Military Academy
Superintendent Carolina Military Institute.
transcribed for South Carolina Genealogy Trails by D. Whitesell

Part   I.
Origin Of The Arsenal and The Citadel Academy

Part   II.
Their Rise and Fall

Part   III.
The Results Achieved
Honorary Graduates
Died for Their County

1.   Roll Of Board Of Visitors
2.   Roll Of Cadets In The Academy At The End

It occurred to the writer that it was due alike to the dead and living that some account of the State Military Academies of South Carolina should be put upon the record. He would have preferred that some other graduate, having at his command more time for such a work, should have undertaken the task. As it is, with immediate and urgent duties pressing upon him, the writer has been constrained to apply to his subject both brevity of treatment and conciseness of expression. Hence he has restricted himself, in the main, to a statement of the facts of the case. It will be seen that he has entered into no analysis of character or motives; that he has used sparingly the language of eulogy, and refrained wholly from that of hostile criticism. Inasmuch as many of the actors who figure in this drama are still on the stage of life, this course has been deemed consonant with a just propriety.

The author traces the origin, rise and fall, of the Academies, and states briefly some of the large results attained  in  their comparatively brief career, the whole
closing with an appendix, wherein are contained some additional matters of interest. It may, with propriety, be added that this history is original and authentic. The information here set forth has been derived either from the official records or from reliable personal sources; or it comes from the author's individual knowledge.

Nor can the times be regarded unpropitious for the appearance of this Sketch. The year signalized by the redemption of South Carolina may well be associated with hopes of the revival of one of her former favorite institutions of learning.

But whether or not Resurgam is to be inscribed upon the furled banner of the South Carolina Military Academy, this record will stand: That while in peace she served the State well, she was in war both sword and shield, both spear and buckler.

AUG. 5, 1877.

South Carolina Military Academy

Prior to the establishment of the State Military Academy of South Carolina, embracing the Citadel Academy and the Arsenal Academy, and, subsequently styled the South Carolina Military Academy, the sum of $24,000 was expended annually, through legislative appropriation, for the support of two companies of enlisted soldiers. These companies, duly officered and stationed, one at the Citadel, in Charleston, and the other at the Arsenal, at Columbia, formed the Arsenal and Magazine Guard, and to them was entrusted the care of the ordnance and ordnance stores of the Commonwealth-Captain Parker commanding the Citadel Guard, and Captain Shaffer the Arsenal Guard.

To Governor John P. Richardson belongs the credit of first suggesting to the General Assembly that the Arsenal, at Columbia, and the Citadel, in Charleston, be converted into military schools. The idea occurred to Governor Richardson that the annual appropriation of $24,000-subsequently increased to $30,000, and still further increased when the currency of the late Confederacy became depreciated-might, with great advantage to the State, be devoted to the education of a portion of its indigent young men, while its military property would, at the same time, be as efficiently guarded as by enlisted troops.

At the meeting of the Legislature in 1841, Colonel John Phillips of Charleston, one of the Governors  Aides-de-Camp,  and his organ in the House, in compliance, doubtless, with the wish of his chief, introduced a " Bill to convert the Arsenal at Columbia into a Military School." It provided that the$8000 then appropriated for the said Arsenal should be appropriated for the support of a Military School; that the Commissioners of Free Schools, in each district, should send thither one of the most promising of their pupils, not under the age of fourteen years, with the sum of fifty dollars annually, out of their portion of the Free School Fund; that any person, not under the age of fourteen, might, with the consent of the Governor, enter and enjoy all the benefits of said school, on paying one hundred dollars annually; that the Cadets thus admitted should constitute the Arsenal and Magazine Guard, in place of the existing one; that the Governor should establish rules for the government of the schools, employ one or more teachers, and confer on them such military rank as might be thought most advisable, and appoint a Board of Visitors annually, to attend the examination, inspect the arms, and other property of the Arsenal and Magazine, and report to the Legislature; and that the officers and Cadets should have the use of the College Library on such terms as the Faculty might prescribe, and attend the chemical and such other lectures as might be thought to be promotive of their knowledge in the useful and mechanic arts.

Such was Governor Richardson's plan.

It will be seen that it was not fully digested, and that an institution of high order and thorough character was not in the originator's mind. In view, therefore, of the restricted features and limited scope of the bill, it is not a subject for regret that it finally failed to pass. Thus ended the first attempt to establish a State Military School.

Governor Richardson, however, was not discouraged. With a perseverance that redounds to his credit, he did not turn from his purpose, but remained true to his first convictions of the expediency and propriety of his scheme. Determining to make a partial experiment, he now sent a small number of indigent youths to the Arsenal, and placed them under the instruction of Captain Shaffer and Lieutenant Matthews, officers of the State Guard at that post.

In the summer of this year (1842) the Governor happened to spend a few days with General James Jones, formerly AdjutantGeneral, but then a manufacturer at Vaucluse, in Edgefield District, S. C. On this occasion, Governor Richardson broached the subject of Military Schools, and stated his views thereon.    These views did not meet the approval of General Jones. Understanding that the Governor contemplated in his plan a mere grammar school, where the students were to be taught only reading, writing, and arithmetic, the General contended that the scheme would eventually result in failure; that the proposed system was wanting in its standard of education; that the school was calculated to send forth mere idlers, who would be neither soldiers nor scholars. Governor Richardson seemed not to yield to these arguments. In anticipation, therefore, of the election of General J. H. Hammond to the office of Governor, at the ensuing session of the Legislature, General Jones addressed that gentleman a letter, wherein he opposed Governor Richardson's plan, for reason in part already stated, and urged General Hammond to defeat it.

Such was the condition of affairs, in this connection, when the Legislature convened in 1842. In his first message, Governor "Richardson now formally and distinctly proposed that the Arsenal and Citadel be converted into Military Schools. The language of his message shows that the Governor had now risen to a higher conception of his scheme, and had planted it on a more enlarged basis. He argues ably and zealously in behalf of the change that he advocates, and grows eloquent in his suggestions as to the possibilities of the institutions proposed.

He says : " It would be enough to determine the advantages of the alterations proposed, (and which have been partially commenced,) to contrast the usefulness of more than fifty of our most promising young citizens; educated in the service of the State, with the ennobling consciousness of having paid for their education by their services ; going abroad under the first feeling of a proud and manly independence, to occupy their high places in society; imbued with a State patriotism, as the nurslings of her institutions; combining the enterprise and decision of a military character with the acquirements of their scholastic opportunities; dispensing knowledge and intelligence through all the vocations of life which they are destined to fill; and, perhaps, most usefully and appropriately diffusing them, as the instructors of succeeding generations."

And again: '' If the success of these institutions should form the basis of future and important improvements, which may be judiciously extended to our Free Schools; if they should supply better teachers from their alumni;   if  they should suggest higher standards and better systems of morals and tuition; or if they only awaken greater ardor in the people, and a warmer interest in our rulers, to advance the cause of education; they will achieve more for the weal and honor of our State than all the other labors and appliances of government could in any other manner confer."

These views came to be prophetic in their character. They illustrate Gov. Richardson's sagacity, and associate his name in honorable connection with the triumphs of the Institution that arose from his official conception.

While, however, impartial history must give to Gov. John P. Richardson the credit of pioneer in the cause of the South Carolina Military Academy, it was left to other hands to complete the work that he suggested, advised and advocated.

He retired from office, and thus ceased to have the official opportunity of advancing the enterprise. This duty fell to other able and zealous men. Soon after the commencement of the session of the Legislature in 1842, Gen. David F. Jamison, of Orangeburg, Chairman of the Military Committee in the House of Representatives, brought forward a "bill to convert the Arsenal at Columbia, and the Citadel and Magazine in and near Charleston, into Military Schools;" which, with little or no opposition, passed both bodies of the Legislature, and became an Act.    It enacts :

     1. That the sum of eight thousand dollars be, and the same is hereby appropriated annually, for the establishment of a Military School at the Arsenal at Columbia, and the sum of sixteen thousand dollars be, and the same is hereby appropriated annually, for the establishment of a Military School at the Citadel at Charleston, in lieu of the like sums heretofore appropriated for the Arsenal and Magazine Guard at Columbia, and the Citadel and Magazine Guard in and near Charleston.

     2. That the Governor and Commander-in-Chief is hereby authorized to organize Military Schools at the Arsenal at Columbia, and at the Citadel in Charleston, the students and members of which shall be employed in performing such services as may be assigned them; and he is also authorized to appoint a Board of five persons, who, together with the Adjutant and Inspector-General, shall constitute a Board of Visitors for the said Military School, any four of whom shall constitute a quorum ; and who, at such times  as the Governor shall  designate, shall  meet at  the said Arsenal, at Columbia, and at the said Citadel in Charleston, and establish such regulations as they may deem necessary and proper for the organization and good government of said schools. That the Board of Visitors shall have power to establish such by-laws for the management of said Schools, and the protection of the public property thereat, as shall not be inconsistent with the laws of this State or of the United States; shall inspect the public arms and other property at the said Arsenal at Columbia, and at the Citadel and Magazine in and near Charleston, and make a minute and full report of their condition, as well as of the condition and management of said schools, to the Governor, to be by him laid before the General Assembly in each and every year. They shall have power to appoint one or more Professors qualified to give instruction in military science, and in other branches of knowledge, which the said Board of Visitors may deem essential; to fix the salaries of said Professors, and to remove them for good cause; but in every case of removal, two-thirds of the whole number of the Board of Visitors shall concur.

     3. That the students, when admitted, shall be formed into military corps, and shall constitute the public guard of the Arsenal at Columbia, and of the Citadel and Magazine in and near Charles ton, aforesaid; and whenever the said Board of Visitors shall certify to the Governor that the said schools are ready to go into operation, and that a sufficient number of students or cadets have been admitted to guard, effectually, the public arms and other property at the places aforesaid, the present guard shall be diminished, so far and so soon as the Governor shall decide that the said students or cadets are able to perform their duties.

     4. That all property in any way belonging to the said Arsenal at Columbia, and the said Citadel  and Magazine   in  and  near Charleston, shall be surrendered to the Governor, to be disposed of according to the regulations to be established by the Board of Visitors hereinbefore mentioned.

     5. That all Acts and clauses of Acts heretofore passed, that are inconsistent with this Act, be and the same are hereby repealed.

Such is the Act passed December 20th, 1842, in which the State Military Academies originated. It will be found to differ, in sundry important particulars, from Colonel Phillips' bill of the preceding  session.    Emanating from General Jamison, who fully concurred with General Jones, with regard to the proper basis on which to organize the proposed schools, this second bill was so drawn up as to allow full margin to the Board of Visitors to carry out their views. It doubtless occurred to General Jamison that the Board, in assuming their responsible task, should not be fettered by legislative restrictions. Hence the indefinite clauses of the Act, as it respects the specific character and standard of the proposed schools.

It now remained for Governor Hammond,   the successor  of Governor Richardson, to discharge the duty imposed on him by the aforesaid Act of the Legislature.    In conformity, therefore, with that clause of the Act authorizing the Governor and Commander-in-Chief to organize Military Schools at the Arsenal at Columbia, and at the Citadel at Charleston, and, also, to appoint a Board, to consist of five persons, who, together with the Adjutant and Inspector-General, should constitute a Board of Visitors for said Military Schools, he appointed, December 21st, 184.2, James Jones, D. F.   Jamison, W. J. Hanna, Daniel  Wallace, J. H. Means, to constitute said Board.   (By an Act of the Legislature, passed in   December, 1843, the Governor of the State is made, ex qfficio, a member of the Board.)   On the same day that they were appointed, according to their Journal of  Proceedings, the Board convened at the Arsenal at Columbia.   There were present, on  this  note-worthy   occasion,  the   Chairman,  General   Jones, General Jamison, General Hanna, and General Cantey, the Adjutant and Inspector-General.   After General Jones took the chair, some conversation ensued as to the best manner of carrying into effect the proposed organization of the school at the Arsenal.   Finally, it was resolved to elect in January, 1843, a Superintendent for the Military School at the Arsenal;  to complete a system of rules and regulations   for the organization and good government of said school; to select the beneficiary scholars from the several judicial districts of this State, as nearly as possible according to the ratio of population and taxation-and to admit no scholar at the Arsenal under the age of fifteen, or above the age of eighteen years.   Such were the proceedings of the Board at their first meeting.

At their next meeting, which took place on January 11, 1843, General Means took his seat. The Board now continued to hold its meetings in quick succession. until, finally, by the 20th March, 1843, both schools were in operation. At first they were independent of each other, but afterwards, in 1845, upon the failure of the Board to consolidate the Institutions in Charleston, the Arsenal was made auxiliary to the Citadel, and they were placed under the same organization. But to return to the proceedings of the Board. At the Arsenal, Captain Alfred Herbert was" elected Superintendent, Lieutenant Joseph Matthews, Professor and Bursar, and Dr. A. H. Nagel, Surgeon. At the Citadel, the election of officers resulted in the choice of Captain W. F. Graham, Superintendent; Lieutenant F. W. Capers, First Professor; Lieutenant J. E. B. Finley, Second Professor; Dr. Henry Boylston, Surgeon; and J. Ladson Gregorie, Bursar.

