History - Old Pendleton District


Pendleton, S. C., 1913

Transcribed and contributed to Genealogy Trails by Dena Whitesell


WE HAVE for quite a number of years felt the importance of preserving to some extent, at least, the history of Pendleton, as well as that of the County of Pendleton as much as possible. Many intervening years, the death and removal of some of the prominent citizens of the past as well as their descendants, have made this pleasant duty almost an impossibility. Our duties otherwise have also made this labor a burden instead of a pleasure. But, nevertheless, with the help of friends and neighbors, we have ventured upon the experiment.

A wise historian has said that history ought not to be written until one hundred years have elapsed since the event. Be this as it may, it appears to us to be the duty of all good citizens, in passing through life's toils and pleasures, to preserve the facts and circumstances of history, so that in the future the history of Pendleton may be presented accurately by the coming historian.

We, therefore, present with some misgivings as well as pleasure, such facts and circumstances in the history of Pendleton as we have been able to trace them in the past.

Pendleton, S. C.


RICHARD WRIGHT SIMPSON was born on his father's farm near Pendleton, Anderson County, South Carolina, September 11, 1840.

His father was Richard F. Simpson, a native of Laurens District, South Carolina, a graduate of the South Carolina College, and for many years a lawyer at Laurens Court House; a soldier with the rank of major in the Florida war; a member of both branches of the General Assembly of his native State; three terms (1842-48) a member of the House of Representatives of the Congress of the United States; and a signer of the Ordinance of Secession of the State of South Carolina.

His mother was Margaret Taliaferro, a native of Anderson District, South Carolina, whose parents were Virginians by birth.

"Dick" Simpson enjoyed an ideal boyhood. He was well and strong, the son of indulgent parents, living a free country life. He enjoyed hunting and fishing and was fond of work with tools. At home he read the Bible, Shakespeare, and Scott's Novels. He attended Pendleton Academy from which he went to Wofford College. The late Dr. James H. Carlisle, at the time the only surviving member of the Wofford Faculty of the fifties, was asked a few years since, to write his recollections of the "Simpson Brothers" as students. The following is a literal copy of his answer:

"The Simpson Brothers-this is the way in which the survivors of the generation of Wofford students, 1857- 1861-think of T. N. Simpson and R. W. Simpson, as the catalogues gave their names. Their brotherly affection was marked. Each might have said of the other what the late Robert W. Boyd said to me about his brother Charles: 'We were not only brothers-we were great friends. They were gentlemanly, self-respecting young men, whose conduct represented the refined Christian home, which they had left. Joining different literary societies each gained the highest honor in the gift of his fellow-members. At the Anniversary the two brothers sat on the platform as presidents of the Calhoun and Preston Societies. In their Senior year (1860-61) the clouds of war gathered. The students formed a military company, 'The Southern Guards,' and T. N. Simpson was elected captain. Arrangements were made for the usual May exhibition. The program had these names and subjects:

T. N. Simpson-Vox Populi.

R. W. Simpson-Republican Institutions in North America-are they a failure?

Surely these were timely subjects, well fitted to draw out the feelings and convictions of the young patriots and orators. But when the time came these speakers were not on the platform. They were on the tented field. The bombardment of Fort Sumter, April 12, 13, 1861, seemed to the students as their mother's call to duty, and they answered at once.

Capt. T. N. Simpson was one of the unreturning braves. His sword is now among the valuable relics in Wofford College. His brother was spared for years of service with his fellow-citizens in carrying his native State through a great historical crisis."

R. W. Simpson served as a private in the Confederate army in Company A, Third Regiment South Carolina Volunteers, and in Adams' battallion of cavalry from April, 1861 to 1863, when, on account of disease contracted in the service, he was detailed for special duty until the close of the war.

From 1865 to 1874 Colonel Simpson farmed. Then began his sympathy with the tillers of the soil. In the fall of 1874 he was chosen a member of the State Legislature, and was re-elected in 1876-the year of Carolina's redemption from the hand of the alien and the traitor-the "carpet bagger" and the "Scalawag." He was made chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means of the "Wallace House," always a position of

great responsibility, then one of peculiar dangers and difficulties, as is well understood by all who remember the struggles of that time and by every student of "Reconstruction." Colonel Simpson's friends claim for him the credit of first suggesting the idea of the Democrats of South Carolina breaking loose from the maternal party-of securing control of the State and letting Tilden's friends fight for their own cause-the plan of cutting what Gen. M. W. Gary called the "gordion knots'-a plan which resulted in President Hays withdrawing the United States troops, and Governor Hampton securing undisputed possession of the State House and the State.

Chairman Simpson's services in settling the disordered finances of the State were delicate and difficult, but time proved the wisdom of his views. "He devised the plan-and secured the adoption-which reduced the debt of the State to its present small proportions."

It was while serving in the Legislature that R. W. Simpson was appointed a member of the Governor's Staff, with the rank of Colonel of Cavalry, by Governor Wade Hampton.

