South Dakota’s History

by Doane Robinson, 1904

From “South Dakota Historical Collections” Compiled by the State Historical Society, Volume II, 1904

transcribed by Karen Seeman



So far as now known the primitive inhabitants of South Dakota were the Arickara Indians, an offshoot of the Pawnees, a people of the Caddoan stock, who built permanent homes of poles and earth and subsisted by the chase and cultivating the soil. They called themselves "Tanish," but were known to the Sioux as "Corn Planters.'' They occupied the Missouri valley from the mouth of the Niobrara to the Mandans. For a long period their principal seat was at the neighborhood of Pierre, but a little over a hundred years ago they were driven off by the Sioux. They then made a stand at Grand River, in the north part of the state, but were again dislodged in 1823 and left the state, going further north.

When the first white explorers reached the Dakota country the Sioux Indians proper had not yet occupied the soil, but the Omahas, a Siouan tribe, lived on the Sioux, with their principal villages at Sioux Falls and Flandreau. The Sisseton Sioux were probably even at that early date domiciled about Big Stone Lake. Early in the eighteenth century the Dakotas (Sioux), then chiefly living in Minnesota, found their domain too restricted and began to press into the South Dakota region, driving their relatives, the Omahas, south of the Missouri. By 1750 they had come in contact with the Arickaras (Rees) on the Missouri, and a relentless warfare was kept up for forty years, until about 1790 the Rees were compelled to abandon their homes, protected, as they were, with strong fortresses.  The Rees were consummate engineers and their fortifications, remains of which are in many localities along the Missouri, challenge the admiration of the skilled modern fort builders. From that time the Sioux pioneers, the Tetons of the west, then took up their homes in the heart of the Buffalo range west of the Missouri. There was a potent reason why these pioneers crossed over the fertile Sioux and James valleys to make their homes west of the Missouri. The buffalo grass and open, almost snowless winters assured them an almost certain supply of meat the winter through, while in the section cast of the river deep winter snows were likely to deprive the buffalo of pasture and to consequently drive them west of the river into the yet famous range country.  The Yanktons appear to have been domiciled … nineteenth century: The Sissetons occupied the portion of South Dakota adjacent to Big Stone Lake, hunting west to the James River. The Yanktonais the territory centering on James River north of a line running from Pierre to Watertown. The Yanktons, the James valley south of that line, and the country west of the Missouri by the Tetons, divided into seven bands: the Oglalas, who lived on the Niobrara; the Minneconjous, living between the Black Hills and the Platte; the Brules, living on White River; the Two Kettles, on Bad River; the Sans Arcs, the Blackfeet and the Uncpapas living on Grand River, the last three bands closely allied.

Immediately after the settlement of St. Louis in 1764 the enterprising men of that town began to trade up the Missouri. They left no record of the date when their operations first reached South Dakota, but by the beginning of the nineteenth century their operations with the Sioux were considerable. They were thoroughly familiar with the Dakota country and had business relations with the tribes, and had at least two regular trading stations of considerable importance, one Trudeau's, near the present Greenwood postoffice in Charles Mix county, usually called the Pawnee house, was built in 1796, and Loisee's, on Cedar Island, between Fort Pierre and the Big Bend, had been established at an earlier date. Most of the streams, islands and natural landmarks had at that time been given the names they still bear.

In January, 1803, President Jefferson proposed, in a message to congress, an American expedition by way of the Missouri River to the Pacific coast. The acquisition of the territory to be traversed was not suggested, and it is probable was not dreamed of, the extension of trade and the acquisition of knowledge being the principal inducements to the undertaking. Congress encouraged the enterprise, and as a result the famous Lewis and Clark expedition was fitted out, though before it was undertaken the entire Louisiana country had been ceded to the United States, and the last act of the doughty captains before setting out into the unknown land was to assist at St. Louis in the formal transfer of, Louisiana to the Americans.

The expedition, consisting of forty-three persons, set out from the mouth of the Missouri on May 14, 1804, and reached the mouth of the Sioux and Dakotaland in the morning of August 21st, and in passing through the state visited Spirit mound, north of Vermillion, and held councils with the Yanktons at Yankton, the Tetons at Fort Pierre, and the Rees at Arickara (above the mouth of Grand River). They passed the north line of the state on October 10th, having been within South Dakota fifty-one days. Upon their return in 1806 they took home with them Big White, the famous Mandan chief, and in attempting to return him to his people in 1807 Sergeant Prior and Pierre Chouteau, Sr., encountered the hostility of the Rees, and after a fight in which three of their men were killed were compelled to turn back and abandon the trip. This was the first bloodshed in hostility between whites and Indians on Dakota soil.

