, Cubmaster, O. D. Franklin.

Jackson P. T. A., Mrs. P. B. Osteen, P. M. Osteen, C. A. Hill, Cubmaster, James Bolton.

Aiken Rotary Club, Frank Holmes, Nathan Persky, Dr. A. P. Majors, Cubmaster, Charles Goforth.

Salley Baptist Church, Rev. R. D. Parkinson, N. R. Salley, Earle Halliman, Cubmaster, Gyles Hall.

New Ellenton P. T. A., Mrs. F. S. Felder, L. D. Lewis, B. C. Jumper, Cubmaster, Sam W. Lowe, Jr.

Aiken Presbyterian Church (Two Units), Rev. James Goodwin, R. L. Piech, J. L. Gosnell, R. I. Kirk, W. M. Eaton, J. A. Mann, L. T. Palmer.

First Baptist Church (Three Units), Rev. Austin Roberts, W. C. Frear, W. P. Williams, Cubmaster, Frank Hager, Scoutmaster—J. C. Timms, Explorer Advisor—W. S. Jones, Jr., P. T. Martin.

Aiken Knights of Columbus, Elmer Foster, Paul Ferriter, Frank S. Watters, Cubmaster Fred Warren.

Aiken Saint Johns Methodist Church, (Two Units), Rev. McKay Brabham, Ralph Keys, G. H. Hair, Paul Correll.

Aiken Lions Club, C. C. Brown, Roy Lyons, J. N. Bancroft, W. E. Carrothers.

Boy Scouts

Graniteville Star Lodge 99, C. F. Stron, L. A. Berry, W. C. Lott, Scoutmaster—Otis Melton.

Bath Management Club, Prince Norton, G. H. Walker, Bruce Sellers, Scoutmaster—Otis Revelle.

Langley Baptist Church, H. E. Dawkins, P. C. Gunter, Scoutmaster, Olie Coleman.

Gloverville Horsecreek Mission, Rev. W. J. Croghan, Walker Mackie, Scoutmaster, Bennett Smith.

Jackson Lions Club, W. A. Dabney, P. B. Osteen, M. W. Harrison, Scoutmaster—C. H. Hair.

Salley Baptist Church, Rev. R. D. Parkinson, N. R. Salley, A. R. Williamson, Scoutmaster—Jack Able, Elden Jones.

Redds Branch Baptist Church, Rev. W. M. Gibbs, B. R. Thompson, D. J. HogaA, Jr., Scoutmaster—R. D. Massee.

Memorial Baptist Church, Rev. J. L. Wright, W. H. Trollinger, J. W. Gomillion, Scoutmaster—W. E. Busbee.

Knights of Columbus, Elmer Foster, P. T. Ferriter, C. A. Konwinski, Scoutmaster—Don Turn.

Aiken Salvation Army, Lt. Lenard, Nathan Persky, Andrew J. Seeby, Scoutmaster—Lt. Lenard.

Aiken Christian Church, O. L. Brown, M. L. Muns, Scoutmaster —C. A. Nedwidek, Cubmaster—Melton C. Smith.

Graniteville A. M. Post gg, George Pardue, C. W. Cromwell, Explorer Advisor—M. E. Hudson.

Jackson Methodist Church, R. C. E. Jones, Roy Steed, J. F. Hol-ley, Explorer Advisor—T. E. Donahoo.

New Ellenton P. T. A., Mrs. F. S. Felder, L. D. Lewis, J. A. Val-encourt, Explorer Advisor—P. L. Thomas.

Colored Boy Scouts of Aiken County 1957

Second Baptist Church, Rev. J .H. McKissick, Scoutmaster—H. Quattlebaum.

Friendship Baptist Church, Rev. J. L. Bush, J. Jennings, Scoutmaster—H. C. Brooks.

Wagener School, W. S. Wilson, E. I. Cherry, Scoutmaster-James Brown.

Salley Sardis School P. T. A., C. H. Blassingab, W. B. Walker, Scoutmaster—Tahnadge Williams.

Graniteville Freeman School, Mrs. Ivey F. Grant, Albert Key, Scoutmaster—G. O. Moore.