During those days he became convinced that changed conditions made necessary a change in our educational system. He became an earnest advocate of the establishment of an agricultural college. He was the confidential advisor of the Honorable Thos. G. Clemson - wrote that gentleman's will, was made executor of that instrument, and on the organization of the Board of Trustees of the Clemson Agricultural College of South Carolina was elected chairman of that Board, which position he resigned, on account of impaired health a few years before his death. His interest in, and his devotion to the welfare of Clemson College are well known to all who know anything of the history of that institution for the first twenty years of its existence.

About the time he went into politics Colonel Simpson studied law, was admitted to the bar, practiced at Anderson Court House, and was local attorney for the Southern Rail Road fifteen years and for the Blue Ridge Railway for eight years. He was also attorney for the Bank of Pendleton.

Colonel Simpson was a life-long member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. He loved its doctrines and polity and was many years a Sunday School teacher and superintendent.

On February 10, 1863, R. W. Simpson was married to Miss Maria Louise Garlington, of Laurens County, S. C. Their beautiful home-life, their devotion to each other are well known to all their friends. Of this happy union ten children were born--of whom nine are now living: Mrs. W. W. Watkins, Mrs. P. H. E. Sloan, Jr., Miss M. L. Simpson, Mrs. A. G. Holmes, Mrs. S. M. Martin, Mrs. W. W. Klugh, Messrs. R. W. Simpson, Jr., J. G. Simpson and T. S. Simpson.

Colonel Simpson died in a hospital in Atlanta where he had been taken for treatment a few days before, at four o'clock in the morning of the 11th day of July, 1912. The afternoon of the next day his remains were laid to rest by the new made grave of his wife, near the resting place of his father and his mother and his soldier boy brother, in the family burying ground at the old home place near Pendleton, South Carolina.

"When a great man dies For years beyond our ken The light he leaves behind him lies Upon the paths of men."


PREVIOUS to the year 1768 the only court held in South Carolina was in the City of Charleston. In that year the State was divided into six districts, and Courts of General Sessions and Common Pleas were thereafter established and held in each of the said districts. The judges were authorized to build court houses and other necessary public buildings in some convenient place in each. A court house was established at Ninety-Six, at Cambridge, (See State Statutes, Vol. 7, p. 197.)

At the close of the Revolutionary War all the territory embraced in the present counties of Greenville, Anderson, Oconee and Pickens belonged to the Cherokee Indians, although embraced within the State lines.

Many adventurous white people had founded settlements within this territory, and, for their protection from the Indians, the State had built forts in several places, and maintained garrisons therein. All of this territory, except the extreme upper portion of Oconee and Pickens counties was ceded to the State by the Cherokees shortly after the close of the war by a treaty negotiated by Gen. Andrew Pickens near his home on Seneca River.

Tradition points out a large oak tree, near the banks of the Seneca River, under which General Pickens met the Cherokee chiefs and made with them the treaty by which the State secured the exclusive possession of this territory.

In 1816, General Statutes, Vol. U, p. 252, another treaty was concluded in the City of Washington by which the Cherokee Indians ceded to the State the remaining parts of the land lying above the old Indian boundary, and within the limits of the State lines as they now exist.

By Act of March 16, 1783, commissioners were appointed to divide the six judicial districts into counties of not more than forty miles square for the purpose of establishing county courts. Andrew Pickens, Richard Anderson, Thomas Brandon, Levi Keysey, Philemon Waters, Arthur Simpkins and Simon Berwick were appointed commissioners to divide the District of Ninety- Six, (Vol. 4, p. 561). By Act of 1785, Vol. 4, p. 661, the several districts were divided into counties. The District of Ninety-Six was divided into the counties of Abbeville, Edgefield, Newberry, Laurens, Union and Spartanburg; and the Justices of Peace were authorized to locate and build court houses and jails, and to levy taxes to pay for the same. And the lands ceded to the State by the Cherokee Indians, embracing the present counties of Anderson, Greenville, Pickens and Oconee were attached temporarily to the adjoining counties of Abbeville, Laurens and Spartanburg. Pendleton County, as afterwards established, was attached to Abbeville County, and for the time being was in the judicial district of Ninety-Six, which by the way explains why we find some of our land deeds styled Ninety-Six.

Acts of 1789, Vol. 7, p. 252, sets forth as follows:

"Whereas, the people residing in that part of the lands ceded to the State by the Cherokee Indians, north of the Indian boundary and between the Seneca and Saluda rivers, have experienced many inconveniences by being attached to Abbeville County, which renders it necessary to establish it into a separate county. Therefore, be it enacted, That the same be laid off into a county to be called Pendleton County. The other part of the said ceded lands was laid off into a county to be called Greenville County.

Pendleton was named in honor of Judge Henry Pendleton, a native of Virginia, who rose to distinction in this State by reason of his great ability and patriotism.

By Act of 1789, Vol. V., p. 105, the new counties of Pendleton and Greenville were allowed representation in the legislature, each to have one senator and three members in the lower house. At the same session commissioners were appointed to locate a court house for the County of Pendleton. The commissioners were Andrew Pickens, John Miller, John Wilson, Benj. Cleveland, Wm. Halbert, Henry Clark, John Moffett and Robert Anderson. These commissioners purchased from Isaac Lynch a tract of land, about as near the center of the County of Pendleton as practicable, containing eight hundred and eighty-five acres. And the same was conveyed to the said commissioners in trust for the County of Pendleton, as appears by deed dated April 8, 1790, and recorded in book "A," page 1.