Manuel Lisa, a Spanish trader of St. Louis, successfully passed through South Dakota in this year, 1807, with goods for trade with the mountain Indians, and returning to St. Louis the next spring organized the St. Louis-Missouri Fur Company, in which all of the prominent merchants of St. Louis of that day became partners, and their first engagement was to return Big White to his Mandan home, which they accomplished without opposition from the Rees, at the same time carrying up great cargoes of goods for the mountain trade. The company seems to have come into possession of Loisee's post on Cedar Island, which burned in June, 1810, together with $15,000 worth of furs which were gathered and stored there.

In 1811 the famous Astoria expedition, under the direction of Wilson Price Hunt, passed through South Dakota, going up the Missouri as far as Arickara, where they traded with the Rees for horses, and abandoning the river passed up Grand River, and crossing the northern section of the Black Hills, reached the coast at the mouth of the Columbia, where they founded Astoria. They were the first to leave a record of the exploration of the western part of the state. During this period the St. Louis men were actively engaged in trade in the South Dakota field, but the next year the war with England ruined the fur market and in consequence the South Dakota trade. Manuel Lisa seems to have been the only one to continue in it. He was appointed special agent for the Missouri River Indians and succeeded in holding their loyalty to the United States, while all of the Mississippi Sioux cast in their fortunes with England. Lisa's policy was to excite hostility between

the Sioux of the Missouri and those of the Mississippi, and so give them so much to do to attend to their own affairs that they would have little time to give to England's interests, and he succeeded so well that but little assistance was rendered England by their western allies. However, some Yanktonais from South Dakota, under Waneta, who lived on Elm River in Brown county, and also twenty-two Sissetons from Big Stone Lake, did join the English army and went east and engaged in the battle before Fort Meigs. Waneta made a great reputation in this campaign, was made an English captain and taken to England, where he was taken before the king, probably the only South Dakotan who has enjoyed that distinction.

During the war and down until 1817 the fur trade was greatly depressed and Manuel Lisa had the Dakota field to himself. He maintained one large establishment, probably at Cedar Island, where he kept a large amount of goods and live stock. He learned the Sioux women to cultivate vegetables and did much for the comfortable living of his children of the wilderness.

In the autumn of 1817 the Astor establishment at Mackinaw began to push out into the west, and that autumn sent Joseph LaFrambois with a small stock of goods from Prairie du Chien to the mouth of the Teton (Fort Pierre), where he built a small house and traded with the Tetons. This establishment was continued two years, when the Missouri River field was given over to the St. Louis traders, and LaFrambois set up first at Big Stone, and then upon the Sioux at Flandreau, where he continued for five years, and then late in the '20s left the state and settled east of the coteau on the DesMoines. When LaFrambois left the Missouri the Chouteau interests from St. Louis established themselves there and soon built Fort Tecumseh, and built up an extensive trade. The location was a valuable one, the proximity of the Black Hills giving them a large Cheyenne and Crow trade in addition to the local business of the Sioux.

In 1822 the Rocky Mountain Fur Company was organized at St. Louis by General W. H. Ashley and Major Andrew Henry, and that year they took an expedition to the mountains over the river route, and in the fall Ashley returned to St. Louis, leaving Andrew Henry with a party of trappers on the Yellowstone. At St. Louis Ashley made up a party of "one hundred enterprising young men," and with a large stock of goods set out to rejoin Henry in the spring.   They reached Arickara, South Dakota, late in May, where they concluded to buy horses and send a portion of the party overland by the Grand River route, a popular short cut to the mountains.   They traded amicably until the first of June, when having secured as many horses as desired, Ashley prepared to send forty men across country the next morning, while himself and the remainder would continue by the slower river route with the goods.   At daybreak, however, the land party was attacked by the treacherous Rees and thirteen killed and ten others injured, and the expedition so demoralized they were compelled to retreat down river for safety. General Ashley that morning dispatched Jedediah S. Smith from the mouth of Grand River to Henry on the Yellowstone, and there before starting Smith, a young Methodist, but 18 years of age, made a prayer, the first recorded act of religious worship in Dakota.   Ashley also dispatched messengers to Fort Atkinson, at Council Bluffs, the nearest military station, asking for help, and Colonel Leavenworth with 220 men of the Sixth cavalry at once, without waiting for orders from his superiors, set out to punish the Rees for their treachery.   It was a most hazardous undertaking.   At Yankton on July 3d one of the boats was snagged and Sergeant Samuel Stackpole and six men were lost.  Between Chamberlain and the mouth of the Cheyenne the military was reinforced by forty trappers from the employ of the Missouri Fur Company and eighty men from the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, also by 700 Sioux Indians who had been gathered up by Joshua Pilcher, special agent for the Sioux and head of the Missouri Fur Company.  They reached Arickara on the afternoon of August 9th, and after a couple of days of desultory fighting the Rees begged for peace, but after the treaty was signed they became alarmed and abandoned the village