Provision, too, had been made for the admission into the Academies of fifty-four beneficiary, subsequently called State, and the same number of pay pupils. The Board had, also, arranged a course of studies in which, according to the language of their first report, they " aimed at a system of education at once scientific and practical, and which, if their original design is carried out, will eminently qualify the Cadets there taught, for almost any station or condition in life.''

In explaining further the object that they had in view, the Board add: " During the course, besides the usual branches taught at the primary schools in the State, they (the Cadets) will be instructed in the History of South Carolina, Modern History, the French Language, every department of the Mathematics, Bookkeeping, Rhetoric, Moral Philosophy, Architectural and Topographical Drawing, Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, Civil and Military Engineering, the Constitutional Law of the United States, and the Law of Nations. In addition to that course they will be instructed in the duties of the soldier, the School of the Company, and of the Battalion; the Science of War, the Evolutions of the Line, and the duties of commissioned officers."

The Board thus devised an excellent course of studies-one practical in character and well calculated to qualify young men for the duties of life-one conceived in the spirit of Milton, who called "a complete and generous education that which fits a man to perform justly, skillfully, and magnanimously, all the offices of a citizen, both private and public of peace and war."

So much for the origin of the Citadel and the Arsenal Academy.


It thus appears that, by March 20, 1843, both of the schools authorized by the General Assembly were engaged in their educational work. The Act in which the schools originated became a law December 20, 1842. Governor Hammond appointed the Board of Visitors December 21, 1842, and" by March 20, 1843, that is in three months, the Arsenal and Citadel were fairly launched.   This was quick work, and yet it was work well done.

It may be well to put on record here the names of those young men who were the first to assemble under the new educational banner upraised in South Carolina.

Admitted February 23,1843, into Arsenal Academy as Cadets, and ordered to report themselves to the Superintendent on or before 20th March next:

Admitted 3d May, 1843, into Citadel Academy as Cadets, and ordered to report themselves to the Superintendent on or before 1st June next:

It was further Resolved, That Henry Slappey, of Georgia, be admitted into the Arsenal Academy, at Columbia, as a pay student, for so long a period only as there may be an insufficient number of pay applications from this State, (S. C.)

In examining the proceedings of the. Board at their successive meetings in these early days in the history of the Military Academies, one is impressed with the prompt, earnest and efficient way in which they did their work. There is an exihition of rare judgment and much steadiness of purpose thus early begun and continued to the close of their valuable services.

In December, 1843, the Board made to the General Assembly, through Governor Hammond, their first annual report; afterwards, with few exceptions, regularly made by them and their successors, annually, for twenty-two years, to wit: from December, 1843 to December, 1865, when the official life of the Institution went out in the thick darkness that had closed around the Confederate cause. In this report, after a clear statement of the manner in which they had executed their trust, they close with the following remarks :

" At the examinations, which have lately closed, in both the Academies, the Board were highly gratified at the very great proficiency made by the Cadets. The examinations, which were continued for several days, and which were strict and searching, showed, in the most satisfactory manner to the Board, (with very few exceptions,) with what diligence their studies had been prosecuted by the Cadets, and the accuracy of the system by which they had them taught.

"In their military training they exhibited a manly and soldier like bearing, and the Board found it difficult to realize the fact that such a change had taken place in the appearance and conduct of boys, who, less than a twelve month ago, came into those Institutions careless of their persons, awkward and untaught. Besides affording sufficient protection to the arms and public property at the two posts, (far greater than the Old Guard, which they have displaced,) their military training facilitates their instruction in other branches of study, by habits of good order and discipline, which it promotes, and, in the opinion of the Board, appears to solve the difficult problem of the management of a number of young men in Institutions of learning or science. By requiring them to account for every moment of their time, it prevents them from acquiring vicious habits, and withdraws them from the allurements of dissipation. Nor does the discipline to which they are subjected appear to weary them ; on the contrary they seem to be satisfied and happy, and the  Board believe that a dismissal from the Academies would be regarded by any of the boys as a severe punishment.

"The Board assure your Excellency, that this first year's experiment has succeeded beyond their hope; and they confidently predict that its future success will not disappoint the expectations of the Legislature in changing the nature of these Institutions."

On the 20th May, 1844, the Board met, in consequence of the resignation and subsequent death of Capt. W. F. Graham, the Superintendent of the Citadel Academy, and also the recent death of Lieut. J. E. B. Finley, second Professor of the Citadel Academy.

The following resolutions, submitted by Gen. Jamison, were unanimously adopted:

Resolved, That this Board deeply regret the death of Captain Graham and Lieutenant Finley, late officers of the Citadel Academy ; and will cherish the memory of these high-minded, honorable, and generous men ; worthy, patriotic, and faithful citizens; able, zealous, and devoted officers, cut off in the prime of life, and in the midst of their usefulness.

Resolved, That these resolutions be entered upon a separate page of the Journal of this Board.

To fill the vacancy thus created, Mr. Richard W. Colcock was elected Superintendent, with the rank of Captain, and Dr. Wm. Hume, Professor, at the Citadel Academy-thus making the Academic Corps of officers at that Academy stand thus :

Captain RICHARD W. COLCOCK, Superintendent and Principal Professor.

1st Lieutenant F. W. CAPERS, Second Professor. 2d Lieutenant WM. HUME, Third Professor. J. LADSON GREGORIE, Bursar. Dr. HENRY BOYLSTON, Surgeon.

The following resolution, submitted by Gen. Means, was unanimously adopted :

Resolved, That the Chairman of this Board tender to Prof. F. W. Capers the unanimous thanks of the Board, for the very able, zealous and efficient manner in which he discharged the laborious duties lately devolved upon him as the sole Academic and police officer of the Citadel Academy; and for the ready devotion he has at all times evinced for the interest and welfare of the Institution.

At the annual meeting of the Board in November, 1844, the Superintendents of the two Academies were instructed to make, subject to the approval of the Board, such alteration in the studies of the Academies as they deem expedient, the Board thus wisely giving to the officers of the Institutions the privilege subsequently freely exercised by them, of modifying and developing the curriculum as their experience might suggest and the demands of the times require. In their second Annual Report made to the Legislature, through Gov. Aiken, in November, 1845, the Board repeat the expression of their confidence in the scheme of education that they had inaugurated in 1843. Speaking of the examination at the Citadel Academy, the Board say :

" That examination has demonstrated to the Board the practicability of their plan of education, combining a course of thorough instruction in the Physical Sciences, Modern Languages, History, and Belles-Letters, with a practical military education; and, at the same time, the efficient discharge of the arduous and responsible duties of an Arsenal Guard."

The Board, being, at that time, for reasons set forth in their Annual Report, impressed with the advantages of consolidating the two Institutions at the Citadel in Charleston, requested Governor Aiken to submit to the Legislature the propriety of the scheme.   This recommendation was not adopted.

On December 16th, 1845, the resignation of Captain A. Herbert, Superintendent of the Arsenal Academy, having been tendered to the Board in a manly letter, was accepted, and he was succeeded by Lieutenant Joseph Matthews, with the rank of Captain. It appears that Mr. Thad. S. Miller was appointed assistant teacher at the Arsenal Academy for 1845. The corps of officers now stood thus at the Arsenal Academy:

Captain JOSEPH MATTHEWS, Superintendent and Bursar. Mr. THAD. S. MILLER, Assistant Teacher. Dr. A. PL NAGEL, Surgeon.

The Board having at the same time decided that it was expedient to elect another Professor for the Citadel Academy, Mr. John A. Leland was duly elected, and he accepted the appointment, making the corps of officers, with the new titles, stand thus:

Major E. W. COLCOCK, Supt., Prof. Civ. and Mil. Eng., etc
Captain F. W. CAPERS, Prof. Nat Phil., Astronomy, etc.
Lieutenant J. A. LELAND, Prof. Mathematics, etc.
WM. HUME M. D., Prof. Chem., Geol., Mineralogy, etc.

It was ordered that Professor Hume be relieved from all military duty. 

In November, 1846, Mr. C. C. Tew, one of the proto-graduates of the Institution, was appointed Assistant Teacher at the Arsenal Academy, with the rank of First Lieutenant. The following resolutions were passed:

Resolved, That the Board of Visitors appreciate very highly the gentlemanly conduct of Mr. Thad. S. Miller, as Assistant Teacher at the Arsenal Academy at Columbia, for the past year, and tender him their warmest thanks for the efficient assistance rendered by him in that capacity.

Resolved, That a copy of the above resolution be furnished to Mr. Miller.

Thus the corps of officers of the Arsenal Academy now stood as follows:

Capt. JOSEPH MATTHEWS, Superintendent and Bursar. First Lieutenant C. C. TEW, Assistant Teacher. Dr. A. W. NAGEL, Surgeon.

In November, 1847, Prof. Capers, of the Citadel Academy, tendered his resignation. In accepting it, the Board passed the following resolution:

Resolved, unanimously, That the Board has received, with much regret, the resignation of Prof. Capers ; that the high reputation which the Citadel Academy now enjoys owes much to the untiring exertions, zeal, and ability of Prof. Capers ; that the Board part with him with unfeigned regret, and tender him our assurances of our great respect.

Mr. J. S. K. Reeves was elected to fill the vacancy thus occasioned, and Mr. F. Gauthier was engaged at the Citadel Academy to teach French and Drawing. Mr. Reeves having declined the office tendered him, the Chairman of the Board appointed Gen. A. H. Brisbane Second Professor at the Citadel Academy; thus making the Citadel corps stand:

Maj. R. W. COLCOCK, Superintendent, Professor Mechanics, Engineering, etc.
Capt A. H. BRISBANE, Professor of History, Belles-Lettres and Ethics.
First Lieutenant J. A. LELAND, Professor Mathematics and Astronomy.
WM. HUME, M. D., Professor of Experimental Science, Mineralogy and Geology.
F. GAUTHIER, Professor of French and Drawing.

In their Annual Report to Gov. Johnson, December 4, 1848, the Board ask for an appropriation of $15,000 for an additional story to the Citadel building. The Board based their application mainly on the fact, that the quarters at the Citadel had become insufficient for the accommodation of the officers and Cadets of the Institution. This recommendation was complied with. The appropriation was made, and the
"Old Citadel" rose to the dignity of an imposing two-story building, with turrets and parapet and bastions.

It appears from statistics taken from the books of the Military Academies, that up to December, 1848-not quite five years since they had been put in operation-there had entered the Academies 91 pay and 218 beneficiary Cadets; total, 309. Of these, 231 had been removed, and had graduated, leaving (57) fifty-seven in the Academies.

In 1849, owing to the prevalence of yellow fever in Charleston, the Cadets of the Citadel were disbanded for the summer. From the official proceedings of the Board, at their meeting in the Fall, it appears that this action on the part of the Superintendent did not meet with the approval of the Board of Visitors.

In November, 1851, Lieutenant C. C Tew, Professor of Mathematics at the Arsenal Academy, resigned his office. His resignation was accepted by the Board in the spirit of the following resolutions :

Resolved, That the Board of Visitors have received the resignation of Lieutenant C. C. Tew, Professor of Mathematics in the Arsenal Academy, at Columbia: and the terms upon which he has placed his resignation, leave them no alternative but to accept it.

Resolved, That the Board cannot sever the connection which has existed so long between themselves and Mr. Tew without expressing great regret for the reasons which have determined his course, and their high appreciation of the ability, zeal, and fidelity with which he has discharged all his duties as Professor; and they tender to him their kindest wishes for his future prosperity and success in life.

Mr. P. F. Stevens, graduate of the Class of 1849, was elected Professor of Mathematics at the Arsenal Academy, with the rank of First Lieutenant, vice Lieutenant Tew.

In June, 1852, Mr. J. B. White, graduate of the Class of 1849, was elected Professor in the Arsenal Academy, with the rank of Lieutenant, to take rank next after Lieutenant Stevens. He was ordered to report for duty at the Citadel Academy for the remainder of the year, and after wards to take his appropriate place at the Arsenal.

In this year the Academic exercises of the Citadel were interrupted by the existence of yellow fever in Charleston.

At the close of this year (1852), Major R. W. Colcock, Superintendent, and Professors A. H Brisbane and J. A. Leland, of the Citadel Academy, were succeeded by Major F. W. Capers and Professors C. C. Tew and P. F. Stevens.

Lieutenant J. B. White was promoted second in command at the Arsenal Academy, with the rank of First Lieutenant, and Mr. J. P. Thomas, graduate of the Class of 1851, was elected Professor at the Arsenal Academy, with the rank of Second Lieutenant.