Upon this tract of land the Town of Pendleton is located. This tract of land, or a part of it, was laid out into streets and village lots, which were numbered, and the remainder of the tract was divided into what were called "out-lying" lots.

The first court house was located on what is called the Tanyard Branch, near the culvert under the big fill on the Blue Ridge Railroad which crosses the old public road leading from Pendleton to old Pickens Court House.

The first court held in Pendleton County was held by the magistrates on the second day of April, 1790. Andrew Rowe was employed to erect a temporary log court house, 18 feet by 25 feet. John Miller was elected clerk of the court. On the 10th day of May, 1790, the first quarterly court was held in the new court house.

Present: Magistrates Robert Anderson, John Wilson and William Halbert. The following grand jury was drawn, to serve at the next court, namely: David Hamilton, Lewis Daniel Martin, Jonathan Clarke, Thomas Garvin. William McCharles Yates, Robert Dowdle, Alex. Oliver, Benjamin Horsce, Isaac Lynch, John Polluck, Joseph Kennedy, Duncan Cameron, Joseph Brown, James Gates, John Grisham, Sr., James Hamilton, William Mackey, Jacob Vance, and Samuel McCullom. At the same time the following petit jury was drawn to serve at the next court, namely: David Pruitt, James Davenport, Abel Anderson, John Dixon, Robert Stevenson, James Carton, John Martin, William Troop, Eli Kitchens, Elisha Gaillard, William Pilgrim, James Embree, Samuel Porter, Richard York, Andrew Riddle, Hamilton Montgomery, Benjamin Norton, Richard Lancaster, William Gra1-4, John Burton, Philemon Hawkins, Alexander Ramsey, William Steele, William Lewis, John McCutchin. Alexander McCrery, John Tweety, 0. Smith, Thomas Moss, and John Mayfield.

Samuel Lofton exhibited to the court his commission from the Governor as sheriff, which was ordered recorded. The county courts exercised a wide jurisdiction. Among other things they laid out all the public roads in the county.

By the Act of 1791, Vol. 7, p. 262, Gen. Andrew Pickens, Col. Robert Anderson, Capt. Robert Maxwell, John Bowen, James Harrison, Maj. John Ford and John Hallum were appointed to purchase land and superintend the building of a court house and jail for the district of Washington. Washington District was composed of the counties of Pendleton and Greenville. The court house was located at Pickensville, near the present Town of Easley.

By the Act of 1792, Vol. V, p. 210, it was enacted, that the village in Pendleton County where the court house and jail of Washington District have been located, shall be called Pickensville, so named in honor of General Pickens. Here were held the Courts of Common Pleas and General Sessions for a few years only.

By the Act of 1798, Vol. VII, p. 283, the name County was changed to District. And at the court house in each of the several districts there shall be held, after 1800, Courts of Sessions and Common Pleas, to possess and exercise the same powers and jurisdiction as is held by the district courts. By the same Act, it was enacted that the court for Pendleton District should be held at Pendleton Court House. And that the several courts of General Sessions of the Peace, Oyer and Terminer, Assizes, and General Jail Delivery, and Common Pleas, now established in this State, are hereby and forever abolished. The new courts established by this Act were called Courts of Sessions and Common Pleas. By the Act of 1799, Vol. VII, p. 291, county courts as they then existed, were also abolished.

By the Act of 1799, Vol. VII, p. 299, it was enacted, that all laws then of force relative to the district courts shall be construed to relate to the new districts and the courts thereof. By the Act of 1868, the name "District" was changed back to "County."

The first court house for the Courts of Sessions and Common Pleas for Pendleton District, was located In the present public square of the Town of Pendleton, in the hollow near the public well. The jail remains as it was then built. These two buildings were built of brick. In 1826, at the time when Pendleton District was divided into Pickens and Anderson, the commissioners were engaged in erecting a new court house, where the Farmers' Hall now stands. The Pendleton Farmers' Society purchased the old, and the new court house being built then erected, and with the material of the old, finished the new, which is still owned by the Pendleton Farmers' Society.

The records of the Court for Washington District, are said to be found in the Clerk's office at Greenville. The records of the Courts held at Pendleton may be found in the Clerk's office at Anderson.

The following are the names of some of the lawyers who practiced in the Courts at Pendleton, namely: Pickens and Farrar, Warren R. Davis and Lewis, Taylor and Harrison, Yancey and Whitfield, B. J. Earle, Geo. W. Earle, Bowie and Bowie, Robert Anderson, Jr., Saxon, Yancey & Shanklin, Saxon & Trimmier, T. J. Earle, Z. Taliaferro, Choice, Earle & Whitner, Thompson, Tillinghasy Norten, George McDuffie. Doubtless there were others, these are all that can be found.

The Lynch tract of land, upon which the Town of Pendleton was located, at the time of its purchase, was bounded on all sides by lands still belonging to the State.