In 1825 the government determined to make treaties of friendship, trade and intercourse with all of the western tribes, and General Atkinson and Benjamin O'Fallon were designated to negotiate with the Missouri River tribes. With a pretentious military escort of 325 men they visited each of the tribes, who readily signed the treaties proposed. They were at Pierre on July 4th and celebrated the day there with elaborate ceremony. Colonel Leavenworth was in command of the escort. The Rees were found at their old villages at Arickara, and in a most humble state of mind signed the treaty.

A great revolution in mercantile methods dates from 1831, when Pierre Chouteau, Jr., navigated the first steamboat to Fort Pierre. Thereafter that vehicle was employed generally for conveying goods to the river fur posts.

In 1832 Fort Pierre was visited by George Catlin, the renowned painter of Indian portraits and scenes, and he has given us a view of conditions then obtaining which we could not else secure.   He also visited the Mandans and other up-river tribes.

The next year Maximilian Prince of Weid visited the river and obtained the data and views for his famous work. But little of his record, however, pertains to South Dakota, Fort Union being the center of his operations.

In 1838 Dr. Nicollet, accompanied by John C. Fremont, then a very young man, visited the eastern portion of the state, engaged in the government topographical survey, and they made a topographical map of the coteau region and named most of the lakes for men  then prominent. The next year they came up the river to Fort Pierre and from that point crossed to the James River at Armadale, and thence up the James to Devils Lake, and  back down the coteau to Big Stone Lake, procuring the first reliable data for a map of the region.

In 1840 Dr. Stephen R. Riggs and Alexander Huggins, well known missionaries to the Sioux, located upon the upper Minnesota, passed over from Lac qui Parle to Fort Pierre, where they held the first formal religious services at the fort in South Dakota of which record has been made. In 1842 Father Ravoux, a devout Catholic priest from St. Paul, visited Fort Pierre and celebrated mass and baptized several persons, the first recorded
Catholic services.

About this period scientific men began to visit South Dakota to examine the exposed geological formations and gather fossils, and the work has been almost constant from that time.

In 1851. by the treaty of Traverse de Sioux, negotiated by Governor Ramsey of Minnesota, the Indian title to the first portion of South Dakota land was extinguished. That was for the section lying east of the Sioux river. In 1855 the advancing settlements and for the protection of the California trail it was {determined to establish a strong military post on the Missouri and Fort Pierre was selected for the point. The old tumble-down post was purchased by the government, a military reservation laid out and a garrison sent to occupy it. In October General William S. Harney crossed over from the Platte to take command of the post. He found it inadequate, and scattering his command of 1,200 men in cantonments where wood and grazing were accessible, set out to examine the river before making a final location. He selected Handy's Point, and the next year located and began the building of Fort Randall there. His topographical engineer, Lieutenant Gouvernor K. Warren, who afterward was distinguished as General Warren in the rebellion, made extended reconnaissances on both sides of the river, visiting the Black Hills and other important sections, and making maps and observations which were most valuable and arc still considered authoritative.

In 1857 the Spirit Lake massacre occurred and its perpetrators carried four captive women into Dakota. Mrs. Thatcher was murdered by them while crossing the Sioux at Flandreau, Mrs. Marble was rescued at Madison by Greyfoot and his brother, Christian Sissetons from the Riggs mission on the Minnesota; Mrs. Noble was murdered by Roaring Cloud, a son of Inkpadutah, in eastern Spink county; and Abbie Gardner, the last of the captives, was rescued by John Otherday, Paul Mazakutemana and Iron hawk, Christian Indians, on the James between Ashton and Redfield, on May 30, 1857.