Hence the Citadel corps of officers stood thus at the beginning of 1853:
Major F. W. CAPERS:, Superintendent, Professor of Mechanics and Engineering.
Captain C. C. TEW, Professor of History, Belles-Lettres, and Ethics.
First Lieutenant P. F. STEVENS, Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy.
WM. HUME, M. D., Professor of Experimental Science, Mineralogy, and Geology.
F. GAUTHIER, Professor of French and Drawing.

And the Arsenal corps :

Captain JOSEPH MATTHEWS, Superintendent and Bursar. First Lieutenant J. B. WHITE, Professor of Mathematics. Second Lieutenant J. P. THOMAS, Professor Belles-Lettres and French. Dr. A. H. NAGEL, Surgeon.

Major Richard W. Colcock was the second Superintendent of the Citadel Academy, and was in its service for eight years. Bringing to the discharge of the duties of his office a soldierly training, derived from his Cadetship at West Point, and from his experience in the United States Array, he gave to the Academy a military tone and impress that contributed largely to the development of its fortunes, especially as a school of arms.

Professor John A. Leland, for seven years connected with the Citadel, graduated at the South Carolina College in its palmy days. An experienced teacher when he received his appointment, he contributed to the new cause his extensive acquirements in Mathematics, and a patient spirit of instruction that commanded the respect and esteem of his pupils. Up the steeps of Mathematics and through its defiles, he was accustomed to lead his followers with gentle skill. What he lost in stern requirement he sought to gain in persuasive force. The excellence of his temper, seldom ruffled, and the abundant cordiality of his sympathetic manner, make his name synonymic of unaffected amiability-of a charity which suffereth long, and is kind.

Professor Abbott H. Brisbane served the Academy four years. Like Major Colcock, he was a graduate of the United States Military Academy, and, before his election to the Citadel, had served in the United States Army. He was, in some respects, a remarkable man. A more earnest person it would be hard to find. A profound thinker, and an original one, he devoted himself to his duties with uncommon zeal, and labored to infuse in his classes his own ardent and enthusiastic spirit of thought. He sought to reach the truth, and his great aim was so to elucidate the elements of the subjects of study entrusted to him as to make them plain to the mind of the scholars. His ardent temperament, his volcanic outbursts of convictions, and his fiery zeal in letters, will long be remembered by those eleves of the Citadel who passed under his instruction. I am satisfied that there was a martyr-like element in his mental and moral composition, and that for the truth, as he understood it, he would have willingly perilled fortune, or even laid down life.

Of these officers, Major Colcock and General Brisbane died not many years after the termination of their connection with the Citadel Academy.

In August, 1853, the death of General W. J. Hanna made the first vacancy in the Board. Colonel Isaac D. Wilson, of Darlington, was appointed by Governor Manning to succeed the deceased, in reference to whom the following preamble and resolutions, introduced by Colonel Wilson, were unanimously adopted by the Board :

Since the last meeting of this Board death has invaded our ranks and removed from amongst us a respected and honored member- General Wm. J. Hanna.

Zealous and indefatigable in the discharge of his duties, he labored faithfully for the efficiency and usefulness of the Institutions in part committed to his charge.

To the successful accomplishment of his efforts, he brought to the task a mind matured by experience, and familiar with the practical duties of life; a character prudent and discreet, distinguished for great firmness and resolution.

With these fortunate combinations, less could not have been expected than a successful result to all the objects to which his attention was directed. Called to participate in the organization of the Military Academies of the State, he was found a discreet adviser and prudent counsellor, uniting in his character those qualities of the head and heart, which mark the useful citizen and enlightened public servant.

But he has been called from the field of his usefulness, leaving to us the example of a well directed life in the service of his fellowmen ; and the Board of Visitors, desirous of recording their appreciation of his character, unite in this testimonial.    Be it Resolved, That we lament the removal, by death, of our late associate, General William J. Hanna, whose truthfulness of character endears him to us, and whose faithful public conduct commanded our respect and gratitude.

Resolved, That the Board has lost an honored and efficient member, and the State a conscientious and faithful officer.

Resolved, That we sincerely sympathize with the afflicted family of the deceased, and that a copy of these resolutions be transmitted to them.

We have now reached the tenth year in the age of the Military Academies.    In their Annual Report for the year 1853, the Board say that " they are gratified to be able to state that at no period since the establishment of these Institutions, have the Cadets exhibited a greater proficiency in their studies, or stricter attention to the duties required of them.    Under the government of an able, active, intelligent Faculty in both Academies, all the regulations have been observed, and the strictest discipline enforced throughout the year."   In reference to the absence of a Graduating Class: " The Board regret to state that no class was presented to them for graduation this year.    That circumstance was owing to an unhappy outbreak of the Second Class, which took place during the summer of 1852, which resulted in the suspension of the whole Class, and, as the question of their restoration involved the future discipline and government of the Military Academies, the Board of Visitors did not hesitate to confirm the suspension imposed by the Superintendent.   They hope that this act of firmness may prevent the recurrence of any similar incident."

The exhibit for 1853 shows that there had been appointed to the two Academies, up to that time, 356 pay, and 369 beneficiary Cadets, making a total of 72  Cadets. Of these, 94 failed to report, or had been rejected; 190 had been honorably discharged; 132 had been discharged for inefficiency; 117 had been discharged for misconduct; 5 had died; 90 had graduated, and there were remaining in the Academies, 97.

Referring to the fact that, of the number appointed to the Institutions, a large portion are discharged or are dismissed before the termination of their enlistment, the Board say:

"That is owing, in a great measure, to the want of care in parents, guardians, and Commissioners of Free Schools, in selecting young men for the Academies, who, from previous imperfect instruction, improper moral training, or natural incapacity, are either rejected on their presentment for admission, discharged after the end of their probationary term of four months, or they break down at some subsequent period of their four years' course. Besides,  they are subjected to  a rigid system   of  instruction, and a severe course of study, which requires some talent, and much diligence to withstand and complete, and the boy who can not work, or who will not work, is discharged, and his place given to another. But the difficulty of completing the course of instruction, and the large number of dismissals in this Institution, so far from being an argument against the system pursued there, are, in the opinion of the Board, not the least cause of its excellence. It is impossible to educate everybody ; and it seems to be better, by fixing a high standard of education, to train up those who are subjected to it, so as to enable them to accomplish the greater amount of good, than to educate a large number imperfectly; for, if the standard is low, very many will fall short even of that mark; and the tendency of such a system will be to deteriorate until it becomes worthless, and, in the end, contemptible."

At this period, the officers of the Academies, who had hitherto held only such relative titles among themselves as had been conferred by the Board, were, upon the recommendation of that body, duly commissioned by the Governor and Commander-in-Chief in the Militia of the State.

The year 1854 was signalized in the history of the Academies, and embalmed in the memory of the Cadets participating, by a peaceful but triumphal march through the State. The Battalion of Cadets, commanded by Maj. Capers, and composed of Company "A," Capt. Tew, and Company " B," Lieutenant Stevens, took up the line of march from Columbia to Winnsboro', and thence moved on successively to Chester, Yorkville, Spartanburg, Greenville, Laurensville, Newberry, and back to the Capital of the State. Upon reaching Newberry, where the remains of Capt. Graham rested, the opportunity of paying a tribute of respect to the memory of the first Superintendent of the Citadel Academy was not omitted. Conducted to the spot, the corps, at the command of its Major, fired a volley over the grave. In this expedition, the officers and Cadets of the Academies were everywhere met with a warm and hospitable reception by the communities in the line of march, and the expedition no doubt tended to popularize the Institutions, while contributing to the pleasure and instruction of the Cadets.

So much for an episode in the Epic of the Academies-once associated with unmixed pleasure, but now tinged with the sombre hues reflected from the real campaigns that afterwards succeeded this incident of mimic war.

During the Summer of this year, (1854), owing to the prevalence of yellow fever in Charleston, the Citadel Cadets were, by order of the Board, temporarily disbanded, excepting the First Class, who continued their studies at the Arsenal Academy.

The Board this year appropriated $5,000 " towards the purchase of the Library of the Citadel Academy."

Referring, again, in their report for 1854, to the small proportion of Cadets who reach the period of graduating, the Board say : " It may appear, at the first view, that the standard has been fixed too high ; but the Board believe that all who have not been dismissed for misconduct have been educated to the extent of their capacity, and they indulge the hope that though not found entitled to the highest distinction of the Institution, very many of them have been thus prepared for useful and honorable stations in life."    While there is no doubt much force in these views of the Board as well as in the views before expressed by them on this subject, yet the writer of this sketch holds that the whole truth is not, in his judgment, stated.   The curriculum  of the South Carolina Military Academy was a high and a comprehensive one.   In the four years first allowed to accomplish it, and even in the four years and three months subsequently allowed for that purpose, there was much to be done, and there was a rapid transition from one department of study to the next higher one in order.   

Further, the literary requisites for admission into the fourth or lowest class were not high.   Though not so intended, they were, indeed, practically deceptive in their character.    Thus the youths who entered the Academic arena often confronted difficulties that they had not anticipated, saw  lions  in  their  pathway  of which  they  had  not dreamed.   Hence the reason why so many Cadets failed to pass through the Academies and broke down at some point or other in the course, was not due to the standard, which was not too high, but the trouble originated mainly in the fact that the period was too short for the curriculum, and above all, in the circumstance that the great majority of the matriculates who entered the Academies were not fully prepared to do the work prescribed by the regulations in the time designated.  

Called upon to rise too rapidly from one plane of scholastic achievement to the other, not a few ambitious boys failed to reach the prize that their eager hands sought to grasp in the swift race they were required to run The truth of impartial history having made this criticism necessary, the thread of the narrative is now resumed.

December 21st, 1854, the Legislature passed an Act authorizing and empowering the Commissioners of the Orphan House of Charleston to select once in every four years two youths from the number educated and maintained on the bounty of that Institution, for the purpose of completing their education at the Military Schools, established by this State, and graduating therein, provided that it does not increase the number to which Charleston District is now entitled. But it seems that no appointments were, at any time, made under this Act.

In the year 1855, additional officers' quarters, in the shape of a tenement building detached from the main structure, were constructed at the Arsenal Academy. Prior to this, about the year 1852, a three story brick building, with wooden parapet, had been erected at this point, connecting the two detached rectangular buildings which originally afforded quarters for both officers and Cadets.

In their annual report for 1855, the Board refer to the flourishing condition of the Academies for the past year.

The Graduating Class consisted of seventeen members, and one hundred and seventy-one Cadets were on the rolls for 1856.

In June, 1856, occurred the death of Capt. Matthews, who, to a large extent, enjoyed the confidence of the Board, as Superintenent of the Arsenal Academy, and their efficient Secretary, as will appear from the adoption of the following resolutions :

Resolved, 1st. That the Board have heard, with heartfelt sorrow, of the death of Capt. Joseph Matthews, late Superintendent of the Arsenal Academy, who, by his high and unparalleled qualities as an officer, commanded our admiration and respect, and by his admirable deportment as a gentleman, had won our cordial love and esteem.

Resolved, 2d. That the Arsenal Academy owes much of its success to the devoted attention and judicious management of Capt. Matthews, and that in his death it has sustained an irreparable loss.

Resolved, 3d. That we hereby tender to the wife of the deceased our kindest sympathy in her sad bereavement.

Resolved, 4th. That we invite Mrs. Matthews to retain her present residence at the Arsenal, until the first of January next, and that, as a slight token of our appreciation of the distinguished services rendered to the Arsenal Academy by Capt. Matthews, we tender to her the privilege of educating her eldest son, (Joseph Ulm Matthews,) at the State Military Academies, free of charge

Resolved, 5th. That a copy of  the above resolutions be sent to Mrs  Matthews, and be published in the papers of the city.

At the same meeting the following orders were agreed to and passed :

1. That Capt. C. C Tew be transferred to the Arsenal Academy, as Superintendent, Professor and Bursar.
2. That Lieut. P. F. Stevens be promoted to the rank of Captain.
3. That Senior First Lieutenant J. B. White, Professor of Mathematics  at the Arsenal  Academy be retained at the Arsenal Academy, in conformity with his request.
4. That Second Lieutenant J. P. Thomas be promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant, and that he be transferred to the Citadel Academy, as Professor of Belles-Lettres, Ethics and French.
5. That Mr. H. D. Kennedy (graduate of the Class of 1848) be elected Professor of Belles-Lettres, History and French, at the Arsenal Academy, with the rank of Second Lieutenant.

It was further provided, that the transfers ordered at the time, (June, 1856), be made on the 1st January next, and that Lieut. J. B. White remain in command at the Arsenal Academy as Superintendent and Bursar, ad interim.

In November of the same year, Dr. A. W. Kennedy was elected Surgeon of the Arsenal Academy, vice Dr. A. H. Nagel, deceased, who had faithfully served in that capacity since the first establishment of the Academy.

At the same meeting, it was :

Resolved, That so much of the order of the 27th June, 1856, as transferred Professor J. P. Thomas to the Citadel Academy be rescinded, and that Professor J. B. White be transferred to the Citadel Academy to the charge of the Department of Mathematics, etc., and that Professor P. F. Stevens be transferred to the Department of Belles-Lettres, Ethics and French, and that Professor H. D. Kennedy shall take charge of the Department of Mathematics, made vacant by the transfer of Professor White to the Citadel Academy.