But, it was located on the main thoroughfare or Indian trail, from Ninety-Six to Fort George, located further up in the lands formerly belonging to tine Indians-Keowee being their chief town, and lying on the west bank of the beautiful river by that name. The lands for many miles surrounding were slightly rolling and very rich and fertile, with numerous water courses traversing them. As shown by the profile of the railroad, from Belton to Walhalla, Pendleton is situated in a basin, and in altitude above the sea, is considerably lower than Belton. The Blue Ridge Mountains are distant about twenty-five miles, and the spectacle they present to the eye is grand and magnificent. Lord Lowther of England was so much impressed with this mountain view that he caused a large dwelling house to be erected on the highest point in the town. This dwelling is still in a good state of preservation, and is now owned and occupied by Mrs. William Henry Trescott and her daughters.

At the close of the Revolutionary War, many families from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina settled in Pendleton District. Gen. Andrew Pickens, Col. Robert Anderson, Col. Benjamin Cleveland, Samuel Earle, Samuel Warren, and Horse Shoe Robertson were of this distinguished number. They, and many others, were attracted by its salubrious climate and its rich and fertile soil. The native forests were covered with a heavy growth of wild pea vine, which furnished a luxurious pasture winter and summer for horses, cattle and game. Pendleton soon became from its location the great trading center for a large and extensive territory, and very naturally, the business men of the town, of all avocations, became rich. The lands contiguous to the town were in great demand, and were very early purchased by men of means. Their owners built large and comfortable dwellings thus early and farmed with great success. These farmers practiced a generous mode of living, satisfied with the increase of their slave population.

Early in the eighteenth century many of the wealthy residents of the low lands, along the sea coast, were also attracted by the great advantages which the Town of Pendleton afforded as a summer resort and came to Pendleton to spend the summer. They also purchased farms and erected large, and some of them, very fine residences for summer homes. But many of them became permanent residents. So it came about that all the old citizens of Pendleton, in speaking of Pendleton, called the country for miles around the "Town of Pendleton. It was quite natural that these low country gentlemen should bring with them the refined customs and manners of. the French Huguenots, which took root and spread among the sturdy and cultured residents from Virginia and other contiguous states, until the very name of Pendleton became a synonym for refined and beautiful women, and for elegant, high-toned and chivalrous gentlemen. The names of some of these families who came from the low country to Pendleton are given. These names will speak for themselves:

Pinckneys, Elliotts, Bees, Stevens, Chevers, Haskels, Smiths, Tunnor, Jennings, Porchers, Ravenels, Humes, Boons, Norths, Adgers, Potters, Darts, DuPrees, Hamiltons, Haynes, Campbells, Wilsons, Warleys, Trescotts, Cuthberts, Gibbes, Stuarts and Hugers.

Only a few of these families have descendants in Pendleton at this time.

In addition to these immigrants from the low country, many other people from various sections of the State, many of them wealthy, also came to Pendleton to secure the benefit to be derived there in many ways. Among them were the Calhouns, Adams, Earles, Harrisons, Pickens, Andersons, Taliaferros, Lewis, Maxwell, Seaborns, Symmes, Kilpatricks, Rosses, Warleys, Lattas, Shanklins, Dicksons, Sloans, Smiths, Taylors, Bensons, Mavericks, Van Wycks, Whitners, Reeses, Cherrys, Simpsons, Hunters, Clemsons, Millers, Gilmans, Sittons, Burts.

There were many wealthy and influential families scattered over the territory of Pendleton. Descendants of many of these families have been men known far and wide for their fine characters and great ability.

Such men for instance as James L. Orr, Benj. F. Perry, Stephen D. Lee, Joseph E. Brown and others. It would have afforded us great pleasure to have reached out and embraced the many distinguished families and men in this little history, but to have done so would nave extended it beyond all reasonable bounds. It is a well known fact that the descendants of these early settlers in Pendleton have produced more prominent men than perhaps any other portion of this or any other state of equal size men who have left here for other states and have attained there high and important positions.

It might be well to pause here and inquire into the causes which produced noticeable results. The rules or society in Pendleton were for the protection of the women primarily. None but gentlemen were admitted into the family circle. No matter how rich he might be, he could not enter, and a poor man, if a gentleman, was always welcome. The standard was character and knowledge of how to conduct himself according to the code of a gentleman. It was as much as a man's life was worth to speak disrespectfully of a woman or to do or say anything not permitted by the best society. Consequently, the mothers, wives and sisters of this favored region were respected and honored, and as a natural result they shed an influence which in turn elevated the children, and produced a race of men that have shed lustre upon the State and our common country. It is a common maxim that there never was a great man unless he had a great mother. When women are pulled down by the tongue of slander, and by a lack of that veneration due them by the men, from the high and exalted position in which God in his Providence has placed them, we will look in vain for the coming of great men. There never was a breath of scandal connected with a woman in Pendleton. The men in their intercourse with other men, observed with profound respect the rules which a refined society established for the government of such intercourse. These observances, coupled with a free and generous hospitality from one and all, won for the Town of Pendleton, lying in the lap of the beautiful Blue Ridge Mountains, an extended reputation for elegance, refinement and hospitality second to very few places in the State.