HISTORY-SAVANNAH RIVER GIRL SCOUT COUNCIL

There is much that could be said and many to whom we could pay tribute for the Scouting heritage in this area: The Rev. T. P. Noe, who with Miss Attie Phillips and Mrs. William Parker as leaders, organized the Graniteville troop in 1918; Miss Claudie Phelps who founded the first troop in Aiken, in 1920 assisted by Mrs. H. V. Wyman and Mrs. Frank Henderson. In 1921 Miss Phelps attended the British Girl Guide Encampment as the only representative from the United States. Mrs. W. A. Whitlock, Mrs. J. C. Thomas, Mrs. Pauline Shuler, Mrs. Clarence A. Owens and Mrs. L. D. Boone reviewed the Aiken group in 1934. Scouting continued in Aiken under the guidance of Mr. P. G. Barnett until 1952 when the sudden expansion in the area necessitated and expanded Girl Scout organization.

In 1943, Sister Mary of Mercy organized a troop of eight girls who continued to meet in the Horsecreek Valley Handicraft and Welfare Center in Gloverville. This troop has been in continuous operation since that time.

In 1944, a group of women met in Warrenville to expand Scouting in Graniteville, Warrenville, Vaucluse. Mrs. E. E. Platt, Granite-ville was elected Chairman. Mrs. Charles Ward, Vaucluse, Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. Haskel Eubanks, Chairman of Cabin and Grounds, and Mrs. Herbert Stiefel, Warrenville, Camp Advisor.

Savannah River Girl Scout Council, Board of Directors

President, R. O. Tisdale; Vice President, Mrs. Sarah Busch; Treasurer, Mr. A. A. Foreman, Sr., Sims Hill, Aiken; Mrs. C. A. Bergan, Aiken; James S. Hopkins, Aiken; Mrs. E. P. Foster, Aiken; Mrs. M. H. Varn, Jr., Denmark; Mrs. Audley H. Ward, Aiken; Chester Cromwell, Graniteville; Mrs. Lonnie Garvin, Aiken; Mrs. Richard Mooney, Aiken; John Oswald, Allendale; Mrs. D. S. McArthur, Williston; Mrs. Carlisle Brabham, Allendale.

Neighborhood Chairmen—Mrs. W. A. Willis, Edgefield; Mrs. S. H. Trotti, Trenton; Mrs. Odell Weeks, Aiken Elementary School, Mrs. J. H. Hershey, Asst. Aiken Elementary; Mrs. Eugene Eckart, Eustis Park; Mrs. F. D. Driggers, Millbrook School; Mrs. Paul Hinson, North Aiken Elementary School; Mrs. J. P. Coffey, St. Mary's; Miss Marie A. Brown, Schofield School; Mrs. Chester Cromwell, Graniteville; Mrs. R. H. Bonner, Clearwater; Mrs. Ernest Burke, Gloverville; Mrs. J. E. Winkler, Belvedere; Mrs. W. H. Spires, Jackson; Mrs. J. G. Mathews, Blackville; Mrs. F. L. Harper, Williston; Mrs. W. E. Hanks, Barnwell; Mrs. Stan Eubanks, Denmark; Mrs. R. D. Allen, Bamberg; Mrs. I. L. Jones, Allendale.

Savannah River Girl Scout Council and Troop Leaders—Troop 19, Mrs. Frank S. Kugler, Mrs. Fred Allen, Mrs. R. H. Gaddy, Jr.; Troop 35, Mrs. A. L. Larsen, Jr., Mrs. John Dixon, Mrs. D. H. Fraser; Troop 59, Mrs. R. E. Huddleston, Mrs. P. R. Davis; Troop 101, Mrs. J. D. Odom, Mrs. Mary Hunter, Mrs. Harriet Piech; Troop 106, Mrs. H. D. Wyman, Mrs. Elizabeth B. Wyman; Troop 115, Mrs. Eugene Kneece, Mrs. O. B. Carpenter; Troop 8, Mrs. J. S. Hopkins, Mrs. G. O. Robinson, Mrs. D. W. Kuhn; Troop 9, Mrs. H. A. Lindell, Mrs. Wilson Jones; Troop 11, Mrs. W. W. Lawrence, Mrs. K. R. Moore;