The corps of officers and professors at the two Academies nowstood thus:

Major F. W. CAPERS, Superintendent, Professor Mechanics, Engineering, etc.
Captain P. F, STEVENS, Professor Belles-Lettres, Ethics and French.
First Lieutenant J. B. WHITE, Professor Mathematics and Astronomy.
WM HUME, M. D., Professor Experimental Science.
F. GAUTHIER, Professor Drawing.
Dr. H. BOYLSTON, Surgeon.

Captain C. C. TEW, Superintendent and Bursar, and Professor French.
First Lieutenant J. P. THOMAS, Professor Belles-Lettres and History.
Second Lieutenant H. D. KENNEDY, Professor Mathemathics.
Dr. A. W. KENNEDY, Surgeon.

In the Annual Report of the Board for 1856, they allude to the fact that, on account of the yellow fever in Charleston, it had been found necessary to remove the Cadets from the Citadel to the Arsenal Academy. Referring to the recurrence of yellow fever in the City of Charleston, they say:  While the Citadel Academy is in its present flourishing condition, the Board would be unwilling to recommend any change, but they apprehend that it may be necessary, if the causes of removal shall become of frequent occurrence, to provide for the consolidation of the two Academies either at Columbia or some other place to be fixed on by the Legislature." The Board at this meeting suggested to the Legislature the expediency of erecting an additional wing to the Arsenal building this recommendation being based upon the increased number of admissions to the Academy made that year.

In the Annual Report of the Board for 1857, they allude to the change made of the Annual Commencement of the Citadel from November to April, thus extending the course to four years and three months, and changing the military session from April and December to August and September.

They say in the same report, viz., that for 1857: " For the first time since the establishment of these Institutions, the number of pay applicants for admission have exceeded the means of. accommodation at the Arsenal; and the Board greatly regret that they have been compelled to reject this year twenty-eight pay applicants for that reason. Under this state of things, it may be that your Honorable Body will feel the necessity of taking steps to increase the accommodations at the Arsenal by making suitable additions to the building at that post, and thus gratifying the desire of a large body of the people of this State to have their sons taught at these schools."

The Board, referring to the appropriation of $500 twice made for the commencement of a library for the Academies, ask the Legislature to renew it for another year.

In November, 1858, Captain C. C. Tew, Superintendent of the Arsenal Academy, resigned in order to carry out his enterprise of a military school at Hillsboro', N. C Thereupon the Board adopted the following resolutions, which were ordered to be transmitted to Captain Tew, and to be published in the papers of the City of Columbia:

Resolved, That the Board of Visitors have received, with much regret, the resignation of Captain Tew, the Superintendent of the Arsenal Academy. During the whole period of his connection with the State Military Academies as Cadet, Assistant Professor at the Arsenal Academy, as Professor of Belles-Lettres in the Citadel Academy, and as Supeintendent at the Arsenal, he discharged all his duties with signal ability, zeal, and success, and the Board, in parting with Captain Tew, take great pleasure in bearing testimony to the valuable services he has rendered these Institutions.

Resolved, That a copy of the foregoing be transmitted to Captain Tew, as a slight testimonial of their estimate of his worth, with their kindest wishes for his future welfare.

Upon the announcement at this meeting of the death of Mr. J. Ladson Gregorie, Bursar of the Citadel Academy, which had occurred during the summer, the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously passed:

The Board have heard with deep sensibility of the death of J. Ladson Gregorie. For many years connected with the Citadel Academy, he brought to the office watchfulness, fidelity, and integrity, the distinguishing characteristics of an honest man.   It was his singular good fortune during his long connection with the Citadel, as Bursar, to be commended for the faithfulness of his administration, and the general satisfaction of those who were the recipients of his care.

Resolved, That this Board entertain for the late Mr. Gregorie profound respect for the high qualities which marked him as a man j that they feel deeply the loss of a valued officer, one always ready and efficient to promote the interests of the Institution, and prompt in the discharge of duties for its success.

Mr. W. H. Wright, graduate of the Class of 1851, had been appointed to succeed Mr. Gregorie, by the Chairman of the Board. The appointment was now approved, and Mr. Wright was elected Bursar of the Citadel Academy.

The following changes were made: Captain P. F. Stevens was placed in charge of the Department of Mathematics and Astronomy, in the Citadel Academy. Lieutenant J. B. White was transferred to the Arsenal Academy, as Superintendent and Professor of Mathematics, with the title of Captain, next in order to Captain Stevens. Lieutenant J. P. Thomas was transferred to the Citadel Academy, as Professor of Belles-Lettres, Ethics and French. Lieutenant H. D. Kennedy was promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant, and was put in charge of the Department of Belles-Lettres and History, at the Arsenal Academy.    It was further Resolved, That Mr. H. S. Thompson (graduate of the Class of 1856) be appointed Professor of French in the Arsenal Academy, with the rank of Second Lieutenant; and that Mr. J. B. Patrick (graduate of the Class of 1855) be appointed Assistant Professor of Mathematics, at the Arsenal Academy, with the rank of Second Lieutenant.

Lieutenant J. P. Thomas was further appointed Superintendent of the Arsenal Academy, until the Annual Examination at the Citadel in April next, at which time Captain White had been ordered to take charge at the Arsenal as Superintendent.

The corps of officers and Professors now stood as follows:

Major F. W. CAPERS, Superintendent, Professor Mechanics, Engineering, etc.
Captain P. F. STEVENS, Professor Mathematics and Astronomy.
First Lieutenant J. P. THOMAS, Professor Belles-Lettres, Ethics, and French.
WM. HUME, M. D., Professor Experimental Science.
F. GAUTHIER, Professor Drawing.
Dr. H. BOYLSTON, Surgeon.

Captain J. B. WHITE, Superintendent and Bursar, and Professor of Mathematics.
First Lieutenant H. D. KENNEDY, Professor Belles-Lettres and History.
Second Lieutenant H. S. THOMPSON, Professor French.
Second Lieutenant J. B. PATRICK, Assistant Professor of Mathematics.
Dr. A. W. KENNEDY, Surgeon.

The Board, in their report for 1858, again call for an appropriation of $500, for the Library of the Academies.
The Legislature of 1858, having made the necessary appropriation, a wing was added to the Arsenal building, thus giving the needed accommodations for Cadets.

In 1859, Mr. F. Gauthier, Professor of Drawing in the Citadel Academy, having tendered his resignation, it was accepted, and the following resolutions were passed:

Resolved, That the Board, in accepting the resignation of Mr. Gauthier, avail themselves of the opportunity to express to him their high appreciation of his conduct and services during their connection with him, and their regret at parting with one whose intercourse has been so long and pleasant with them. He carries with him their high esteem and best wishes for his future happiness.

Resolved, That the Secretary be instructed to furnish Mr. Gauthier with a copy of the foregoing resolution - Mr. W. W. Veitch, graduate of the Class of 1851, was elected Instructor of Drawing, vice Mr. Gauthier, resigned, with the rank of Second Lieutenant.    Second Lieutenant W. M. Tennent, graduate of the Class of 1857, previously appointed Instructor of Mathematics, was reappointed, and Mr. T. A. Huguenin, of the Class of 1859, was appointed Instructor in such departments as the Academic Board of the Citadel may suggest.

In the year 1859, Gen. Dan'l Wallace, one of the original members of the Board of Visitors, having died, Col. Henry C. Young, of Laurens District, was appointed by Governor Gist to succeed him. Upon motion of Col. Young, the following preamble and resolutions were passed by the Board :

The Board of Visitors of the Military Academy of the State of South Carolina, sensible of the great loss which this Institution has sustained, in the death of the Hon. Daniel Wallace, one of the Board, and desirous of giving some expression of the estimation and respect in which they held his distinguished services, and which they entertain for his memory, unanimously adopt the following resolutions:

Resolved, That in the death of the Hon. Daniel Wallace, the Military Academy of the State has been deprived of one of its most devoted friends and useful visitors.

Resolved, That the Board of Visitors have lost the counsel of one, for whose high integrity and manly qualities they entertained the highest regard, and in whose sound judgment they placed the most implicit confidence.

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be transmitted to the family of the deceased, and be published in the newspapers of Columbia and Charleston.

Major F. W. Capers, Superintendent of the Citadel Academy, having at this time, September, 1859, tendered his resignation, it was accepted, and the following resolutions, offered by Ex-Governor Means, were adopted :

Resolved, unanimously That the Board of Visitors of the State Military Academy, in accepting the resignation of Major F. W. Capers as Superintendent of the Citadel Academy, feel it due to the long, pleasant and intimate association which existed between them to express regret at parting with one whose noble qualities have endeared him to them, and their great pleasure in testifying to the zeal, fidelity and* ability with which he has discharged the duties of his office.

Resolved, That the Secretary be instructed to transmit a copy of this resolution to Major Capers, and publish it in the papers of Columbia and Charleston.

Major Frank W. Capers, who thus retired from  an institution which he had long served, first as a subordinate officer, and, finally, as the Superintendent, well  merited the eulogium of the Board. He had helped to guide the infancy and youth of the Citadel Academy, and had played an important part in fixing its scholarship, and establishing its morale.   Afterwards, with increased experience, he came to direct the more matured life of the Institution. No Superintendent did more than he to promote the esprit de corps of the Cadets of the Academy.  
While he generously sought to mitigate the rigors of military discipline, he maintained the standard of honor and gentility.    His high aim was to develop nobility of character, to make gentleman and soldier synonymous terms,   and to elevate the ethics of the corps that he commanded.   Doubtless his electric appeals to the higher nature usually found in the young men of South Carolina, and, indeed, in all young men of God's conquering race, often served to quicken into life the springs of elevated action.

The resignation of Captain Stevens having been read, the following resolutions were adopted, viz :

Resolved, That the Board is unwilling to go out of its own Institution for its future officers.

Resolved, That the graduates of the State Military Academy should consider themselves at all times under obligations to render their services to the Institutions whenever called upon to do so.

Resolved, That under these circumstances the Board decline to accept the resignation of Captain Stevens, and hereby unanimously appoint him Superintendent of the Citadel Academy.

Resolved, That Captain Stevens be promoted to the rank of Major, and that Lieutenant Thomas be promoted to the rank of Captain, next in order to Captain White.

Mr. N. W. Armstrong, graduate of the Class of 1851, was elected to the Professorship of Mathematics, made vacant by the promotion of Major Stevens, with the rank of Second Lieutenant.

In December, 1859, in view of the increasing wants of the Institution, the Board called upon the Legislature for another appropriation for additional accommodations for Cadets.

Lieutenant W. M. Tennent, resident graduate at the Citadel, and assistant instructor in Mathematics, resigned his office.    Mr. Ellison Capers, graduate of the Class of 1857, having been previously appointed resident graduate at the Citadel, the appointment was confirmed. Second Lieutenant IT. S. Thompson, of the Arsenal, was promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant.

In April, 1860, Lieutenant W .W. Veitch having resigned the office of Instructor of Drawing at the Citadel, the departments of French and Drawing were united in one Professorship, and Mr. W. H. Wright was elected Professor of French and Drawing.

Mr. A. H. Mazyck, graduate of the Class of 1854, was elected Bursar of the Citadel Academy, made vacant by the election of Mr. Wright to the Professorship of French and Drawing.

Mr. A. J. Norris, graduate of the Class of 1860, was appointed to the position of resident graduate at the Citadel, and Assistant Instructor.
Thus, in April, 1860, the officers and Professors of the Academies stood as follows:

Major P. F. STEVENS, Superintendent, and Professor of Civil and Military Engineering and Astronomy.
Captain J. P. THOMAS, Professor Belles-Lettres and Ethics.
Second Lieutenant N. W- ARMSTRONG, Professor Mathematics and Mechanical Philosophy.
Second Lieutenant W. IT. WRIGHT, Professor French and Drawing.
WM. HUME, M. D., Professor Experimental Science.
Second Lieutenant ELLISON CAPERS, Resident Graduate, Instructor in Mathematics.
Second Lieutenant A J. NORMS, Resident Graduate, Instructor in History.
Second Lieutenant A. H. MAZYCK, Bursar and Quartermaster.

Captain J. B. WHITE, Superintendent and Professor Mathematics.
First Lieutenant H. D. KENNEDY, Professor Belles-Lettres and History.
First Lieutenant H. S. THOMPSON, Professor French.
Second  Lieutenant J. B. PATRICK, Assistant Professor Mathematics. A. W. KENNEDY, M. D., Surgeon.

Two wings to the Citadel building having been previously added, improvements to the east wing were at this time made under the supervision of the Superintendent.

The thanks of the Board of Visitors were tendered to Colonel L. M. Hatch for the instruction in the broad sword exercise, voluntarily and gratuitously given by him to a Class of Cadets at the Citadel Academy.