When we look back fifty years ago, when Pendleton was in its highest degree of prosperity, we recall with what strikes us now with peculiar force, that there never was any jealousy or unfriendly feeling existing among the men and their families. But all seemed to live In perfect harmony one with the other. On account of the scattered condition of the different homes there were but few entertainments given at night. Dinings were frequent between the various families, and such dining as they were too. A very pretty custom was when a family invited another in the cool of the summer evening to tea, as it was then called. It was handed around on big waiters, out on the piazzas, and it was not tea alone either. Weddings were memorable occasions, everybody was invited, and a supper was served in the most lavish style. Often there was sufficient to feed not only the guests present, but the whole neighborhood besides.

The citizens of Pendleton always took an active interest in everything that looked to the uplifting of the people generally. They too were always zealous and watchful to preserve the liberties of the country, and especially those interests and rights that belong to every man and to the State and entire country as well.

During the days of Nullification the people of Pendleton were staunch supporters of Mr Calhoun, the leading spirit of that memorable movement. And were also earnest advocates of, and active participants in, those measures which culminated in the Secession of the State of South Carolina from the United States in 1860. When war was inevitable these people, almost to a man, volunteered in the army. The young men volunteered first, and unfortunately many of our young men were absent in college, or engaged in business in other places, and they joined the companies being raised at those places they were then at. This and other causes prevented the people of Pendleton from organizing local companies, thus showing their loyalty to the great cause at stake. But the companies of Capt. Daniels, Capt. Shanklin,
Capt. Kilpatrick of Pickens, Capt. Garlington's company, of Laurens Capt. Trenholm's Squadron, Capt. Calhouns company, of Pickens, the Butler Guards, and so on had numerous recruits of Pendleton boy& Before the end of the war every man in Pendleton who was at all able to bear arms, was in the service, gallantly fighting the battles of his country. As a result the town and surrounding country were almost entirely denuded of men. No part of the Confederacy suffered more perhaps than this section of the State. The teachings and the training that these people were so familiar with could have no other result than to create men who were more than willing to give their lives in defense of their country. Their religious training also manifested itself in the tender care bestowed by them upon the sick and wounded soldiers.

Very early after the Town of Pendleton became the county seat of Pendleton County the citizens became interested in educational matters. In 1808, the legislature passed an act authorizing and directing the commissioner appointed to sell the lots into which the tract of land purchased from Isaac Lynch had been divided to turn over all the money in their hands to certain persons therein named for the purpose of establishing a circulating library. By the same authority other moneys and lands were added to the library fund. In 1811, the circulating library was incorporated and authority was given to the incorporation to buy and sell land, and all the remainder of the Lynch tract of land unsold was by said act vested in the said incorporation. The circulating library continued in operation until 1825, when by act of the legislature the library was incorporated as the Pendleton Male Academy. The brick academy was then built upon some of the land which the legislature had
given to the library. Afterwards, about 1835, another large school house was erected near the brick academy; which last was then turned into a dwelling for the teachers, and the school was held in the large wooden building. Both these buildings still remain, and are in fair condition; and a large graded school is now held therein. The Pendleton Male Academy was for many years a celebrated school, and was always largely patronized, particularly by those citizens who resided within four or five miles of the town.

In 1827, there was also in Pendleton a Female Academy, in which year the trustees thereof were incorporated as the trustees of the Pendleton Female Academy. In the year 1828, the trustees of the Pendleton Female Academy purchased, at public sale, the large brick jail and had it improved and added to for an academy. This Academy also became famous, and largely patronized both by residents and students from abroad. The Farmers' Society owned the building adjoining the Female Academy lot, which they sold to the Academy to better accommodate the boarding students. This building, many years after, the Academy sold to Col. D. S. Taylor.

There was still another school in town presided over by Miss Mary Hunter. When established, no one now living knows. Miss Mary had been teaching for many years before 1845, and she was then quite an old woman. To this school all the little tots, boys and girls, in the town and surrounding country went to learn the things Miss Mary taught, and I venture the assertion, not one of her scholars ever forgot the "Multiplication Table" to the very end of their days. Those who attended this celebrated school can no doubt recall many laughable little incidents which happened therein. The little boys and sometimes the little girls were sent to this school on horseback attended by an old Negro man, who returned in the afternoon and piloted them safely home. When they arrived at the age of maturity, that is when they had grown so big Miss Mary could not whip them, they were promoted to the Male and Female Academy. There was frequently more than a hundred children in each of these schools. They came principally from the homes of parents who resided within the limits of Pendleton. They came on foot, or on horse-back, in buggies, carriages, carryalls, hacks, and in every conceivable vehicle. As the boys grew large enough they drove their sisters to the Female Academy, and they kept the vehicle and horses at their school, and in the afternoon the whole "lay-out" drove to the Female Academy, received their loads and returned home.

The men of Pendleton were ever noted for their high toned and chivalric characters. They strictly observed all the courtesies and amenities of life, due from one gentleman to another, and any departure therefrom met with immediate condemnation-as with the parents, so with the boys. There was no hazing at the Male Academy, but when a boy entered this school he had very soon to learn that he had to be a gentleman in his conduct. If he was not an apt student in learning the ways of a gentleman he had more fights on his hands than he could possibly attend to. And woe be to the boy who should make a remark reflecting upon the life or character of a lady. It made no difference what lady either.

