South Dakota

Lawrence County South Dakota




TED MALONEY has dwelt in Okanogan county since 1897, when he bought a squatter's right to his present place, which is about fourteen miles from Conconully on the Brewster road. He immediately filed a homestead right on the land and went to work to improve it. Since that time he has continued in raising stock and doing general farming constantly. He has a fine farm, all irrigated, and productive land. It is fenced and provided with orchard, house, barn, outbuildings and various other improvements. Mr. Maloney came here with very limited means and by his industry and wise management of the resources placed in his hands, he has become to be one of the wealthy stockmen of the county. His place bears evidence of thrift and care and his stock is well bred and valuable, while his other property holdings are cared for in the same manner. Ted Maloney was born in Ontario, Canada, on June 6, 1861, the son of Timothy and Betsey (Wylie) Maloney. The children in the family are mentioned as follows, Mrs. Margaret King, Michael, the subject of this article, and Sarah. In 1880 Mr. Maloney came to the United States, locating first in Deadwood, South Dakota, where he did prospecting and mining. Later, he was in Miles City, and then along the line of the Northern Pacific, in the Yellowstone and Gallatin valleys. We next see him in Anaconda, where he was employed in a saw mill, from which place he came to his present location and secured it as stated before. He was the first settler on Salmon creek and has done much to open the country and induce worthy labor in the same line. On July 4, 1892, Mr. Maloney married Miss Grenva M., daughter of William and Mary McClure. To them have been born two children, Sarah E. and Robert W. [Source: "An illustrated History of Stevens, Ferry, Okanogan, and Chelan Counties in the state of Washington" Western Historical Publishing Company, 1904 - Tr. by Helen Coughlin]

Who's Who in South Dakota, Vol. 2
By O. W. Coursey
Educator School Supply Co., Publisher, 1916
Transcribed and Contributed by Jim Dezotell


Major Dollard, whom we all loved and now mourn, and Prof. Alexander Strachan, were sitting on the porch steps of T. O. Bogert's beautiful home in Scotland, S. D., one pleasant summer's eve, in 1890, engulfed in a pleasant conversation, when Major Dollard finally said, "I hear you are going to Deadwood this fall to take up school work there." 

"I am," responded Professor Strachan after a moment's silence.

"Well, sir," said Dollard, "I know those people at Deadwood very well. They are thoroughly united. If you go there and do your duty, you can stay forever!" 

He told the truth. Strachan went. He did his duty. He staid. Twenty-four times in succession the hands on the clock have counted off an old year and ushered in a new one, with Professor Alexander Strachan still in the chair as city superintendent at Deadwood. No other man in public school work in this state has ever approached his record for continuous service.

Professor Strachan possesses three fundamental requisites for a successful school man: intelligent modesty, profound sincerity, and a thorough knowledge of his profession. These things have, of course, helped to keep him at Deadwood all these years. But there is another vital element that has played its part - his board has at all times been united. No political or religious questions have ever been mentioned by them at a board meeting. Just one thing - one only - has ever been discussed - the welfare of the Deadwood schools. Strachan doesn't know the politics of a single member of his board, and it is perhaps equally certain that not a single member of them knows how he votes. The thing which has played more havoc with the public schools of this state than all other forces combined, has been the injection into them of so much politics. True; conditions are rapidly improving. Let us all hope for better days.

Several years ago, a party in Deadwood who was in a position to know, told us when Strachan made application for the position at Deadwood, that all he said in his letter was this:

"I hereby make application for the
position of superintendent of your city
schools." "Alexander Strachan."

Those thirteen (lucky) words did the trick. There were twenty others. Strachan's application was less than one-twentieth as long as any of the rest. The board liked his brevity - his modesty, if you please; he won!


We shall all be delighted to learn where he came from. (We are not troubling about where he will go to. His noble, manly life has been too simple and pure to admit of doubt). Well, his birth occurred in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, over fifty years ago. It was there he got his early education. At the age of fourteen years, he was so far advanced that he was made a pupil teacher under the school system of Scotland. During this work he prepared himself for the University of Aberdeen, from which institution he later graduated.