Troop 38, Mrs. Vernon Stedronsky, Mrs. Ernest Furr; Troop 43, Miss Janice Midgett, Miss Ullainee Copeland; Troop 61, Mrs. O. E. Shideler, Mrs. Charles Marvin, Jr.; Troop 62, Mrs. J. N. Wilson, Mrs. A. R. Stevens; Troop 96, Mrs. Dan Johnson, Mrs. R. B. Steelman; Troop 107, Mrs. Dan Ropp, Mrs. E. N. Braddy; Troop 110, Mrs. Joseph Thompson, Mrs. Rebecca Webster; Troop 7, Mrs. R. D. McCrosky, Mrs. Geo. Montjoy, Mrs. J. O. Strickland; Troop 24, Mrs. J. W. Warren, Mrs. A. C. Withers; Troop 64, Mrs. E. F. Koch, Mrs. Thomas Loftin; Troop 67, Mrs. R. Syphrit; Troop 97, Mrs. Meredith Raney, Mrs. R. L. Boyce; Troop 98, Mrs. J. D. Parker, Mrs. J. B. Hatcher; Troop 108, Mrs. H. E. Hudak, Mrs. Stanley Gozdziewski; Troop 112, Mrs. C. F. Black, Mrs. G. D. Beaty; Troop 117, Mrs. L. C. Vimpeny, Mrs. T. W. Cely; Troop 18, Mrs. J. D. Lyman, Mrs. Duncan Smith; Troop 22; Mrs. Richard Philipp, Mrs. John Murdock; Troop 51, Mrs. J. M. Smith, Jr.; Mrs. G. T. Dunn; Troop 87, Mrs. J. G. Siler, III, Mrs. George Tuere; Troop 104, Mrs. J. G. Szasz, Mrs. Mitt Nicholson; Troop 20, Sister Mary Imelda, Mrs. J. M. Cavanaugh; Troop 31, Sister Mary Imelda, Mrs. C. F. Thomas; Troop 68, Sister Mary Austin, Mrs. S. C. Verenes; Troop 114, Sister Mary Imelda; Troop 13, Mrs. Vessie Goldsmith, Mrs. Rose Green; Troop 15, Mrs. C. B. Smith; Troop 34, Miss Marie Brown; Troop 30 Granitemlle, Mrs. Mamie L. Lundy; Troop 93, Mrs. C. W. Peters, Mrs. O. E. Melton, Mrs. Melzer Faulkner, Jr.; Troop 99, Mrs. Chester Cromwell, Mrs. G. D. Myers; Troop 69, Mrs. George McGinn, Mrs. Raymond Floyd, Mrs. Edith Stone; Troop 1, Gloverville, Sister Mary of Mercy, Sister Mary Colette; Mrs. J. D. Funderburg; Troop 25 Bath, Mrs. A. P. Nivens; Troop 26 Clearwater, Miss Alice McKenzie; Troop 27, Mrs. Renzo Whiddon; Troop 28, Sister Mary of Mercy, Miss June Coker; Troop 80, Mrs. E. L. Johnson; Troop 90 Belvedere, Mrs. J. E. Winkler, Mrs. Toy Withington; Troop 92, Mrs. C. T. Oliver, Mrs. Orville Brown, Mrs. B. J. Sumner; Troop 109, Mrs. F. A. Delgado, Mrs. C. W. Brown; Troop 37, Mrs. B. F. Calwell; Troop 65, Mrs. L. B. Wright, Mrs. H. L. Shepherd; Troop 57, Mrs. K. L. Rankin; Troop 102, Mrs. C. T. Watson, Mrs. Hugh Bishop.

The influx of new people stimulate more interest in the Girl Scout enlargement, many more councils in the Savannah River Area were found. Miss Sarah Bowman of this City gave years of service to this cause and in 1955 was elected as Executive Director of the Council.

THE ELLENTON AGRICULTURAL CLUB

On March 24, 1894, several enterprising farmers and business men met at the Ellenton Academy and formed the Ellenton, S. C. Agricultural Club. The following were elected officials:

Dr. A. W. Bailey, President Edgar A. Merriman, Secretary C. R. Wilson, Vice President Rev. Fred Jones, Treasurer

A Committee on By-laws and Constitution were appointed:  R. J. Dunbar, H. M. Cassels, Rev. Fred. Jones, W. D. Black, C. R. Wilson

This club was kept alive from that date until the Government took over the Ellenton District in 1951 for the H-Bomb Plant. In June 1904 the club moved into their new two-story building on the Main Street in Ellenton. Mr. John C. Hutson and his son, O. B. Hutson of Aiken were members of this club for many years. Every monthly meeting there was a barbecue dinner. This club fostered and worked for the agricultural interests of the state.

The following were among the presidents of the club:

Dr. A. W. Bailey E. R. Buckingham
James H. Bush D. W. Brown
Dr. M. A. Turner A. A. Foreman
T. E. Dunbar W. H. Buford
Lucius A. Bush C. G. Youngblood
H. M. Cassels J. B. Harley
A. R. Dunbar C. A. Smith
J. R. Boylston P. H. Buckingham

I am indebted to Mrs. J. S. Reynolds, 2900 Wilmot Avenue, Columbia, S. C, for this information.

THE SILVERTON AGRICULTURAL CLUB

The Silverton Agricultural Club has between eighty and ninety members at the present time.