Thus were the boys trained in the ways of their fathers to respect women, to honor the aged, and, in their intercourse with each other, to be honest, upright and gentlemanly. Their training was sometimes rough, yes, very rough, but in the end many honorable and noble men were turned out of this old Academy.

In 1834, the Pendleton Manual Labor School was incorporated. This school was under the direction of Rev. John L. Kennedy, who afterwards became famous as a teacher of the youth of the country. He afterwards taught most successfully at Pickens Court House, Thalian Academy, and other places. The labor school continued for a few years only. The reason given by Mr. Kennedy to the writer for its failure was two-fold. The boys could not stand being taken out of the school room to work in the sun. The sudden changes or other causes not determined, brought on an epidemic of typhoid fever, which caused the scheme to be abandoned.

It is somewhat peculiar that the citizens of Pendleton very shortly after the termination of the Confederate War attempted to establish a similar school but on a broader basis. Thos. G. Clemson, R. F. Simpson, W. H. Trescott, James W. Crawford, Dr. J. H. Maxwell, Maj. Benj. Sloan, Col. J. W. Livingston, Dr. H. C. Miller, and R. W. Simpson attempted, in an humble way, to establish an Agricultural School. And while their efforts failed there grew out of their efforts influences which culminated in the establishment of Clemson College, an institution far beyond the conception of those who first conceived the idea.

As early as 1815 the citizens of Pendleton began to take an active interest in the improvement of their stock and the methods of farming. In the same year they organized a Farmers' Society. The officers were James C. Griffin, president ; Josias Gaillard, vice-president; Robert Anderson, secretary and treasurer; and Joseph V. Shanklin, corresponding secretary. The resident members who first joined the Society were Thomas Pinckney, Jr., John L. North, Andrew Pickens, Benjamin Smith, John Miller, Sr., Charles Gaillard, John E. Calhoun, J. T. Lewis, Thomas L. Dart, J. B. Earle, William Hunter, Benjamin DuPre, Sr., Joseph Grisham, L. McGregor, Samuel Earle, Richard Harrison, Patrick Norris, J. C. Kilpatrick, Joseph B. Earle, T. W. Farrar, C. W. Miller, Samuel Cherry, John Taylor, Thomas Stribling, John Green. The next year the following names were added:

John Maxwell, B. F. Perry, William Hubbard, E. B. Benson, George Reese, Sr., George W. Liddell, J. B. Perry, John Martin, T. Farrar, Warren R. Davis, William Gaston, Joseph Reed, Elam Sharpe, D. Sloan, Jr., Samuel Warren, Leonard Simpson, Major Lewis, Samuel Taylor.

In 1817, the following members were added to the Society: William Steele, James Laurence, Frances Burt, John Hunter, W. S. Adair, William Taylor, William Anderson, Joseph Mitchell, Thomas Lorton, Rev. James Hillhouse, Benjamin Dickson, Richard Lewis, J. T. Whitfield, J. B. Hammond, John Halbert, and Robert Lemon.

In 1818, the following members were added: John Hall, David Cherry, John Gaillard, Charles Stony, McKenzie Collins, George Taylor, Theodore Gaillard, Samuel Gassaway, R. A. Maxwell, J. P. Lewis, F. W. Symmes, George Reese, Jr., Joseph Whitner, James Faris, James 0. Lewis, Thomas Sloan, Henry McCrary, David K. Hamilton.

Many addresses and reports of committees are still preserved in which are shown the great interest taken at that early date in the improvement of everything pertaining to agriculture. This society is the oldest of its kind in the United States, except the one organized in Philadelphia a year or two before this one, The Pendleton Farmers' Society, in 1828,, bought the old court house and the new one being then erected in Pendleton. And, with the material of the old court house, completed the new building for the Farmers' Society, which is still the property of the Society. For many years stock shows and fairs were annually held. Improved breeds of cattle and other kinds of stock were imported. Horses, cattle jacks, sheep and hogs in great numbers were put on exhibition. And thus these shows were kept up for years. Ever since the war some notable exhibition of stock has taken place. The Farmers' Society has maintained its organization to the present time.

John Miller, who assisted in the publication and circulation of the famous Junius' Letters in London, came to America. He published the first daily paper ever issued in Charleston. Afterwards he made Pendleton his home, and was elected Clerk of the County Court in 1790. Mr. Miller commenced the publication of a weekly newspaper in Pendleton early in the nineteenth century. The paper was first known as Miller's Weekly Messenger, and afterwards appeared as the Pendleton Messenger, with Dr. F. W. Symmes as editor. Dr. Symmes was a man of ability and wielded a controlling influence in the politics of this section of the State. He was a Democrat and a fearless advocate of Mr. Calhoun and his politics in his remarkable career in the country. In 1849 he sold the Messenger to Burt & Thompson, who conducted the paper for several years.

Major George Seaborn edited and published the Farmer and Planter at Pendleton for a number of years. Major Seaborn was a native of Greenville, and reared a large and interesting family. He took great interest in improving the methods of farming as he found them here. His paper was not only useful and ably edited, but it was very popular in the State.

Early in the history of Pendleton a Jockey Club was incorporated by the legislature. A number of good citizens engaged in the sport of racing, not because it was profitable as such, but because in that way the stock of the country could be improved. There was no betting or immorality in the mere act of racing. It was encouraged because it afforded amusement to the people at large.