We come now to the period of the late war between the States. On the 20th December, 1860, South Carolina passed the famous Ordinance of Secession, and the Citadel Academy thrilled with the excitement that pervaded the community in which it was located. It was the fortune of the Academy to be intimately associated with the opening scenes of the Confederate War. In the Citadel was organized the first laboratory established in the Confederacy for the manufacture of ordnance stores. It was soon put in effective operation, and made large and timely contributions to the military necessities of the South in the beginning of her struggle. The Board of Visitors, upon the occurrence of any pressing emergency, never hesitated to put the military services of the officers and Cadets at the command of the State, or the Confederate authorities. Major Stevens, Superintendent of the Citadel Academy, with a detachment of Cadets from the Citadel, was in charge of the Star of the West battery, famous in the history of the war as having fired the first hostile shot, and two other officers of the Citadel took part in the bombardment of Fort Sumter, as commanders of batteries.

The affair of "the Star of the West"' being of historic interest, demands, at my hands, a more than passing notice. On or about the 25th December, 1860, Major P. F. Stevens was ordered by the Executive of the State to take to Morris Island a detachment of Cadets and four 24-pounder siege guns, and to put the guns in position to command the channel, with a view to keeping out all suspicious vessels from Fort Sumter, then invested by the Southern troops. The Vigilant Rifles of Charleston, a fire company organized into a military company, under command of Capt. S. Y. Tupper, were also ordered to Morris Island.   On the night of December 31, 1860, Lieutenant-Colonel Jno. L. Branch, of the first Regiment of Rifles, South Carolina Militia, received orders to take three of his companies to Morris Island. On the afternoon of January 1st, 1861, he reached that point. Being the senior officer, he assumed command of all the forces on the Island, and remained so until the arrival, a few weeks subsequent, of Col. J. J. Pettigrew. Col. Branch found Major Stevens and his command engaged in constructing what was, after the 9th January, called the Star of the West Battery; as it was from that point, and with the 24 pounders manned by the Cadets, that the United States Ship  Star of the West,'' was driven off while attempting, to relieve Fort Sumter, Thus it stands-for all that it implies-that the Citadel Cadets, under the command of Col. Branch, as commanding officer of the post, and of Maj. Stevens, as immediately in charge of the guns, fired the first shot of the War of Secession. Col. Branch and Maj. Stevens, thus connected with the first hostile incident of a great war, were both graduates of the South Carolina Military Academy. And it was the Governor of South Carolina who had ordered them to the front, at the culmination of the crisis which had been brought upon the State.

The following resolution, passed by the Board April 9th, 1861, shows the circumstances connected with the graduation of the Class of 1861:
Resolved, That, in consequence of the imminent collision between the troops of the Confederate States, and the forces of the United States, in the immediate vicinity of the City of Charleston, the usual ceremonies of the Commencement be dispensed with.

At this meeting of the Board, it was ordered that Messrs. C. I. Walker and J. D. Lee (graduates of the Class of 1861) be appointed Resident Graduates for the ensuing year, with the rank, each, of Second Lieutenant, and that they report at the Citadel for duty, as Assistant Professors. But these young graduates, impelled by a sense of duty to go into the service of the Confederacy, declined the appointment.

At the meeting of the Board in August, 1871, notice was given of the death of Lieutenant H. D. Kennedy, Professor of Belles-Lettres and History at the Arsenal Academy, and of the resignation of Major P. F. Stevens, Superintendent of the Citadel Academy.

Ex-Governor Means presented the following resolutions, which were adopted by the Board ;

Resolved, That we have heard with deep regret of the death of Lieutenant H. D. Kennedy, Professor of Belles-Lettres and History in the Arsenal Academy, whose kind heart, manly qualities, fidelity and efficiency in the discharge of all his duties as a Professor, not only won our admiration and respect, but greatly endeared him to us.

Resolved, That these resolutions be entered upon a separate page of the Journal of this Board, and published in the papers of Columbia and Charleston, and that a copy be sent to the family of the deceased.

In relation to Major Stevens, on motion of General Jamison, the following resolution was adopted by the Board:

Resolved, That the positive character of the resignation of Major P. F. Stevens, as Superintendent of the Citadel Academy, leaves the Board no alternative but to accept it; but they cannot sever the relation which has so long existed between them and Major Stevens, without bearing testimony to the marked ability and fidelity with which he has discharged all his duties while connected with the Institution; and, while parting from him with regret, they tender him their best wishes for his future welfare.

The following order was passed by the Board: That Captain J. B. White be promoted to the rank of Major, and that he be transferred to the Citadel Academy as Superintendent; that Captain J. P. Thomas be transferred to the Arsenal Academy as Superintendent and Professor of Belles-Lettres and History; that First Lieutenant H. S. Thompson be promoted to the rank of Captain, and be transferred to the Citadel Academy as Professor of Belles-Lettres and Ethics; that Second Lieutenant J. B Patrick be promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant, and that he be appointed Professor Mathematics at the Arsenal Academy ; and that Second Lieutenant N. W. Armstrong be promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant.

Mr. Warren Adams, graduate of the Class of 1859, was elected Professor of French in the Arsenal Academy, and Mr. Ellison Capers Assistant Professor at the Citadel Academy, each with the rank of Second Lieutenant.

At the meeting of the Board in November, 1861, Mr. John W. Jamison was elected Assistant Professor at the Arsenal Academy, vice Lieutenant Patrick promoted.

Mr. Warren Adams having declined the appointment tendered him, Lieutenant A. J. Norris, Assistant Instructor at the Citadel Academy, was appointed Professor at the Arsenal Academy. Mr. A. S. Gaillard, graduate of the Class of 1860, was elected Assistant Professor at the Citadel Academy, with the rank of Second Lieutenant, vice Lieutenant Ellison Capers who had resigned his office to engage in the service of the Confederacy.

The corps of officers and Professors at the Academies now stood as follows :

Major J. B. WHITE, Superintendent and Professor Civil and Military Engineering and Astronomy.
Captain H. S. THOMPSON, Professor Belles-Lettres and Ethics.
First Lieutenant N. W. ARMSTRONG, Professor Mathematics and Mechanical Philosophy.
Second Lieutenant W. H. WRIGHT, Professor French and Drawing.
Second Lieutenant A. S. GAILLARD, Assistant Professor.
Second Lieutenant A. H. MAZYCK, Quartermaster and Bursar.

Captain J. P. THOMAS, Superintendent and Bursar, and Professor of French.
First Lieutenant J. B. PATRICK, Professor of Mathematics.
Second Lieutenant A. J. NORRIS, Professor Belles-Lettres and History.
Doctor A. W- KENNEDY, Surgeon.

In their report for 1861, the Board expressed themselves satisfied with the condition of the Academies, saying that although the studies in both of them had been interrupted by the disturbed condition of public affairs during the past season, the examinations had been " very satisfactory."

In view of the high prices of clothing and food, the Board apprehend that they will not be able to keep the Academies, as hitherto, from debt, and they announce their purpose, under certain contingencies, to increase the pay of a Cadet (which had hitherto been two hundred dollars per annum u in full of subsistence, clothing, tuition, books and stationery, medical attendance and all charges and expenses whatever,") to two hundred and forty dollars. They express themselves much indisposed to take this step as they had been " anxious to keep these schools in the reach of that large class of our people who are unable to give their sons an expensive education."

From the exhibit made at this time, November, 1861, nineteen years since the establishment of the Academies, it appears that up to this time there had been appointed one thousand and seventy-three (1073) pay and five hundred and ninety-six (596) State Cadets-of whom two hundred and two (202) had graduated, thirteen (13) had died, and there remained in the Academy November 30, 1861, one hundred and twenty-five (125.)

In April, 1862, Lieutenant John W. Jamison, Assistant Professor at the Arsenal Academy, resigned his office.

It should be added that Mr. A. S. Gaillard, appointed Assistant Professor at the Citadel in November, 1861, did not accept the appointment.

Mr. R. O. Saras, graduate of the Class of 1861, was elected Assistant Professor in South Carolina Military Academy and ordered to report for duty at the Citadel Academy.

In November, 1862, Dr. Henry Boylston, Surgeon of the Citadel Academy for nearly twenty years, having, in consequence of advanced age and declining health, tendered his resignation, it was accepted by the Board, and Dr. J. Dickson Bruns elected to succeed him.

Death had again invaded the ranks of those who formed the original Board of Visitors of the South Carolina Military Academy. Ex-Governor Means, during the past summer, had fallen mortally wounded, in command of his Regiment, on the field of second Manassas.

The Hon. Thomas C Perrin, who had been appointed to fill the vacancy thus made in the Board, submitted the following memorial, which was unanimously adopted :

Since the last meeting of this Board, it has pleased an overruling Providence to remove by death Ex-Governor John II Means. During a great part of his manhood, he was so connected with public affairs that his life is a history of the State, and therefore it is useless to record here his eminent public services, his patriotic sacrifice of his ease and comfort to the hard duties of the camp and the life of a soldier, or the circumstances of his glorious death. To the entire State the death of Governor Means was a public calamity. To the State Military Academy, with which he was connected from its first establishment, and to this Board with whom he was associated for twenty years, his loss will be more deeply felt. Few men have ever more endeared themselves to their associates than Governor Means. Social in his temper, generous in his disposition, sincere in friendship, unselfish in all his objects, firm in all matters of principle and right, stern and unyielding when conscience and duty were involved, his presence was always greeted with pleasure and his counsel eagerly sought. He was unsurpassed in the purity of his principles, the ardor of his patriotism, the benevolence of the heart. In his character were beautifully blended the noble virtues of love to man and piety to God. It has seldom fallen to the lot of any one to be more beloved in life or more lamented in death. To us his life is full of instruction, and his memory will ever be cherished.

Resolved, That in the death of Gov. Means, the State has lost an eminent and valued citizen, and this Board a useful and beloved associate.

Resolved, That a copy of the foregoing preamble and resolutions be forwarded to the family of the deceased, and that the same be published in the gazettes of this city.

At this time, (November, 1862,) it was resolved by the Board, that, during the existence of the present high prices, pay Cadets in the South Carolina Military Academy be required to furnish their own under-clothing; also, their shoes, combs and brushes; and pay annually four hundred dollars.

Up to this time, the Superintendent at the Arsenal Academy had been discharging the duties of Superintendent, Professor, Bursar, and Arsenal Keeper. Upon the suggestion of that officer, it was decided by the Board to elect a Bursar for the Arsenal Academy, and Mr. B. H. Knight was appointed to that office by the Chairman. Mr. Amory Coffin, graduate of the Class of 1862, was, at this period, elected Assistant Professor at the Citadel Academy, with the rank of Second Lieutenant.

In their report for this year, the Board say, that the examinations of the two Academies have been entirely satisfactory to them, and that, notwithstanding the excitement in all men's minds during the present year, (1862) occasioned by a state of war, good order has been generally maintained, and a high grade of proficiency has been reached in both Institutions.

The Board, referring to the fact that a much larger number of applications had been received this year than ever before-the number being more than three hundred pay applicants-suggest to the Legislature the propriety of adding another wing to the Arsenal building, to provide additional quarters for Cadets, and that a house be built for the Superintendent outside of the barracks, so that the present portion thereof occupied by that officer, might be converted into Cadet quarters.

The Board further suggest, that if the Legislature would place at their disposal a portion of the College buildings now unoccupied, they would endeavor to make arrangements to receive all the applicants who had applied. Mr. G. G. Wells, graduate of the Class of 1862, was, at this meeting of the Board, elected Assistant Professor at the Citadel, with the rank of Second Lieutenant.

In accordance with the resolutions of the General Assembly, authorizing the Governor to appoint six Cadets annually, (one from each Congressional District,) to the South Carolina Military Academy, His Excellency made his appointments for 1863.

The following protest against the action of the Legislature in this connection was handed to the Chairman of the Military Committee of the Senate before the Legislature of 1862 adjourned, and was entered upon the Journal of the Board :


Twenty years ago, the Board of Visitors, under a meagre act of the General Assembly, converted the Arsenal Guard and the Citadel Guard into Military Schools. They (the Board) devoted much time and labor to perfecting and carrying out their scheme.

The experience of a series of years satisfied them that fifty-four beneficiary Cadets were as many as could be subsisted, clothed, and supplied, and educated with the endowment of the annual appropriation of $30,000, and they fixed upon that number as the maximum in the Academy. By an estimate of the Superintendent of the Citadel Academy, based upon the prices of clothing and subsistence during the quarter ending September 30th, 1862, the annual cost of a Cadet is shown to be :

For clothing   271 25
For subsistence     188 41
For servants' hire, lights, fuel, washing and medicine      56 00
Making  $515 66

Exclusive of text-books, stationery, bedding and room furniture. The resolution of the Legislature increased the number of beneficiary Cadets by an addition of twenty-four, making the whole number seventy-eight instead of fifty-four, an increase of nearly fifty per cent., and contemplates an appropriation of $333.33 each, instead of at least, $515.66 each, which latter sum will be, in reality, under the actual cost of each Cadet to the Institution, during the continuance of the present high prices of clothing and subsistence.