The first president was Capt. J. M. Cobb serving for quite a long time. Then the second was the Rev. B. M. Foreman serving for a number of years, then Dr. A. H. Corley for quite a long time and after Dr. Corley, W. H. McClain at present.

The following are a few of the charter members:

The late Henry Lake, E. P. Dicks, T. J. and Joe Foreman, C. C. Chance, Rev. B. M. Foreman, J. M. Cobb and Jim Green.

Only living charter members are Thomas W. Heath and W. H. McClain.

Other members are J. M. Steed, Henry Richer, Hon. H. E. Gyles, Hon. Strom Thurmond, Fred Scott, Otis Poy, J. E. Poy, Olie Lagrove, A. A. Webb, Charlie Simon, J. W. Woodward, John H. Williams and others.

Some of the prominent visitors were the Former Governor of Georgia, Hon. Eugene Talmadge, Hon. Strom Thurmond, Rev. Croft (the blind preacher), Hon. Judge Henry Hammond, Hon. John Riley (Congress), A. H. Ward, Hon. Gary Paschal and Thomas W. Morgan.

AIKEN COUNTY S. P. C. A.

The Aiken County S. P. C. A. was founded a good many years ago under the supervision and sponsorship of the winter visitors. The organization now operates the Shelter, 405 Banks Mill Rd. The Aiken branch works and operates under the rules and regulations of the National S. P. C. A.

The Shelter is considered one of the finest in the United States. The present officers are: Mrs. Fitch Gilbert, President; Mr. J. E. Thorpe, Vice-president; Mr. Thomas F. Maurice, Treasurer.

Board members include Mr. Dunbar Bostwick, Miss Electra Bostwick, Mrs. William M. Breese, Mrs. Seymour H. Knox, Mr. Ernest McCreary, Mrs. William B. Wood and Mr. W. W. Woolsey.

The Counseler is Mr. Henry Busbee and the Field Agent in Charge is Mr. William A. Carswell.

GARDEN CLUBS OF AIKEN AND 1957 PRESIDENTS

The Garden Club of Aiken-Miss Claudia Phelps, 1027 Greenville St.; The Green Gardeners Club-Mrs. W. D. Gregorie, Jr., 2817 Dibble Road; Little Garden Club of Aiken-Mrs. E. S. Croft, 715 Florence Street; Four Seasons Club—Mrs. Brownie Williams, 3202 Westmount Drive; The Garden Makers Club—Mrs. H. B. Fincher, 124 Dunbarton Circle; Pine Needle Garden Club-Mrs. E. G. Hall-man, 10 Iroquois. Street; Day Garden Group of Town and Country —Mrs. William S. Carr, 512 S. Boundary; Night Garden Group of Town and Country—Mrs. James R. Adams, 703 Palm Drive; The Country Gardeners Club—Mrs. C. H. Cowan, Forest Hill Drive; Aiken Camellia Club—Mrs. Arthur Emrich, Kalmia Hill.

THE THURSDAY CLUB, a literary organization begun in 1891 was disbanded in 1946 after fifty-five years of active club work. Members devoured books by the dozens and prepared lengthy papers for each meeting. Among the members during the early years were the following: Miss Mamie Ravenel, Miss Coralie Edgerton, Miss Laura Edgerton, Miss Rhetta Dow, Miss Jennie Lou Browne, Miss Alice Washburn, Miss Videau Legare, Miss Mignon Brown, Mrs. Maud Platt, Miss Marianna Ford, Miss Maria Edgerton, Miss Mary N. Percival, Miss Lulie Ford, Miss Laura Carroll and Miss Lizzie Ravenel.

The Edisto Grange was organized March 2, 1945 with 19 charter members . The membership is now 157. The purpose of the Grange is to build better communities. It has built a community center at New Holland. This building is 40 x 70 feet, of brick construction, and equipped to serve 200 people. The following officers are now serving (1957):

Master, Raymond Willis; Overseer, William Beasley; Lecturer, Miss Barbara Jean Kitchings; Steward, Curtis Johnson; Ass't. Steward, Ray P. Garvin; Chaplain, Wayne C. Gunter; Treasurer, Mrs. Evelyn Posey; Secretary, Mrs. Wayne Gunter; Gate Keeper, Charles Goss; Ceres, Mrs. Margaret Kirkland; Pomona, Mrs. William Beasley; Flora, Miss Kathleen Swartz; Lady Ass't., Mrs. Jewel Hutto; Executive Committee: W. L. Plunkett, Walter Rish, G. M. Quattlebaum.

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