In 1873, he came to America and completed his college education at the University of Rochester, taking his Master of Arts degree in 1880. Upon his graduation he was elected a member of the Phi Beta Kappa.

Professor Strachan came west the year of his graduation and did public and private school work near Chicago for the next six years. However, in 1886, he again moved westward, settled at Scotland, this state, and organized Scotland Academy, holding the position of principal for two years. Then he went to Mandan, North Dakota, and served for two years as city superintendent there. 

This takes him up to the year 1890, when he returned to Scotland, S. D., married Miss Mary T. Torrey of that place and then went direct to Deadwood. At first he acted as professor of mathematics, at Deadwood, in addition to his supervisory duties. Then he dropped this line, all but trigonometry, and took up in its place the French and German. He speaks and writes both of these foreign tongues as readily as English, and it is a fair guess that he is the only man in the state who can.

He is a member of the Latin and Greek committee of the North Central association of colleges and secondary schools. Professor Strachan was also honored with the presidency of the State Educational association in 1903.

Mrs. Strachan was born in Maine; spent her girlhood in Wisconsin and her young womanhood in South Dakota, at Scotland. She and the professor are the parents of three children. One died in its infancy; one is now a sophomore in the University of Chicago and the other is attending the public schools in Deadwood.

We can not, with justice to all concerned, conclude this article, without stopping to congratulate the board of education at Deadwood for having selected a man of Strachan's temperament and scholastic preparation, and then for having the good judgment to retain him. Deadwood has, in this all-important matter, set an example in school work worthy of emulation by the whole state. And while we are congratulating Deadwood, we would also congratulate Professor Strachan for having cast anchor in a town and county where the people are so much of one mind; a community that has, with the help of the state, kept Eben W. Martin in congress for eight terms, a community that has been largely responsible for keeping Fayette L. Cook president of the Spearfish normal for twenty-seven years, a county that has four times made Miss Florence Glenn county superintendent of schools and one that if the constitutional limitation is removed will delight to keep her at the head of its school work as long as she may care to serve; yes, a community that has in various ways set many things to moving up the pathway of a better civilization. (Later. - This article was first published in 1913. In 1915, Prof. Strachan resigned his position at Deadwood, to move to the coast.)

"Progressive men of the state of Wyoming", 1901
By A.W. Bowen & Co
Submitted by Kim Torp