Again, if the Institution is worthy of the patronage of the State, it is entirely owing to the care and labor bestowed upon it by the gentlemen composing the Board of Visitors. The Chairman of that Board, who has labored for twenty years in the cause, cannot perceive any good reason why the appointment of Cadets should be taken away from the Board, and given to one of its members.
(Signed,) JAMES JONES,
Chairman of Board of Visitors, South Carolina Military Academy.
Columbia, February 2d, 1863.

On the 10th of July, in this year (1863), the studies in both Institutions were suspended, and the Cadets of the Citadel Academy, and fifty-two of the Arsenal Academy, were placed at the disposal of the commanding general of the Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, and assigned to special military duty in the City of Charleston. This state of things continued until the 3d of September following, when the detachment from the Arsenal were remanded to their duties at that post, but the Cadets of the Citadel Academy remained in service until the 23d of the same month.

In February, 1863, Professor W. H. Wright, of the Citadel, died in the service of the Academy. In November, 1863, Colonel H. C. Young, member of the Board, resigned, and was succeeded by Colonel R. J. Gage of Union, whereupon, the following resolutions were adopted:

Resolved unanimously, That in parting with Colonel Young, as a member of the Board, we feel it due to the long, pleasant, and intimate association that has existed between us, to express our regret that his numerous cares should have induced him to resign, and our great pleasure in testifying to the regularity, zeal and efficiency with which he has ever discharged his duties.

Resolved unanimously, That the Secretary of the Board be instructed to forward this resolution to Colonel Young, and tender him our best wishes for his happiness in future.

In reference to the appropriation of $25,000, which had been passed by the Legislature of 1862, for the purpose of making certain additions to the Arsenal building at Columbia, the Board stated that, in consequence of the restriction placed upon the appropriation, it could not be drawn and consequently, the buildings were not erected. They add that, from the increased price of labor and material, the same improvement could not be made for double the amount appropriated last year, and the doubt is expressed if the necessary materials could now be procured at any price. At this meeting the fees of the pay Cadets were raised to $800 per annum. The Board reported an excess of expenditures over receipts amounting, at both Academies, to the sum of $23,371.57, and they recommend to the Legislature a special appropriation of that amount to cover the deficit. The annual appropriation for the Academies, originally $24,000, had been increased, first to $30,000, and, subsequently, to $37,000. The Board, after giving substantial reasons therefor, recommend to the Legislature an annual appropriation of $73,200 as necessary for the support of the Institution during the present state of affairs; to be increased hereafter as the number of Cadets appointed by the Governor, under the resolution of the Legislature, is successively increased, until the maximum, twenty-four, is reached.

Lieutenant G. G. Wells, of the Citadel Corps, having resigned, the Chairman of the Board appointed, as his successor, Lieutenant John F. Lanneau, of the Engineer Corps, Confederate States Army, a graduate of the Class of 1856.

The thanks of the Board, at this time, were tendered to Mr. Theodore D. Wagner, a patriotic merchant of Charleston, for the liberal and public spirited aid afforded by him to the officers of the South Carolina Military Academy, in the purchase of cloth for the use of that
Institution at the present period of scarcity and high prices.

During the summer of 1864 occurred the lamented death of General D. F. Jamison, who, for more than twenty years, had been one of the strongest and most polished pillars of the Institution.

Wm. Gilmore Simms, LL.D., was appointed to the place thus made vacant by the death of General Jamison. At the meeting of the Board, in December, 1864, Dr. Simms submitted the following preamble and resolutions, which were unanimously adopted :

It has pleased Almighty God, in the inscrutable Providence, which we must endure, even when we fail to comprehend, to withdraw from his country, his family, and this Board, David F. Jamison, one of the original members of this body, and one whose loss we specially deplore.

For twenty-five years our associate was a diligent and wise counsellor of this Board, one whose amenity and grace, courtesy, gentleness, good sense, and general bearing, as well as intelligence, made it equally profitable and pleasant to unite with him in council. He was a painstaking and useful worker, a sound, discriminative thinker, a patient seeker, logical in reason, and modestly unobtrusive in the utterance of advice. He blent within himself those many minor attributes of head, heart, and social manner which, duly united, we call moral prudence, and without which counsel must always fail to work the results of wisdom.

In this Board our associate especially proved his claim as a judicious counsellor-his wisdom placed him in an almost patriarchal relation to successive generations of young men in the keeping of the Institution, over the interests of which he maintained an unwavering watch, and in all the progress of which he showed a tender concern, and a never-flagging care, which grew in time to an affection, if not a passion.   The withdrawal from us of this our honored associate, is a loss which we know not well how to bear, and which it will not be easy to supply.

And such, too, is the loss of the whole country in whose service he commenced his best prime of youth and vigorous manhood, and in whose harness of work and welfare he sunk at last, dying at his post of duty. Filling several of the highest positions in the State and in the Confederacy, he found his way to them without making search or struggle. He was the sought, and not the seeker and in all the situations which he filled, his working fully justified the choice which gave them to his charge. His native State, the Confederacy, his large and bereaved family, his many friends, these young men, his late and grateful charge-all equally suffer in the departure of our honored friend and associate. He died at Charleston, of yellow fever, most unexpectedly, after a few hours' illness. Death, which is usually a surprise to man, is to us, in this case, a wonder as well as sorrow; since, in our prevailing sense of his worth, our uniform confidence in his habitual presence here, we never allowed ourselves to regard him as one whom we should one day, and so suddenly, find missing from his post.

Resolved, That in the death of David F. Jamison, this Board deplores the loss of one of its most highly valued, useful, and esteemed members.

Resolved, That the State of South Carolina, which has enjoyed his lifelong services, has yielded up to God one of her most honored sons.

Resolved, That this Board doth herewith respectfully offer its tribute and testimonial of profound sympathy to the widowed wife, the suffering mother of his children, the sons and daughters of our friend.

Resolved, finally, That our Secretary be instructed to provide copies of this report and these resolutions for publication in the newspapers, communicate copies to the family of our associate, and enter them fully on the Records of this Board.

We come now to the proceedings of the last annual meeting of the old Board. Hanna, Wallace, Means, Jamison, of the old Board, had died, but Jones and Wilson remained, and they found in Perrin and Sirams able and earnest coadjutors.

The tribute to General Jamison, whom the veteran Chairman and his associate, Colonel Wilson, loved as a brother, having been paid, the Board addressed itself to business.

As to the finances of the Academy. The fees of the pay Cadet were further raised in view of the necessities of that time of war and depreciated currency, to ($1200) twelve hundred dollars per annum, and he was required to furnish his own under-clothing; also, his ''shoes, combs, brushes, towels sheets and pillow-cases."

The salaries of the officers and Professors, previously raised, were still further increased and for the reasons given, the Board called on the General Assembly for an appropriation of $147,200 for the support of the Military Academy.

As to educational matters: The Board express themselves gratified that, although the frequent, and at one time prolonged demand upon the Citadel Cadets for military service in the field, and as Provost Guard by the Confederate military authorities, had Seriously interrupted their academic progress, yet the discipline of both Academies had been preserved unimpaired through the year.

At this time, the last appointment of an officer to the Academy was made. The appointee was the graduate previously appointed in November, 1853, Capt. John F. Lanneau, Engineer Corps, Confederate States Army, who was elected Assistant Professor Mathematics at the Citadel Academy, with the rank of Second Lieutenant.

In the last report made by " James Jones, Chairman," may be discerned the same firmness of purpose, practical judgment and earnest devotion to his trust that had ever marked his solid administration. In closing his report, in quiet illustration of his purpose to continue to carry on the Academy, even while the circle of fire was closing around the State and all it contained, he says:

" The continued bombardment of the city of Charleston by the enemy, has rendered the Citadel in that city a dangerous habitation, and wholly unfit for the academic duties of the Cadets. They must therefore be removed from that vicinage. If convenient and suitable quarters cannot be hired for them, it is the design of the Board to erect temporary huts for their accommodation; and the Chairman is instructed to ask your Honorable Body for a special appropriation of fifteen thousand dollars, ($15,000,) if so much be necessary for that purpose."

The Board of Visitors were not a salaried body. Excepting an allowance of three dollars per day when actually in attendance on the Board, and of two cents per mile going from and returning to their homes, granted to them about the year 1855, the members received no pecuniary compensation whatever for their valuable services. It was, indeed, only by a special resolution of the Board, passed in 1845. that provision was made to reimburse the Chairman for such expenses on account of postage that he had incurred and might thereafter incur.

And yet every year, in season and out of season, the Board did minute and sometimes engrossing work, and there was disbursed from the year 1843 to 1865, under their direction, no less than one million of dollars. During this period much of the labors and responsibilities of the Board rested upon their chief, in whose judgment and integrity the members reposed unlimited confidence. Hence it was eminently proper that the Chairman of the Board of Visitors, after his service of over twenty-two years, should have received from his colleagues the tribute of the following resolutions, adopted December, 1864:

Resolved, That it is the sense of this Board that the Chairman of the Board of Visitors should be a salaried officer of the State, and in view of the great labor performed, both mental and physical, the salary should be ample.

Resolved, That the Secretary of the Board be instructed to communicate these resolutions to the Governor, with the request of the Board that he lay the same before the General Assembly.

At this meeting of the Board there were appointed to the Academies, with orders to report forthwith to Major J. B. White, commanding Battalion of State Cadets, (27) twenty-seven State and (141) one hundred and forty-one one pay Cadets, making, with (7) seven Cadets appointed by the Governor, under Act of the General Assembly, (175) one hundred and seventy-five appointed to the South Carolina Military Academy.

The exhibit which accompanied the report of the Board for 1864 shows that up to December 2d, 1864, there had been appointed to the Academies since 1843, 1476 pay and 692 State Cadets, making a total of 2168 Cadets, accounted for as follows :

Failed to report and rejected  239 pay and  90 State
Honorably discharged 627 " " 213 "
Discharged for deficiency 163 " " 115 "
Suspended and dismissed for misconduct 198 " " 102 "
Died     9 " " 7 "
Graduated ...121 " " 119 "
Remaining in Academy, December 2d, 1864..119 " " 46 "

There were thus, up to December, 1864, 240 graduates of the South Carolina Military Academy. The Class of 1865, the members of which, in the usual course of events; would have graduated in April of that year, but who, by the fortunes of war, were prevented from accomplishing; the course, consisted of eighteen members. Entitled, as these Cadets may be regarded, to honorary diplomas, it is perhaps but just and proper for their names to be borne on the list of graduates-thus making the number of graduates, regular and honorary, 258.

The last corps of officers and professors of the Academies stood thus:

Major J. B. WHITE, Superintendent, and Professor Civil and Military Engineering and Astronomy.
Captain H. S. THOMPSON, Professor Belles-Lettres and Ethics.
First Lieutenant N. W. ARMSTRONG, Professor Mathematics and Mechanical Philosophy.
Second Lieutenant AMORY COFFIN, Jr., Assistant Professor French and Drawing.
Second Lieutenant JAMES E. BLACK, Assistant Professor Mathematics.
WM. HUME, M. D., Professor Experimental Science.
J. DICKSON BRUNS, M. D., Surgeon.
Second Lieutenant A. H. MAZYCK, Quartermaster and Bursar.

Captain J. P. THOMAS, Superintendent, and Professor of French.
First Lieutenant J. B. PATRICK, Professor of Mathematics.
Second Lieutenant A. J. NORRIS, Professor Belles-Lettres and History.
Second Lieutenant K. O. SAMS, Assistant Professor Mathematics and French.
A. W. KENNEDY, M. D., Surgeon.
Second Lieutenant B. H. KNIGHT, Bursar.
Captain MATTHEWS 1843-1856
Professor KENNEDY 1856-1859
Professor THOMPSON 1859-1861
Professor PATRICK 1861-1865

I proceed now to narrate the events connected with the enforced suspension of the functions of the Academies. Just before the period fixed for the annual examination of the Arsenal Academy, the Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the State, in consequence of the threatening movements of the enemy and the urgent demand for all available troops, ordered the Battalion of Cadets into the field. The Arsenal Cadets thereupon proceeded to Charleston and took their place in the battalion, commanded by Major J. B. White.

On the 4th December, 1864, the battalion received orders to take the train on the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. It appears that the enemy at this period of the war in South Carolina was threatening Coosawhatchie, by way of Bee's Creek and the Coosawhatchie river, and thus communication by rail between Charleston and Savannah was endangered. The Battalion of Cadets was sent to reinforce the few troops that Major-General Samuel Jones, the Confederate Commander, had at that point. On the arrival of the command at Pocotaligo, it was ordered to guard the Tulifinny trestle and aid in checking any movement on Coosawhatchie.