In May of this year. 1857, the first settlement was begun at Sioux Falls, by a party from Dubuque and another from St. Paul, the former led by Dr. Staples and the latter by Major Franklin DeWitt. Both parties came with the intention of getting in on the ground floor in the new territory, to seize the water power of the falls and secure the location of the territorial capital.

The next spring the treaty with the Yankton Sioux was made, by which they relinquished all of their lands except 400,000 acres in Charles Mix county.

The settlement at Sioux Falls grew slowly. Minnesota was admitted as a state, and they assumed that the Dakota country was a new territory, and sent Alpheus G. Fuller to congress to represent them, but congress refused to recognize him. That fall they elected a legislature, and the legislature elected Henry Masters governor. The next year they elected Jefferson P. Kidder to represent them in congress, but he, too, failed of recognition. Governor Masters died, and Samuel J. Albright was elected to succeed him, but failing to qualify Wilmot W. Brookings, by common consent, became acting governor. On the second day of March congress created Dakota territory and President Lincoln soon appointed Dr. Wm. Jayne of Springfield, Illinois, governor. He arrived at Yankton in June and called an election for the first of September, at which Captain John B. S. Todd was elected delegate to congress. The legislature elected at the same time did not meet until March 17, 1862.

The civil war was then in progress and that spring of 1862 Company A of the First Dakota cavalry was organized by Captain Nelson Miner. In August of that year the great Minnesota massacre occurred and the feeble settlements in Dakota were threatened with extinction. Judge Joseph Amidon and his son were killed at Sioux Falls and the people of the territory were filled with terror. On the 30th of August Governor Jayne called every able-bodied man to arms in defense of the homes of Dakota. In addition to Company A, already in arms, 399 responded. Stockades were built at Yankton, Vermillion, Elk Point, Jefferson and on Brule Creek, and protection afforded the settlers except at Sioux Falls, which was absolutely abandoned, the settlers going to Yankton under the escort of a battalion of Company A men for protection.

At the election held just at the date of the Indian troubles Captain Todd and Governor Jayne were candidates for congress. Jayne was elected on the face of the returns, and Todd contested and secured the seat. Governor Jayne left the territory never to return when he went to congress, and the president appointed Newton Edmunds, a resident of Yankton, governor. Mr. Edmunds was a practical business man, a fearless official, and accomplished much for the territory.

A long war followed the Indian uprising and another company of Dakota cavalry was raised and William Tripp made captain. These two companies served faithfully until 1865 and 1866 respectively, when the Indian troubles were over. Walter A. Burleigh succeeded Captain Todd in congress and served four years. Dr. Burleigh secured the appointment of his father-in-law, Andrew J. Faulk, to succeed Governor Edmunds.

At the close of the Indian troubles a treaty was negotiated with all of the tribes by Governor Edmunds and General Sibley, at Fort Pierre, which permitted the government to build roads and forts in the unceded lands west of the Missouri. Red Cloud and other prominent men refused to sign these treaties, on the ground that the roads and forts would frighten away the buffalo and other game upon which the Indians subsist, and when the government undertook to construct such roads and forts they forcibly resisted, and in a hard fought war succeeded so well that the government was glad to negotiate a new treaty in 1868, in which it was agreed that the roads and forts should be abandoned, and the Indians were to have regular issues of rations and clothing; in consideration of which they abandoned all of their lands east of the Missouri, reserving to themselves exclusively and forever all of the lands from the Niobrara to the Cannonball and west to the mountains, including all of the Black Hills country. This treaty was faithfully observed by the Indians.

Dr. Burleigh was succeeded in congress by S. L. Spink, who served one term. John A. Burbank was appointed governor. Spink was succeeded by Moses K. Armstrong in congress for the space of four years.