Progressive in all which the term implies and holding distinctive prestige as a business man and citizen Thomas Matthews is a splendid example of the wide-awake, enterprising class of men who in recent years have done so much to develop the wonderful resources of the Great West and advertise its manifold advantages to the world. Although a, resident of another state, he has large and important business interests in Wyoming and during the last twenty years has been very closely identified with the material development of the county of Weston. His parents, William and Nancy (King) Matthews, were among the very earliest pioneers of Southern Texas, settling in Gonzales county about 1835, where the father became one of the most extensive cattleraisers of that region, owning at one time nearly 5,000 acres of land, the greater part of which came into his possession by reason of his service as a soldier during the Mexican War. He was one of the successful and influential men of his county, accumulated valuable property and became widely known throughout Southern Texas as a farmer and stockman; he died in 1856, his widow surviving until 1892. Thomas N. Matthews was born in Gonzales county, Tex., on April 14, 1849. He was a lad of six years when his father died, and to his mother's faithful care and guidance is he indebted for his early training and for much of the success with which his riper years have been crowned. At the proper age he became a pupil of the public schools and until eighteen years old remained with his mother on the home farm, looking after her interests and assisting to run the place. On April 23, 1867, when but little past eighteen years of age he was united in marriage with Miss Fannie Walker, a native of Tennessee and a daughter of Allen Walker, the ceremony being solemnized in the city of Gonzales. Upon the division of his father's estate about 1,000 acres fell to his son Thomas, who, on this, set up his first domestic establishment and began his long and successful career as a cattleraiser, building up a large and lucrative business and for a number of years ranking with the leading stockmen and successful farmers of his native county, also earning the reputation of an intelligent and public spirited man of affairs. He continued in Texas until 1881 when he sold a part of his extensive interests there and brought a large number of cattle to Wyoming, purchasing the fine ranch near Gillette which he still owns. Since transferring his interests to this state Mr. Matthews has redoubled his diligence, gradually forging to the front until he became one of the most extensive stockmen in Weston county, beside holding large and valuable possessions elsewhere. His family joined him in 1889, when he disposed of the residue of his property in Texas, and in 1895 he moved to his present home in the town of Spearfish, South Dakota. Mr. Matthews owns a large amount of fine grazing land in South Dakota, which is well stocked with cattle and horses, his son Thomas being jointly interested with him and giving personal attention to the business in Wyoming. Mr. Matthews has steadily increased his realty and his business continues to grow in magnitude and importance with each recurring year. His various ranches are admirably situated and with the improvements which he has added from time to time are now among the most valuable properties of the kind in the west. He owns an elegant modern residence in Spearfish, abundantly supplied with the comforts and conveniences calculated to make life desirable, and in addition thereto has nearly 1, 000 acres of land in close proximity to the city. In many respects the subject of this sketch is more than an ordinary man, for his career has been attended with financial success, such as few achieve and he has made his presence felt as a forceful factor in business circles and in the public affairs of his city and state. His methods have always been honorable and in his relations with his fellow men no shade or suspicion of a questionable transaction has ever attached to his good name. His private character is above reproach and as a neighbor, friend and citizen his record will bear the closest and most exacting scrutiny. By deeds of generosity and kindness extending through a long period of years he has won and retained strong personal attachments, and it is doubtful if a more useful or popular individual can be found in the city of his residence, or in any part of the country where he is so well and favorably known. Mr. Matthews' first wife, to whom reference is made in a preceding paragraph, bore him five children and departed this life in August, 1894; her body was taken to Gonzales, Tex., where amid quiet scenes and peaceful shades, it will sleep until awakened by the angel of the resurrection. The following are the names of her children James, Thomas, Addie and Ida, twins, and Cora, all deceased except Thomas. His second marriage was solemnized on April 1, 1895, in Deadwood, S. D., with Carrie Minegh, a native of Illinois and a daughter of George Minegh, Esq. Mrs. Matthews is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church of Spearfish and has a large acquaintance among the best social circles of that city. While not personally identified with any religious organization, Mr. Matthews believes in the church as a great moral force and is a liberal contributor to its beneficences. All other enterprises having for their object the improvement of society or the elevation of the standard of citizenship also find in him a zealous friend and liberal patron.

Who's Who in South Dakota, Vol. 2
By O. W. Coursey
Educator School Supply Co., Publisher, 1916
Transcribed and Contributed by Jim Dezotell



Dr. and Mrs. C. B. Clark were sitting in the parlor of their cozy Deadwood home, reading. Presently, Mrs. Clark looked up and said: "I see they are going to have a chaplain at the new national sanitarium for old soldiers, in Hot Springs. I wonder if it would be possible for you to secure the appointment."

Dr. Clark, looking up, meditatingly, replied: "It would be a nice position, I presume. But, in a measure, the appointment will be a political one. I suspect that Congressman Martin will control it." (Martin was one of Dr. Clark's church members at Deadwood). 

"Well, it's worth trying for, isn't it?" responded Mrs. Clark.

A letter was promptly dispatched to the active, loyal Martin. He, in turn, sent one with equal promptness to the board of control. Said he : "All I want in the way of appointments in the sanitarium at Hot Springs, are the chaplain and the quartermaster." His request was immediately granted; and the Reverend Dr. C. B. Clark was promptly appointed chaplain of Battle Mountain Sanitarium.  This was back in 1907, and he still holds down the job - to the satisfaction of the management and the hundreds of soldiers and sailors admitted to the institution. In fact, it would have been quite impossible to have gotten a better man for the place. Mrs. Clark's suggestion has found suitable reward.

Dr. Clark was born at Saquoit, Oneida county, New York, December 29, 1839. He came west with his parents in 1857 and entered college in Mount Pleasant, Iowa. 