On the 6th, the enemy advanced from Gregory's Point, on Tulifinny river, and were met by a battalion of the 5th Georgia Regiment. Major John Jenkins, who was thoroughly acquainted with the country, and who had been sent forward by Gen. Jones to ascertain the position of the enemy, saw a favorable opportunity to strike the Federal right, and was conducting the Battalion of Cadets, under Major White, into action at double quick, when the Georgia Battalion, greatly outnumbered, gave way, and the Cadets were withdrawn to the railroad.

During the night of the 6th, Gen. Jones concentrated on the railroad all the available troops that he could collect, consisting of about 750 men, including the Battalion of Cadets and Bachman's Battery of Artillery. Col. A. C. Edwards, the senior officer, was ordered to attack the enemy at day dawn.

Early in the morning, four companies including the Citadel Cadets, (Company A, Battalion of Cadets, Capt. H. S. Thompson, commanding,) were thrown forward as skirmishers, under the command of Major J. B. White. The line, including the Arsenal Cadets, (Company B, Battalion Cadets,) moved immediately in the rear of the skirmishers.  The skirmishers soon struck the enemy and drove him vigorously-the Citadel Cadets behaving with great gallantry-until they came up with his line of battle, when, after finding that the enemy's force far exceeded his own, which consisted mainly of raw troops, Col. Edwards withdrew in good order, unpursued, to the railroad.

Upon the withdrawal of the Citadel Cadets, near the close of the skirmish, the Arsenal Cadets moved forward to relieve them, and after deploying as skirmishers, opened fire and maintained their position until ordered to unite with the line that covered the rear of our forces as they withdrew from the field. This portion of the Battalion of Cadets also bore its part on this occasion with conspicuous coolness and spirit.

Colonel Edwards now proceeded, by permission of the Major-General commanding, to fortify his position on the line of the railroad. The work was continued without interruption until the morning of the 9th (December), when the enemy advanced to the attack, but receiving a well directed fire of artillery and musketry, he was quickly driven back, with loss. Subsequently, in the afternoon of the same day, the action was renewed on the Confederate right, but after a severe fight, lasting about two hour, the enemy was driven oft', and the result was that each party resumed its former position.

In this fight the Battalion of Cadets occupied the position on the extreme left of the line, except when moved to meet the enemy in his attempt to force our right. Colonel Edwards placed the enemy's loss in the fights of the 7th and 9th at three hundred killed and wounded.

Brigadier-General B. P. Robertson, who had assumed command on the 8th (December) of all the troops between Bee's Creek and Tulifinny trestle, puts our casualties at fifty-two killed and wounded. The Cadets suffered no loss on the 9th. In his official report to Colonel T. B. Roy, Assistant Adjutant-General of the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, published for the first time in the May and June numbers, 1877, of the Southern Historical Society Papers, Major-General S. Jones compliments the Battalion of Cadets, saying of " that gallant body of youths " that " the South Carolina Cadets, Major White commanding, who, for the first time felt the fire of the enemy, so bore themselves as to win the admiration of the veterans who observed and served with them"

Failing in this attack, the enemy did not renew it, but strengthening his position, within a mile of the railroad, he established several batteries, with which he employed himself in firing on the passing trains, and on the Confederate encampment beyond the railroad. The Cadets posted on the left of our line experienced one casualty from this fire- -Cadet W. D. Palmer, of Charleston, having lost the left hand by the explosion of one of the enemy's shells.

The Battalion of Cadets remained at this point, without being further actively engaged, except on picket and drilling the militia present, until a short period longer, when on December 25th (1864) it was ordered to James Island, where it formed part of the command of Brigadier-General Stephen Elliott. On December 17th, Assistant Surgeon W. Alston was assigned to the Battalion of Cadets by Surgeon Ogier, Medical Director, and ordered to remain with it as long as it was in the field.

The officers of the Arsenal Academy were remanded to their posts at the Arsenal, where it had been determined to resume academic work with that portion of the Cadet recruits who had been appointed by the Board in December, 1864, to that Academy.

We come now to a turning point in the fortunes of the South Carolina Military Academy. In February, 1865, for reasons which I do not find set forth upon the record, the members of the Board of Visitors, following the example of their veteran chief, resigned their position on the Board, to the profound regret of the friends of the Institution, which they, with their former associates, had so ably and devotedly served.

On February 4th, 1865, Governor Magrath made the following appointments:

Hon. K. J. DAY ANT, Chairman, vice Gen. Jas. Jones. Hon. J. W. HARRISON vice Hon T. C. Perrin.

Hon. A. P. ALDRICH vice Wm. Gilmore Simms, LL.D. Col. W. H. EVANS vice Col. I. D. Wilson.

The Board met ten days after. There were present, Hon. R. J. Davant Chairman; Hon. A. P. Aldrich, and Gen. A. C. Garlington, Adjutant and Inspector-General. The Board resolved that it was expedient, hereafter, to arrange the fiscal concerns of  the South   Carolina  Military Academy   in  Charleston   and Columbia, so that all disbursaments for the Academy shall pass through the office of the State Auditor, and that, for the supply of said Academy, the requisition of the Bursar or Commissary at each shall be made directly upon the Quartermaster-General and Commissary-General of the State. The repayment of such supplies to be reimbursed to the Bureau of the Quartermaster-General and Commissary-General of the State from the appropriation by the Legislature and the fees of the pay Cadets to the Academy.

It was further ordered that all funds received for the Academy, whether from the Legislature or the pay Cadets, be paid over to the State Auditor, and be entered on his books to the credit of the Academy.

The Citadel Cadets, Major J. B. White commanding, remained on James Island until the evacuation of Charleston, on February 17th, 1865, at which time they left South Carolina with Lieutenant-General Hardee's corps, in its march from that city to North Carolina, via Cheraw. Upon reaching a point between Fayetteville and Raleigh, N. C, they were recalled by Governor Magrath, and, after escorting a body of Federal prisoners to Raleigh, N. C., reported to the Governor at his headquarters at Spartanburg, S. C.

Upon the approach of Gen. Sherman to Columbia, the Cadets of the Arsenal Academy, were called into active service and placed in charge of a small battery, erected near Congaree Bridge, with orders to protect that point. After the burning of that structure by the Confederates on the night of the 15th February, the Cadets returned to the Arsenal, then under fire from the enemy's shells -a small detachment only being left at the Congaree battery. The main body of the Cadets, during the 16th February, acted as a Provost Guard under Gen. E. M. Law, C S. A., who had been appointed Provost-General by Gen. Beauregard, then in command at Columbia, and discharged these responsible duties with acknowledged firmness and efficiency, although they had been, for a short time only, under the military training of the Academy. On the night of the 16 h February, 1865, under orders from Gov. Magrath, the officers and Cadets of the Arsenal Academy proceeded to retire from the Arsenal, and, as ordered, reported to Gen. Garlington, Adjutant and Inspector-General of South Carolina, who commanded the State troops at Columbia.    The Cadet detachments having been quickly drawn in from various parts of the city, and hasty preparations for the march having been completed, the Cadets of the Arsenal organized into a battalion of two companies, Capt. J. P. Thomas, commanding, with Lieutenant Amory Coffin as Adjutant, Lieutenant B. H. Knight as Quartermaster, Dr. M. M. Sams as Surgeon, and Lieutenants J. B. Patrick, A. J. Norris and R. O. Sams as company officers, at 11 p. M., on the 16th, marched from the Arsenal, and joined Gen. Garlington's brigade of State troops. Before leaving the Arsenal, the flag of the Citadel Cadets, which had been sent from Charleston to Columbia and deposited in the Arsenal, was drawn from its retirement, and formally placed in charge of a Cadet, detailed as color-bearer. That honored flag, the gift of the Washington Light Infantry, of Charleston, in the palmy times of the Citadel, around which gather valued memories, was thus saved from the Federal incendiarism, or the domestic plundering, that on the next day befell the Arsenal and all its valuable contents of public and private property.

The Arsenal Cadets moved on with the retreating army of General Beauregard until White Oak, a point on the Charlotte, Columbia and Augusta Railroad, beyond Winnsboro', was reached, when General Garlington's Brigade of State troops was ordered across the Wateree, at Peay's Ferry, with the view of returning to the interior of the State after Sherman's forces had passed on via Charlotte, N. C, then supposed by General Beauregard to be the enemy's objective point. But General Garlington found himself as early as the next day, pressed by the advance guard of the Federal Cavalry, and, as it turned out, Garlington's State troops, including the Arsenal Cadets, were in front of Sherman, who had turned aside from the route to Charlotte and was heading to Cheraw. Upon reaching Lancaster C. H., General Garlington finding his raw troops in no condition to do active military duty, disbanded them, excepting Captain Frederick's Company of Cavalry, which marched on to join Hardee's corps, and turning the corps of Arsenal Cadets over to its commanding officer, ordered him to secure the safety of the command and to report as soon as possible to the Governor, with his corps.

The vanguard of Sherman's Cavalry was at this time within a few miles of Lancaster C. H Putting the Cadets in light marching order, their commanding officer put Lynch's Creek between his command and the enemy's cavalry in one day's march. Upon reaching Mount Croghan, in Chesterfield District, the command, sore footed and weary after a continuous march from Columbia to that point, which was borne by the young Cadets with admirable fortitude, was halted for a brief rest, and a courier was sent on to General Hardee for information as to the military situation.

General Hardee replied that Sherman was marching to Cheraw and advised that the Cadets be moved to that point. The march to Cheraw was begun, but finding that the Cadets, in their exhausted condition, would be liable to capture before gaining Hardee's command, the commanding officer turned aside and reached Wadesboro', N. C, thus putting his corps on the flank of the Federal advance to Cheraw. From Wadesboro' the Cadets marched through the country, until, reaching the railroad beyond Charlotte, N. C, they were carried by rail to that city, then the headquarters of General Beauregard. From Charlotte the Cadets were conducted by rail to Chester, and thence, marching across the country to Spartanburg C. H., the headquarters of Governor Magrath, who received the young soldiers with an address, in which he complimented them for their soldierly conduct on their trying march. The corps returned to the State with its colors, arms and baggage intact.

The two corps, with their respective officers, were now posted at Spartanburg C. H. After remaining here a short time, the Arsenal Corps was ordered to Greenville C. H., to which point it was followed soon by the Citadel Corps.

About the time of General Johnston's surrender, the officers and Cadets of the Citadel, inasmuch as they had been in camp since December, 1864, were furloughed by the Governor for one month. At the expiration of this time, Major J. B. White repaired to Columbia to report to Governor Magrath, but found this impracticable, as the Governor had been arrested by the Federal authorities.

The Arsenal Corps remained at Greenville, and the Cadets were established in log huts, constructed by themselves, under the direction of their officers. Here the corps was reinforced by a number of young recruits assigned to the command-the State authorities having, in view of the disorganized condition of the State, resulting from Sherman's march through it, decided to make the Cadet Corps  the nucleus of a body intended to act as a State Guard.

On April 27th, 1865, the Board of Visitors assembled at Greenville Court House. There were present, Governor Magrath, General J. W. Harrison, and Colonel A. P. Aldrich, They resolved that in view of the present condition of the State, it was expedient to increase the number of Cadets in the two Military Academies to the largest number capable of receiving instruction from the Professors of these Academies 5 that such admissions be made by the Chairman of the Board of Visitors; and that the headquarters of both these Institutions be established at such places as the Chairman, in consultation with the Governor, may select. It was further resolved that it was expedient, as soon as possible, so to arrange the camps of instruction for the commands, that the academic exercises may be resumed.
These hopeful views were, as the sequel will show, not destined to be realized.

The Arsenal Corps, recruited by the accession to their ranks, resulting from the additional appointments that had been made, remained in their log huts near Greenville C. H. until the approach of General Stoneman's raiders, to the number of several thousand, when the Cadets moved from their camp along the line of the Greenville and Columbia Railroad.

A few miles beyond the town of Greenville, Lieutenant Lanneau, of the Citadel Corps, rode up and entrusted to the commanding officer of the Arsenal Cadets the Citadel flag, which, after being returned at Spartanburg to Major White, of the Citadel Cadets, had been left in proper hands at Greenville, when the officers and Cadets of the Citadel Academy had been furloughed. The trust was assumed, and the flag was again borne in the ranks of the young corps. Upon reaching a point near Williamston, S. C, while the Cadets had halted after a weary march, and were, many of them, asleep on their arms, the command was fired upon, and some confusion, incident to a surprise, ensued. But when the flag was displayed in the road, the command promptly rallied around it. The commanding officer finding that the attacking party, who were a portion of Stoneman's raiders, had retired, the march was resumed. It was now apparent that small bands of the raiders were on all sides of the corps of Cadets. But without encountering any of these parties, the corps reached Belton the day after leaving Greenville, and, halting at Cokesbury and Greenwood, finally went into camp at Ninety-Six, whence, after remaining for a week, it proceeded to Newberry C. H., and camped at that place. Here Captain J. P. Thomas communicated with Governor Magrath, and asked for further orders, the Cadets being, at that time (May 9t.h, 1865), the only body in arms in the State, and, perhaps, in the South this side of the Mississippi River.