In 1874 the government, in direct violation of the treaty of 1868, sent General Custer with a regiment of soldiers and a corps of scientific men to explore the Black Hills and determine if they did contain gold, as the people long had believed. Custer reported that there really was gold there, and the miners began to flock in in spite of some attempt on the part of the military to keep them out. This greatly excited the Indians, who believed their lands were to be stolen from them. The next year the government assembled all of the Sioux tribes at Red Cloud agency and attempted to negotiate a treaty for the cession of the Hills, but failed to agree upon terms and the council adjourned without accomplishing anything. All attempt to keep the miners out was then abandoned and it is estimated that by the first of the next March there were 11,000 white men in the Black Hills, chiefly at Custer. The Indians now resolved to fight for their rights and to make a determined stand for their homes. They assembled a formidable army under such men as Black Moon and Gall of the Uncpapas. Crazy Horse of the Oglalas and Inkpadutah of the Santees. Sitting Bull was very effective in exciting the Indians to this course. The  government sent three columns of soldiers against them, expecting to crush them between the three armies. The first moved up from Fort Fetterman under Crook; the second went out from Fort Abraham Lincoln under Terry, with whom Custer was associated; the third came down from Fort Ellis on the Gallatin, under Gibbon. Crazy Horse caught Crook near Fort Reno and put him out of commission so that he had to abandon the campaign.

Terry sent Custer on a scout to the Big Horn, where he attacked the entire body of the Sioux and was annihilated. The Indians were poorly supplied with ammunition and exhausted their supply in the fight with Custer, or they would have easily destroyed Gibbon. In their plight the Indians were divided in their views. Some determined to stay out and die if necessary, though they clearly saw that further resistance without ammunition was simply suicide. In this plight the large majority slipped back to their reservations, Crazy Horse hid in the mountains, and Gall. Sitting Bull and a few recalcitrants made their way to Canada.

That fall a new commission, of which Governor Edmunds was the leading member, made a treaty for the cession of the Hills. During the ensuing winter Spotted Tail persuaded his nephew Crazy Horse to come in and surrender, and after two or three years Gall and Sitting Bull came down and surrendered, but Inkpadutah, whose hand was against every man and who knew that nothing but death would avenge the atrocities of which he was  guilty, died in Canada.

John L. Pennington of Alabama succeeded Governor Burbank, and Judge Jefferson P. Kidder followed Armstrong in congress from 1874 to 1878. Except for the rush to the Black Hills the settlement of South Dakota was very slow until about 1878, when a great immigration set in, primarily due to the great panic of 1873, which had deprived many of their homes in the east, and they thronged upon the fertile lands of Dakota. This boom of immigration was quickly followed by a boom of railway building. The first railway was built from Sioux City to Yankton in 1872, the same year the Northwestern line reached the state line at Gary, and was completed through to Lake Kampeska the next spring.

The boom continued for six years, during which most of the counties of central Dakota were settled, the railways built and the towns and cities came into being.

Almost from the first settlement there had been more or less agitation for the division of Dakota into two territories, and in 1882 a definite and positive program was set out for division and the admission of the south half. This movement originated in its last form in Yankton and its first fruits was a delegate convention which met in Canton in 1882, and that in turn in the calling of a Second convention, which met in Huron in June, 1883. Governor Pennington had been succeeded by William A. Howard, a most excellent man, who died in 1880, and he was succeeded by Nehemiah G. Ordway, a man who left an unenviable record in Dakota. The legislature of 1883 had passed an act providing for a constitutional convention for South Dakota, but Ordway had vetoed it. The great statehood convention at Huron therefore passed an ordinance calling a constitutional convention to meet at Sioux Falls in September, and members were duly elected and the convention met and adopted a constitution, which was ratified by the people in November.

The legislature of 1883 had also taken action resulting in the removal of the capital from Yankton to Bismarck and had (illegible portion) of North Dakota.  In 1884 Oscar S. Gifford was elected to congress, serving four years, and in June of that year Gilbert A. Pierce became governor.

Congress refused to recognize South Dakota under the Sioux Falls constitution of 1883, and the next legislature provided for a new constitution, which was made and adopted at Sioux Falls in September, 1885, and under it an election was held for state officers and a legislature, which in turn elected United States senators. Under this constitution Arthur C. Mellette was elected governor, Gideon C. Moody and Alonzo J. Edgerton senators, and Oscar S. Gifford and Theodore D. Kanouse to congress. Huron was chosen capital and prohibition was voted into the constitution. Congress, however, refused to act for nearly four years, when the state was admitted under this constitution, modified by a new convention and with a new election for officers, capital, prohibition, equal suffrage and minority representation.

In 1887 President Cleveland appointed Louis K. Church of New York governor, the only Democrat who ever filled the position in the territory.