At the breaking out of the Civil War he enlisted in the 25th Iowa Volunteer Infantry and after serving one year was wounded in the first attack on Vicksburg and at the same time lost the hearing of his right ear by the concussion of heavy artillery. He lay in the hospital until discharged for disability from his wound. On his return to Mount Pleasant he re-entered college, but his health had been so shattered by army service that he was obliged to give up the completion of his university course.

He entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal church in 1864 and became a member of the Iowa conference, where he completed the four years' study course prescribed by the church. His first appointment in southern Iowa contained twelve preaching places, so far apart that in order to encompass the circuit he rode one hundred miles and regularly preached three times each Sunday. The outdoor life was beneficial to his health and from the very first his ministry met with success. The "boy preacher," as he was generally called, succeeded in adding a hundred and fifty people to the membership of his circuit in his first year, and he so enlarged the work that the conference divided his circuit, giving to him what was known as the Cincinnati division and the brick church. The next year was wonderfully fruitful in his endeavors, and two hundred and fifty people were brought into the church. 

Feeling well established in his life work, he went back to Mount Pleasant and married Miss Mary Cleaver, who proved to be, in the highest sense, a helpmeet, not only in the home but in the work of the church. After being ordained as deacon and elder he was sent to the larger stations of the conference, filling the pulpits of Pella, Newton, Oskaloosa, Burlington and Ottumwa. At the last place, after building a large church, costing $35,000, his nerve force being exhausted by nineteen years of strenuous and unbroken service his physician peremptorily ordered a change of climate and occupation.

In 1883 he moved, with his wife and children, to South Dakota and settled on a homestead near Plankinton. The freedom and wholesome outdoor life of the farm restored his health and he was very happy in his new situation, but the authorities of his church soon "found him out" and he was persuaded to resume his life work at the end of two years of farming, taking the pastorate of the First M. E. church at Mitchell. After two years here he served a full term of six years as Presiding Elder of the Mitchell District and enjoyed the love and fellowship of the twenty-two preachers under his charge. During his years at Mitchell he was particularly happy in his relation to the then newly-established Dakota university, and he was one of the first trustees of that institution. It was as a representative of this college that his gifted son, Fred (deceased), won the state oratorical contest at the age of seventeen, while still in the preparatory department.

At the end of his presiding eldership he was called to the pastorate at Huron, where he spent five years and completed the term of his labors in the "East-of-the-River" country. These were all glorious years in   the youthful days of the new state and Doctor Clark often recalls them with deep pleasure. 

By an unmistakable call of Providence he became the pastor of the First M. E. church in Deadwood in 1897 and moved to the Black Hills. He served this station four years and was then appointed superintendent of the Black Hills M. E. Mission, which he held for the regular term of six years. During his first year in Deadwood he lost his wife, the devoted mother of his four children, two of whom had preceded her to the other home. Three years later he married Miss R. Anna Morris, of Cleveland, Ohio, who has proven a most worthy companion and assistant in his work. 

During forty-nine years of strenuous service for his church, Dr. Clark has received over two thousand persons into the church fellowship; and he has officiated in hundreds of marriages, funerals, and other occasions of joy or sorrow, close to the hearts of thousands, both in and out of the church. August, 1914, marked the golden anniversary of his entry into the ministry. While Dr. Clark has a long past to look back upon he is by no means ready to stop growing mentally, and the present has no more interested spectator then he. He has fond memories of the "good old times" but is of the declared opinion that the new times are as good or better. He often quotes:

" 'Tis an age on ages turning,
To be living is sublime,"

Brownings lines,

"God's in His heaven,
All's right with the world,"

which are favorites of his, come near expressing his optimistic faith in the present and the future. "The voice of the church of Christ in these days," he says, "is as the voice of many waters. One mighty impulse pervades the Christian nations and it is encircling the globe with the message that Jesus saves."

Dr. Clark's interest and influence have always been wider than his own town or his own church. In 1892 and 1896 he was sent as a delegate from the Dakota conference to the great general conference of his church. 