One small event may be recorded without loss of temper or currency This was known as the worm Multicallus incident. Many trees were planted, and some silk was evolved by the silk worms. The fortunes to be made by the trees did not materialize, but quite a number of persons, including Mrs. Samuel Reid, of Pickens, were very successful in making silk and manufacturing it into beautiful cloth.

One of the great events in the history of Pendleton was the removal of Hon. John C. Calhoun, from Abbeville, to Fort Hill in 1824. Incidentally, it connects his family with the origin of Clemson College, of which we desire to make brief mention. The great struggle, tile fierce "War between the sections," left the entire South barren in almost every respect. As an agricultural people we were bereft of labor and capital, and, to add to this, our political condition was rendered almost intolerable by the unrelenting disposition of the North in its hour of success. Our educational institutions went down in the general wreck. They had been too, mostly of a literary character. Something practical in this respect was a necessity. Col. Thomas G. Clemson, a son-in-law of Mr. Calhoun, was an eminently practical man, and had been very thoroughly educated in this respect. He was a scientist of very high character. Colonel Clemson was in the overthrow with his family, and saw his way clearly as to the necessities of the future. The education of the youth of the South must in a measure be of a practical character; and he, in his old age, gauged the future most successfully. He resided on a spot dear to every Southern man by its associations. Was the future of a great people to be made certain by the practical and scientific knowledge of Colonel Clemson? Let us see.

We have already seen that the people of Pendleton had at a very early period, become interested in the practical character of the "Labor School" established near town. They also redoubled their efforts after the war to establish a more effective institution. These gentlemen were the companions of Colonel Clemson, and has desire in this connection rekindled their efforts. This was especially true as to Col. R. W. Simpson. He had nobly discharged his duty as a private in the ranks of the Confederate Army. He was not only a successful farmer, but also a lawyer of distinction. He was often consulted by Colonel Clemson as to his business generally and especially as to the establishment of such an institution as Clemson College has proved to be. He wrote his will, giving in a marked degree, the directions of Colonel Clemson in this respect, and was his companion generally in the passing years of his useful and eventful life.

On one occasion, Colonel Simpson was requested by the Trustees of the College to prepare a sketch of the life of Colonel Clemson. This he did, and read the same before the authorities of the College.

This is a brief memorial of Colonel Simpson to his departed friend, and we have drawn largely from it in concluding this article.

"Col. Thomas G. Clemson was born in the City of Philadelphia, July, 1807, died at Fort Hill, S. C., April 6, 1888, and was buried at Pendleton, S. C. Colonel Clemson was six feet six inches tall. His features were handsome and his appearance commanding. His deportment and manner were dignified and polished. His intellect was of a high order, and he was gifted with fine conversational powers. His views and opinions were broad and liberal and there was nothing narrow or contracted about him.

"While possessed of ample means he had no disposition to spend more money upon himself than was actually necessary. His greatest desire was to take care of his property and increase it that he might the better carry out his promise to his wife, which was to found an Agricultural College upon Fort Hill, upon the very spot she herself had selected for the location of the main college building. How faithfully he redeemed his promise to his dear wife, let Clemson College as it stands today in all of its magnificence speak. Colonel Clemson well knew that the property donated for the purpose would not be sufficient to build and maintain such a college as he conceived of; but having a firm reliance upon the liberality of the State of South Carolina, he felt assured that when the necessities of the people, growing out of their changed conditions resulting from the effects of the war, were properly understood and appreciated, his efforts to benefit the farmers would be recognized, and that the State would supplement his donation by whatever amount might be necessary to establish the dream of his life.

He reasoned wisely and correctly.

"Very early in life Colonel Clemson developed a great taste for the study of the sciences, especially chemistry, mineralogy and geology. In 1823, when hardly sixteen years old he ran off from home, not on account of any disagreement with his parents, but simply for adventure and to see the world. At that time, though so young, was six feet tall and exceedingly handsome, both in form and feature. He first went to England, but remained there only a short time and then visited Paris. At that time France was particularly friendly towards the United States, and this handsome young American very soon attracted the attention of the. young nobility of the great City. Through these young men he also became acquainted with some of the leading officials of the City. During his stay in Paris he shouldered a musket and joined his young friends in several of the revolutions or outbreaks for which that City has been famous it's gallantry displayed on these occasions earned for him the respect and esteem of the officials, who rewarded him with a position in the celebrated School of the Mines.

He remained at the school for four years and graduated with high honors. During his stay in Paris he also found time to indulge his taste for painting, and had as his teachers some of the celebrated artists of that time.