On May 9th, the commandant of the Arsenal Cadets received orders from Governor Magrath to furlough the Cadets for sixty days, to re-assemble at the expiration of that time, for academic purposes, at a point which was thereafter to be designated. Agreeably to this order, the Cadets of the Arsenal Academy, with the officers present-Captain J. P. Thomas commanding, and Lieutenants J. B. Patrick, A. J. Norris and E. O. Sams-were furloughed and the corps was disbanded; each Cadet being authorized to carry with him to his home his musket, accoutrements and ammunition, and to keep them until called for by the State authorities of South Carolina.

The Cadet flag was borne by the writer among his private effects to Columbia, S. C, and has been, up to this time (1877), in his individual keeping, subject to the demand of the proper authority.

As to the manner in which the Cadets of the Citadel Academy bore themselves in the closing days of their Cadetship, I prefer to let the report of Major J. B White, Commanding Battalion State Cadets, answer. That officer in his report to the Board of Visitors dated Hillsboro', N. C., December 12, 1865, thus recounts the operations of his command from November, 1864, to April, 1865:

" About the 20th November, 1864, General James Jones, (then Chairman of the Board,) ordered that part of the Battalion of State Cadets forming the Citadel Corps to be encamped at Orangeburg, S. C, and held in readiness to move.

" On the 30th November, I received an order from the Adjutant and Inspector-General of South Carolina, through the Chairman, directing that I proceed and report to the nearest Confederate General for service in the field'. At Branchville, orders were received from Governor Bonhara changing the destination of the battalion to Charleston; on reaching which place I reported to Major-General Samuel Jones, commanding that Department. Captain J. P. Thomas here reported to me with the Arsenal Corps. The command was then fully organized, the Citadel Cadets forming Company 'A,' and the Arsenal Cadets Company ' B.' All the non-commissioned officers of Company ' B ' were furnished from the higher classes. Lieutenant Amory Coffin, Adjutant, and Lieutenant A. H Mazyck, Quartermaster; Captain H. S. Thompson, Lieutenants A. N. Armstrong and J. E. Black were assigned to Company 'A'; Captain J. P. Thomas and Lieutenants A. J. Norris and R. O. Sams to Company ' B.'

" On the evening of the 3d December, the battalion was ordered to Coosawhatchie, on the Charleston and Savannah Railroad, but was stopped at Pocotaligo. .

" December 6th, the enemy threatened the railroad by way of Gregory's Point, and the battalion was posted to protect Tulifinny trestle, but afterwards ordered to attack the enemy on his right flank, who was then engaged with our forces in front; these falling back, the order was countermanded, and the command resumed its position on the railroad.

"December 7th, I was directed by Colonel Edwards, of the Regiment Georgia Volunteers, to take Company 'A' of the battalion, with ether troops, and advanced upon the enemy in order to ascertain his exact position, and determine the propriety of attacking him with the forces at hand. The entire line of skirmishers soon become engaged with those of the enemy, but advanced, steadily driving them back upon their entrenchments, in front of which the line was halted, and after accomplishing all that was desired, fell back in perfect order. During this skirmish, which lasted about three hours, Company 'B' relieved Company 'A,' (its ammunition having been exhausted,) so that the entire Battalion became engaged. This was the first time the Battalion of Cadets met the enemy, but their conduct was such as to excite the commendation of the veteran troops, by whose side they fought, and to call forth the approval of the commanding general, as well as the colonel commanding the expedition. Every Cadet acted with conspicuous gallantry, and showed that the discipline of his Academy had made him a thorough soldier for the battle-field. The privations of the succeeding months proved him as well prepared for hardships of the march and the camp.

"December 9th, the enemy advanced against our position, but as the attack was directed principally against the right, and the battalion being on the left, it became only partially engaged.

" December 25th, the command was ordered to James' Island, where it remained until the evacuation of the city of Charleston, February 17th, 1865. In organizing the troops preparatory to this event the battalion was attached to Elliott's Brigade.

" About the 1st of January, 1865, Captain Thomas and Lieutenants Norris and Sams were ordered to Columbia, by Governor Magrath, and were not again under my command.

" The middle of March, 1865, when between Fayetteville and Kaleigh, North Carolina, the battalion was, at the request of Governor Magrath, ordered back to South Carolina, and was stationed, first at Spartanburg, and then Greenville.

" The command being very much reduced by the severe duty on the coast, and the heavy marches through North and South Carolina, was furloughed about the 20th of April for fifteen days ; but the events which occurred about this time rendered it necessary to extend the furloughs indefinitely.

"The casualties were as follows (on 7th): Lieutenant Amory Coffin, Adjutant, wounded in the head (severe); Cadet J. B. Patterson, Company 'A,' wounded (mortal); Cadets J. W. Barnwell and E. E. McCarty, Company  'A,' wounded (severe); Cadets S. F. Hollingsworth, A. J. Green, A. R. Heyward, and W. A. Pringle, Company 'A,' wounded (slight). Cadet Palmer, Company ' B,' had his left hand shot off while in Camp Tulifinny by a shell from the enemy's battery.

"I regret to report the deaths of the following Cadets, all of whom died from diseases induced by the exposure and hardship of service, viz: R. F. Nichols and John Culbreath, Company 'A '; G. O. Buck, T. A. Johnson, and R. Noble, of Company ' B.'

"I would take this opportunity to express my obligations to the officers under my command for the zeal, ability, and alacrity with which they discharged their duties, nor can I fail to call to your attention those young but noble sons of our beloved State, the Cadets of the Military Academy of South Carolina. Upon the battlefield, in camp, on the march, on picket, or working upon defences, they were ready for every emergency; manifesting at all times, and under the most trying circumstances, a manly and soldierly aspect, not finding fault with those in authority, but doing their duty cheerfully and well."

From the testimony of their commanding officer, it is seen that the Citadel Cadets bore themselves, both in camp and the field, as loyal soldiers of their State-obedient to the demands of duty in whatever form they arose.

As for the younger Cadets of the junior corps of the Arsenal Academy, the writer consults his pleasure, and at the same time discharges his duty, when he places here upon the record his appreciation of the admirable spirit in which these youths acted long after the shadows had deepened around the Confederate cause. He well remembers the occasion when the young soldiers, after hearing rumors of Appomattox, and all that it implied, called at the quarters of their commandant and asked to be told if it was true that the Confederate banners had been furled in Virginia. They were told that it was true, that the cause of Confederacy was lost; but that as Cadets of the State Military Academy, subject to the orders of the Governor and the Commander-in-Chief of South Carolina, it was their duty to stand to their colors, maintain their organization, and accept the usual discipline of the Academy, until formally disbanded in orders from the proper State authorities. The response was one honorable to these high-minded boys. They gave an earnest assent to the suggestion, and preserved this spirit to the end. Although squad after squad of the disbanded forces of Lee and Johnston passed by the camp of the Cadets of the Arsenal Corps, and though it was obivious to them that their commandant had become powerless to enforce military authority, and compel their continuance in service, yet they accepted the proposition of duty for the sake of duty, and of the honor of voluntary obedience; thus giving a conspicuous illustration of those soldierly qualities which it had been the purpose of their Academy to impress upon them, and unconsciously to themselves, paying the best and most graceful tribute that could have been devised to that dismembered Institution, which, in the providence of God, was soon to stand as a memorial only of all that it formerly represented of arts and arms.

The end is best told in the language of the final report of the Board of Visitors, sent to Governor Orr, December 7th, 1865, and signed by Messrs. K. J. Davant, A. C. Garlington and A. P. Aldrich, from which we make the extract appended. Referring to the disbandment of the Cadets in May, 1805, the Board say:

"Amidst the rapidly occurring causes of excitement at this period, it is not remarkable that all academic exercises were deferred, nor that since the surrender of General Johnston, no effort has been made to re-organize the Academy. The buildings connected with the Arsenal at Columbia, have been consumed by the torch of the Federal Forces, except the officers quarters, detached from the main building and several out-buildings. These quarters and one of these out-buildings have been possessed and occupied, to the present time, by persons who have no connection with the Academy, to the exclusion of some of the officers of the Academy who desired and were entitled to the possession. These intruders should be ejected, and the buildings made profitable to the State. The fencing which enclosed the grounds was destroyed, and on the grounds, in an exposed condition, is a large quantity of brick and some stone, which may be sold to advantage.

" The buildings connected with the Citadel in Charleston, were not materially injured by the bombardment of the city, but when the Federal troops entered, they took possession of the Citadel and still retain it as a military post.

" The personal property of the Citadel Academy, consisting of room, mess hall, office and section room furniture; records, textbooks, astronomical and surveying instruments} chemical and philosophical apparatus, cabinet of minerals and library, consisting of about (8000) eight thousand volumes, had been removed to Columbia for safety, and were, with all similar property belonging to the Arsenal, consumed in the conflagration of the City.

" This circumstance prevents the exhibition of any account of the finances. . . At the time of the surrender, there were in the battalion, about 265 Cadets, and on the docket 305 applicants for admission.

" In the present financial condition of the State, it is deemed impossible to re-establish the Academy upon any other than a self-sustaining basis. It is supposed, however, that this can be done in the course of the ensuing year with a small appropriation by the State; and it is suggested that the Board of Visitors be authorized to accomplish that object."

Governor Orr having, in his Message to the Legislature, given his approval of the recommendation of the Board, the Military Committee of the House made the following report:


"The Military Committee, to whom was referred so much of the Governor'S Message as refers to the Military Academy, beg leave respectfully to report: That they have given the subject that serious consideration which its importance demands. The Military Academy was deservedly popular before the war, and your Committee believe that that popularity will be greatly increased upon the re-opening of the school. It had furnished the State in April, 1864, with two hundred and forty practically educated sons; of this number, at the period above referred to, one fourth had been killed or wounded.

"The record at this Institution of learning is a noble one. Your Committee believe that the interests of the State demand that the exercises of the school should be resumed at as early a day as practicable. The inability of the State to render much assistance toward the accomplishment of this object is patent but your Committee confidently hope that with returning prosperity, the State will again extend her fostering care to the Military Academy.

" Your Committee ask leave to submit the following resolution :

"Resolved, That the Board of Visitors of the State Military Academy, be instructed to take such steps in their discretion, as will lead to the re-establishment of the school upon a self-sustaining basis, at the earliest practicable moment, and that the sum of five thousand dollars be appropriated for that purpose, if so much be necessary."

To this report the House agreed, and the Senate concurred therein. But the times being deemed unpropitious for the re-organization thus advised, the new Board of Visitors of which General James Conner was Chairman, and General Johnson Hagood a member, deemed it unadvisable to take any action in the premises. Nor up to this time, July, 1877, has any effort organized, or unorganized, been made to revive the Academies which closed their active existence in the Spring of 1865-nearly twenty-three years after their birth.

The historical part of this sketch closes with a statement of the present status of the South Carolina Military Academy, or of all that remains of it. The Citadel building is at this time still used by the United States authorities as a military post. It is intact, except that the western wing has been destroyed by fire. The loose brick and stone that marked the ruins of the Arsenal, and the out-buildings that escaped the fire, were, during the year 1866, sold for the benefit of the State by Major Theodore Stark, Agent, who had been placed by the Provisional Governor in charge of the Arsenal grounds, and in the occupancy of the detached edifice, formerly used as officers' quarters.

This building was subsequently, during the administration of Governor Scott, laid aside for the Executive Mansion-the building being added to and improved.  The remaining square of four acres, lying south of the old grounds, whereon for twenty years and more the foot of the Cadet had pressed in the hours of recreation, or in the frequent drill-this classic spot, dedicated alike to letters and soldiership-these honored acres upon the slope of which the rays of the setting sun were seen to linger with a radiant beauty, were sold under the direction of the notorious Sinking Fund Commission, organized under the political regime, which afflicted the State from 1868 to 1876.

As to the officers and professors of the Academy in connection with it to the last, though their commissions have never been revoked, yet considering that their academic occupation was gone, they embarked in other pursuits, and, with the exception of Dr. Wm. Hume, deceased, are all engaged in the business of life.

One point more in relation to the development of the Institution. This pertains to the societies of the Citadel auxiliary to the Academy, and effective allies in the cause of letters. Debating societies in connection with collegiate instructions are justly regarded as valuable aids in promoting the ends of learning and mental discipline.

In this historical sketch, it is proper to refer to the societies of the Citadel-The Calliopean, and The Polytechnic, and suggestive, each, of pleasant associations in the minds of ex-Cadets

The former was organized about the year 1845, and the latter about two years subsequent to that period. Each was provided with a handsome hall, furnished with comfort and elegance, and up to 1864, both had been in full operation, and had accumulated a useful and select library. These libraries, together with all the records and furniture of the two societies, were destroyed when the Arsenal in Columbia, whither they had been transferred in 1864; was burnt by the army under Sherman. From year to year eminent orators addressed these societies. And the practice was for each to confer diplomas upon such of their members as had completed the prescribed course of the Academy.

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