In 1897 he was elected department commander of the G. A. R. of this state, and has lectured in dozens of conventions and chautauquas. He has always taken an earnest interest in politics, and in 1900 he nominated E. W. Martin for congress the first time at the state republican convention in Sioux Falls.

Probably the main elements of success in Dr. Clark's career have been his magnetic eloquence as a speaker and his no less magnetic kindliness of heart. He is and always has been a brotherly man, not only to his fellow Methodists and fellow Christians but to every human creature whom he meets. From the tenderness and inspiration of his public prayers he is sometimes called the "Praying Chaplain." He is now seventy-five years old, and is yet in remarkably good health. In his present position he combines his devoted Christian life with his ardent patriotism, and serves the church and the country, both of which have honored him, and both of which he has loved and honored, throughout his long life.

KNOWLES, Freeman Tulley - 1846 - 1910
A Representative from South Dakota; born in Harmony, Somerset County, Maine, October 10, 1846; attended Bloomfield Academy, Skowhegan, Maine; enlisted in the Sixteenth Maine Regiment June 16, 1862; served three years and nineteen days in the Army of the Potomac; moved to Denison, Iowa; studied law; was admitted to the bar in April 1869 and commenced practice in Denison; moved to Nebraska in 1886 and began the publication of the Ceresco Times; moved to the Black Hills in 1888 and began the publication of the Meade County Times at Tilfor; moved to Deadwood and began the publication of the Evening Independent; elected as a Populist to the Fifty-fifth Congress (March 4, 1897-March 3, 1899); continued the newspaper publishing business in Deadwood, Lawrence County, S.Dak., until his death there on June 1, 1910; interment in Mount Moriah Cemetery.
Source: Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1771-Present; contributed by A. Newell

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


Dr. Oliver N. Ainsworth, engaged in the practice of medicine in Spearfiah, was born in Ogle county, Illinois, October 15, 1850, a son of Andrew and Mary (Hemmingway) Ainsworth, the former a native of New York and the latter of Pennsylvania. The father removed from the east to Illinois and in that state engaged in mercantile pursuits. Later he turned his attention to farming in northern Iowa, where he spent his remaining days, and in the community where he lived he became a man of prominence and influence, his fellow townsmen calling him to a number of public offices, the duties of which he discharged with credit to himself and satisfaction to his constituents. His wife passed away in Illinois.

Dr. Ainsworth attended the common schools of Iowa and the Upper Iowa University at Fayette. His professional education was pursued in Rush Medical College of Chicago and in the College of Physicians & Surgeons at Keokuk, Iowa, now the medical department of Drake University. His practice for the profession of medicine, however, did not immediately follow his more specifically literary education, for at the age of nineteen years he joined a surveying party in New Mexico, continuing with them for about three years, his labors taking him to New Mexico, Arizona and the republic of Mexico in the survey of Mexican land grants and similar work. It was after this that he entered the medical school, in which he completed his course in 1878. He then engaged in practice in northwestern Iowa, being a member of the medical fraternity at Sloan, that state, for fifteen years. He then located in the Black Hills in 1893, settling at Spearfish, where he has practiced continuously since. He is now well known as an able physician and surgeon and is accorded a good practice. He is very careful in the diagnosis of his cases and seldom, if ever, at fault in determining the outcome of disease. He also is interested in mining claims and ranches in South Dakota and has thus made judicious investment of
his funds.

In 1880 Dr. Ainsworth was united in marriage to Miss Ellen Ellis, a native of Clarke county, Iowa, while her parents were natives of Kentucky. Her father was a farmer by occupation and held the office of sheriff in Clarke county, Iowa. Both he and his wife have passed away. To Dr. Ainsworth and his wife have been born six children: Isabel, now the wife of A. O. Pemberton, a cattleman residing at Boise, Idaho; Archie, who is in the employ of an express company in Old Mexico; Loraine, the wife of Ernest Town, who is engaged in merchandising in Spearfish; Ellis, who is engaged in the cattle business at Boyes, Montana: and Ruth and Marion, both at home.