By these means he became acquainted with many painters both in France and Germany, which enabled him in after years to collect the many valuable and beautiful paintings which now adorn the walls of John C. Calhoun's old homestead at Fort Hill. During his stay in Europe his father died and his large estate was divided in such a way as to leave him no part of it, and just at the age of manhood found himself penniless; but he cheerfully set to work in the practice of his profession and very soon earned an enviable reputation. His services as mining expert were particularly valuable, and though established at Washington, his labors were not confined to this country alone, but extended to Cuba and South America also. His fees were large and he soon after amassed a comfortable fortune. At Washington he was a conspicuous and prominent person, and he had the entry into the most exclusive families. Miss Floride, the eldest daughter of John C. Calhoun, was in Washington on a visit to her father, and there Colonel Clemson met her, and subsequently they were married at Fort Hill. Mrs. Clemson was among women what her distinguished father was among men. Her love for her home and country was superb, and to this noble, generous and yet gentle woman, South Carolina is as much indebted for Clemson College as to the distinguished husband, Thomas G. Clemson.

Colonel Clemson was a great admirer of John C. Calhoun and earnestly supported his political views and opinions. During the administration of President Jackson he was appointed Minister to Belgium, but having very little taste for politics, at the expiration of his term, he returned to his home in Washington, and resumed the work of his profession. At the beginning of the war Colonel Clemson was residing at his home in Washington City with his family. which consisted of his wife and his son, John C. Clemson, and daughter, Floride Clemson the son and daughter about grown. It was well known to the authorities that the sympathies of Colonel Clemson were with the South, and for this reason his movements were closely watched, and some time in 1862 his arrest was ordered, but being warned by a friend that he would be arrested the next day, he and his son escaped during the night, and crossed the Potomac in a row boat. Landing on Virginia soil they did not stop until they reached Richmond, having walked the entire distance. Upon arriving in Richmond they both tendered their services to President Davis. John C. was at once appointed a lieutenant in the army and assigned to duty. Colonel Clemson was assigned to the mining department of the trans - Mississippi. Here he remained in the service to the close of the war. At this time Mrs. John C. Calhoun resided at Pendleton, and here Colonel Clemson was reunited with his family, and here they resided until the death of Mrs. Calhoun in the latter part of 1866.

Previous to the war, Mrs. Calhoun had sold their old home Fort Hill and all her property thereon, to her son, Col. Andrew P. Calhoun, taking his bond and mortgage for the purchase money. Of this bond and mortgage Mrs. Calhoun willed three-fourths to her daughter Mrs. Thomas G. Clemson, and one-fourth to Mrs. Clemson's daughter, Miss Floride, who subsequently married Mr. Gideon Lee, of New York. The mortgage of Col. A. P. Calhoun was foreclosed, and Mrs. Clemson bought in Fort Hill, and divided it with her daughter, Mrs. Lee, in proportion to the interest of each under Mrs. Calhoun's will. In 1871, Mrs. Floride Lee died, leaving one child, a daughter. Only seventeen days after Mrs. Lee's death, John C. Clemson was killed near Seneca by a collision of two trains on the Blue Ridge Railroad. The loss of their only two children was a terrible shock to Mr. and Mrs. Clemson.

Desolate, they mourned-all the brightness had been blotted out of their lives, but unsearchable are the Providence of God, for it was then that these two stricken sorrowing parents determined to unite in so disposing of all they had left of their property as to bring to their fellowmen as much happiness and prosperity as they could have wished for themselves. They agreed to make wills to each other, and promised that the survivor would make a will donating all of their joint property to erect an Agricultural College at Fort Hill. In 1875, Mrs. Clemson died suddenly of heart disease, while Mr. Clemson was absent from home. Many persons in Pendleton remember the grief of this old and now desolate man at the grave, when the remains of the devoted partner of his life were being laid to rest. The remaining years of his life Mr. Clemson spent desolate and alone, at Fort Hill. After awhile he began to take more interest in affairs. He was fond of reading and kept around him the leading newspapers and standard magazines, by which he was enabled to keep in touch with his fellowmen otherwise he lived the life of a hermit, at least for several years after the death of Mrs. Clemson. Eventually, however, his mind became fixed upon the one purpose of fulfilling the promise to his wife, and erecting the College they had planned. Then he began again to visit his friends, and many were the efforts he and his friends made to interest others in this great work.

During this time he looked carefully after his finances, and tried to save all he could for the College. But still he provided generously for the faithful helpers who remained with him, and wished very much to help other poor friends in distress and did so. It was the privilege of the writer to visit him frequently during the last two years of his life, and during this time he talked freely of his life and experiences. He portrayed in a manner never to be forgotten, the condition the South was sure to be plunged into if something was not done to arrest the destructive tendencies of the times. Education, such as we had before our conditions were changed by the war, was all right, but not enough. To become successful the Southern people had to become practical, and a practical education was necessary to meet the people's necessities. During the latter part of his life he talked a great deal about religious matters and became very much concerned about the salvation of his soul.

He requested the ministers to visit him. One good man who was with him to the last, said that beyond a doubt he had made his peace with his God, and his last words were in behalf of the poor and suffering. Can the people of South Carolina ever forget Thomas G. Clemson and the great work he helped to accomplish for them? If this is possible visit Fort Hill and look around you!"

This is the faithful tribute of Colonel Simpson to his friend. Thomas G. Clemson.

Clemson College has been partly burned, and has been rebuilt. Additions have been made from time to time. Recently large additions have been planned, and very soon more than eight hundred young men can be educated at this College along practical lines. The College is in a very prosperous condition.

This book did not have an index.  I have made the following index to help you find the families Col. Simpson has sketched.

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