On the 12th of January, 1888, a disastrous storm came upon the prairies of the west, and 112 South Dakotans perished in it. On the 2d of April, 1889, another violent wind storm came, which drove prairie fires with such violence that many villages and homes were destroyed and a few lives were lost. The communities to suffer most was the then new McPherson county, the village of Leola being destroyed, and Yankton county, where the town of Volin was burned.

Statehood was accomplished by the proclamation of admission, which was made by President Benjamin Harrison on November 2, 1889, and the new state started off with Arthur C. Mellette governor, Gideon C. Moody and Richard F. Pettigrew senators, and Oscar S. Gifford and John A. Pickler congressmen. At the election in 1888 George A. Mathews had been elected to succeed Gifford as delegate in congress, but statehood came before he was seated. The new state started off in a time of great depression, resulting from reaction from the boom, accompanied by two successive seasons of crop failure from drought. Many settlers left the state and Dakota credit suffered seriously.

James H. Kyle followed Moody as senator in 1891, and John R. Gamble succeeded Gifford in congress. Mr. Gamble died before be took his seat and John L. Jolley was elected to fill the vacancy. In 1892 Charles H. Sheldon was elected governor and William V. Lucas in place of John L. Jolley. Two years of excellent crops had revived the courage of the people and restored in a good degree public confidence in South Dakota, when the great financial depression fell upon the country, and South Dakota suffered severely from this cause. From complications growing out of the panic. W. W. Taylor, state treasurer, defaulted to the state for the sum of $367,000, leaving the treasury bankrupt. Kirk G. Phillips, his successor, however, supported by the people and the banks, arose to the occasion and provided funds to bridge the emergency, and the state came through in excellent shape. At that date the debt of the state was about $1,200,000.

Robert J. Gamble was elected to congress in 1894, and two years later, through the growth of the silver movement, both of the Republican congressmen and the governor were retired, and Andrew E. Lee was chosen governor and Freeman Knowles and John E. Kelly sent to congress.

South Dakota's quota for the Spanish war was 925 men, but she furnished more than 1,300, having in the service the largest pro rata number of men of any state. The First regiment consisted of 1,008 men under Colonel Alfred Frost, served in the Philippines with distinction, taking active part in the affairs at Cavite, Malolos, Malbon, Palo and Myacanyan, Mariloa and Rocave, at Biguaon, Calumpit and San Ferando.

At Mariloa the South Dakotans bore the brunt of the fight and lost nine men, among them Adjutant Jonas Lien and Lieutenants Sidney Morrison and Frank H. Adams. The regiment lost in the campaign twenty men killed in action, one drowned, four from wounds and thirty-two from disease. Its men were credited with many acts of personal bravery, and two were promoted for conspicuous bravery.

Three hundred South Dakotans enlisted in an independent organization known as Grigsby's cowboys and were ordered to Cuba, but were relieved, because of the end of the war, before arriving at the seat of war.

In 1898 Robert J. Gamble and Charles H. Burke were elected to congress, and in 1900 Mr. Gamble retired to become senator, succeeding Mr. Pettigrew, and Eben W. Martin was chosen to congress in his stead. Senator James H. Kyle died July 2, 1901, and Governor Charles N. Herreid, who was elected the previous year, appointed Alfred B. Kittredge to the vacancy. Mr. Kittredge was elected his own successor in 1903.

Since 1895 the progress of South Dakota has been steady and uninterrupted. Crops have been uniformly good and the development of the live stock industry and dairying has been marvelous. She has enjoyed a steady growth in population of high character, and in the splendid prosperity which the state has enjoyed the people have been devoted to the cause of education and the dissemination of culture and of the humanities.

For seven successive seasons the cash value of the productions of South Dakota has been greater for each inhabitant than have the productions of any other state, a condition which has given the state an honorable distinction among her sisters. Her credit both as a state and as a people arc at the highest. Her total indebtedness at the latest report of the treasurer was but $289,000, and it is the purpose of the state administration to wipe this out entirely during this year if the holders of the bonds can be prevailed upon to surrender them.

There is culture, refinement and comfort in the homes of South Dakota, her bins are filled to bursting, fat cattle throng her pastures, the dairies are flooded with cream and butter, her. banks are filled with money deposited by her farmers and business men, and every condition is as encouraging as the limitations and weaknesses of human nature will permit.



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