Dr. Ainsworth gives his political allegiance to the republican party and is a firm believer in its principles. He is a member of the Masonic lodge, the Knights of Pythias and the Ancient Order of United Workmen, while his strictly professional connections are with the Lawrence County Medical Society, the Black Hills Medical Society, and the South Dakota Medical Association. He concentrates his energies upon his professional duties and at all times conforms his practice to the highest standards of professional ethics.

The Biographical Directory of the Railway Officials of America
T. Addison Busbey, 1906

Ryan, Robert Leslie, Superintendent Black Hills Car Service Association. Office Deadwood, S. D. Born Oct. 30, 1876, at Pelia, Ia. Graduated from Lincoln, Neb., high school in 1896. Entered railway service 1899 as clerk and car checker in local freight office Burlington & Missouri River Rd at Lincoln, Neb., since which he has been consecutively Jan. 15, 1901, to Dec. 1902, inspector "Western Car Service Association; Dec. 1, 1902, to date, superintendent Black Hills Car Service Association.

The Biographical Directory of the Railway Officials of America

T. Addison Busbey, 1906

Tucker, Francis Carlisle, Chief Engineer Missouri River & Northwestern Ry. Office Deadwood, S. D. Born March 23, 1844, at Brooklyn, N. Y. Entered railway service 1877 as engineer location and construction South Florida Rd. since which he has been consecutively 1882 to 1883, resident engineer Northern Pacific Rd; 1884 to 1885, resident engineer Oregon Pacific Rd; 1885 to 1896, resident engineer Burlington & Missouri River Rd; 1898 to date, chief engineer Wyoming & Missouri River Rd; 1899 and 1900, also engineer for Kilpatrick Bros. & Collins, contractors on Union Pacific Rd; 1903 to date, chief engineer Missouri River & Northwestern Ry.

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


One of the prominent and successful business men of Belle Fourche is Milton Wallace Butts, who is a dealer in ice, coal and fuel and also conducts a livery and transfer business. He was born in Linn county, Kansas, October 2, 1881, a son of Milton Wallace and Cynthia A. (Dunham) Butts, natives of New York and Ohio respectively. The father emigrated from New York to Illinois and thence to Indiana, where his marriage occurred. He later removed to Kansas and in 1862 went to Cerro Gordo county, Iowa, where he followed agricultural pursuits during the remainder of his life, passing away in 1902, eight years after the death of his wife, who died in 1894.

Milton Wallace Butts was the fourth in order of birth in a family of five children and his educational opportunities were those afforded by the schools of Cerro Gordo county, Iowa. When but seventeen years of age he began farming rented land in Iowa, being so occupied until twenty-one, when he removed to St. Onge, South Dakota. He worked for others for a few years upon farms and was then employed in Belle Fourche for a year. Following that he was on the range for two years and then engaged in the transfer business in Belle Fourche until 1896. In that year he was elected sheriff, but after serving for a year joined the rush to the Alaskan gold fields, spending two years at Dawson City and three years at Cape Nome. Although his mining ventures did not prove a financial success, he has never regretted going and can never forget his many experiences in the far north. He went from Dawson City to Cape Nome, a distance by trail of over eighteen hundred miles, with a dog team, leaving the former place on the 16th of February and arriving at Cape Nome on the 2d of April.

Upon leaving Alaska Mr. Butts returned to Belle Fourche and engaged in the transfer and livery business. For some time he had from fifteen to twenty-five driving teams but of later years has kept but six driving teams, while he uses from six to eight teams in the transfer business. He also deals in ice, coal and fuel, which is proving a profitable venture. Mr. Butts and his partner own a whole block of valuable city property, including their livery and transfer barns, but the ice houses, storehouses, coal sheds, etc., are located elsewhere.

Mr. Butts was married in June, 1904, to Miss Pearl Helm, a native of Mitchell county, Iowa. Her parents, William and Keziah (Davis) Helm, were both born in Wisconsin, whence they removed to Iowa, spending the remainder of their lives in that state. The mother died in 1903 and the father in 1914. Mr. and Mrs. Butts have a son, Wallace, whose natal day was June 20, 1908.

Mr. Butts is a democrat and, as before stated, was elected sheriff of Butte county in 1S96 but resigned in 1897 to go to Alaska. For three terms he has been a member of the city council of Belle Fourche and casts his vote for many measures that have proved of value to his municipality. He belongs to the Masonic order, holding membership in all of the Scottish Kite bodies from the blue lodge to the consistory and having also crossed the sands of the desert with the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. He is likewise identified with the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks and not only in the organizations named but also in business and social circles is highly respected and esteemed.

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


Sela Ellis Crans, of Lead, is first deputy state fire marshal and has proved energetic in the discharge of his duty of investigating the origin of fire and the detection of the work of incendiaries. He is also engaged in the insurance and real-estate business in Lead and is a successful business man. He was born in New York city, February 2, 1861, a son of B. M. and Elizabeth (Myers) Crans. The father was an engineer in the early '50s on the York & Erie Railroad and in the latter '60s went to California, where he remained until 1869. He then removed to Illinois and later to Fort Madison, Iowa, but died in Burlington, Iowa, in 1889. He survived his wife for two decades, as she passed away in 1869. The family is of German ancestry, but some of its members settled in Pennsylvania in the early days of the history of that commonwealth.

Sela Ellis Crans is the youngest in a family of eight children and was but eight years of age when his mother died. He attended school in Princeton, Illinois, also the Fort Madison Academy and schools elsewhere until he was seventeen years of age. He then entered a newspaper office at Milton, Iowa, where he worked for three years, and was then employed in Denison, Iowa, until 1884. He next went to Albion, Nebraska, and ran a newspaper until 1897. In that year Mr. Crans came to Lead, South Dakota, and engaged in newspaper work on the Lead Daily Tribune for two years. In 1899 he entered the real estate and insurance business and has continued to devote his time to that line of work since. He transacts a constantly increasing volume of business and gains a good annual income therefrom. In 1901 he was appointed city auditor of Lead under Mayor Erwin and by reappointment held the office until the close of 1904. In 1909 he was appointed first deputy state fire marshal under Governor Vessey and is still serving in that capacity, having been reappointed a number of times. His official duties require a great deal of his attention and he is conscientious in, their discharge, prosecuting without fear or favor those charged with incendiarism.

At Albion, Nebraska, on the 19th of January, 1888, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Crans and Miss Caroline Miller Cline, who passed away on the 12th of May, 1913, after a quarter of a century of happy married life.

Mr. Crans is a republican and has been quite active politically. Fraternally he belongs to the Modern Woodmen of America and the Blue Goose, which is an insurance association. He is also a member of the Deadwood Commercial Club and Pierre Commercial Club and is thoroughly in sympathy with the aims and purposes of those organizations, which seek to advance the interests of the state along business and industrial lines. As a business man, as a state official and in the private relations of life he has always measured to high standards of manhood and justly deserves the respect which is freely accorded him.

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


Much of the wealth of South Dakota is agricultural wealth and the prosperity of the state is largely dependent upon the prosperity of the farmer. Among those who are aiding in the agricultural development of Clay county is John Calvin Denison, who was born in Jackson, Dakota county, Nebraska, April 11, 1878, a son of Franklin and Hannah Malissa (Steele) Denison, natives respectively of Vermont and Pennsylvania. The father was employed at farm labor until the outbreak of the Civil war, when he entered the Union army, remaining at the front until the close of hostilities. He then removed to Iowa and walked from Le Mars to Sioux City, as there were then no railroads in that section of the country. Sioux City was but a small village and it was often difficult to obtain supplies of various kinds. On one occasion he even had to file threads on a piece of pipe which he needed in the construction of a sawmill which he was erecting near Sioux City. He also took up a homestead just across the line in South Dakota, which is now owned and operated by our subject. In addition to the quarter section that he homesteaded Mr. Denison, Sr., preempted a one hundred and sixty acre tract and also took up a timber claim. After a number of years he sold his sawmill and removed to his farm, where he resided until he retired in 1898. He spent the greater part of his remaining days on the Pacific coast and in Chicago. Just before his death, however, he returned to the homestead and passed away there December 13, 1910. His wife had gone to the home beyond in December, 1901. Their family numbered four children, as follows: J. K., a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work; Charles F., a farmer of Clay county, South Dakota; John C, of this review; and Frank Sidney, who died in 1898 during the Spanish-American war while in the service of the United States government.

John Calvin Denison was six years of age when he was brought by his parents to the farm which is still his home. He grew to manhood there and attended country school nearby. During the winter of 1896 he was a student in the University of South Dakota and then entered York College at York, Nebraska. During his vacations he learned the carpenter's trade and after leaving school spent three years traveling over Colorado and the Pacific coast states. In 1901 he returned to South Dakota and took up his residence at Deadwood. He remained there for three years and worked at his trade, but in the fall of 1904 he returned to the homestead and rented a part of the land until his father's death. At that time he fell heir to one hundred and forty acres of it and since coming into possession of his farm has made many improvements thereon. At the time of his father's demise there were no buildings upon the tract, but he has since erected a large two-story residence and adequate barns and outbuildings.

Mr. Denison was married on Christmas Day, 1901, to Miss Viola Carpenter, a native of Iowa and a daughter of Augustine Carpenter, who was born in Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Denison have two children: Winfield Eugene, whose birth occurred November 23, 1902; and Gladys Leota, born December 28, 1904.

Mr. Denison is a republican but quite liberal in his views and has served in a number of local offices. He has for the last three years been clerk of the town board and is serving his second term as school clerk. He was for one term school treasurer. His religious faith is that of the United Brethren church and his fraternal affiliations with the Modern Woodmen of America. He is one of the most esteemed residents of Prairie Center township and has many personal friends, who value highly his good opinion.

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


Among the up-to-date and successful physicians and surgeons of Lead is Dr. William Edward Fehliman, who has gained a high place in local circles of his profession. He was born near Goshen, Indiana, on the 16th of September, 1880, a son of Robert and Amanda (Gonzer) Fehliman. The father was born in Berne, Switzerland, and as he was early left an orphan, came to America with two brothers when but a child of eight years. They settled in Ohio in 1857 but shortly afterward went to De Kalb county, Indiana, where Robert Fehliman learned the carpenter's trade. In 1861 he enlisted in the Twenty-ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry and served for four years and three months as a private. He later followed his trade in the United States Army for one year, but at the end of that time returned to De Kalb county, Indiana, and in 1867 removed to the vicinity of South Omaha, Nebraska. In 1868 he homesteaded in the Elkhorn valley there. He and his wife both survive and make their home in Cuming county, Nebraska. He is living retired, as his former labor enabled him to accumulate more than a competence, and the evening of his life is being spent in well earned ease.

Dr. Fehliman is the fifth in order of birth in a family of nine children. He was reared in Cuming county, Nebraska, and his elementary education was acquired in a log school-house. He subsequently attended the high school of Beemer, Nebraska, from which he was graduated. After leaving school he became a railway telegraph operator, working in that capacity for the Chicago & Northwestern, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Northern Pacific and the Oregon Short Line Railroads. Owing to operator's paralysis he gave up this work and entered the Fremont Normal School at Fremont, Nebraska, where he prepared himself for the study of medicine. After a year spent there he matriculated in 1902 in Rush Medical College, the medical department of the University of Chicago. In 1906 he received his degree of M. D. and completed his professional preparation by two years spent as an interne. For six months of that time he was in the Milwaukee General Hospital and for eighteen months was interne of the Cook County (Ill.) Hospital. In July, 1908. he came to Lead, South Dakota, and opened an office for the practice of his profession. In the intervening years he has built up a reputation as a successful physician and surgeon, being an able diagnostician and using the most approved methods of treatment. He keeps in touch with the latest developments in the fields of medical and surgical research and gives his patients the benefit of the constantly increasing knowledge of the medical fraternity. He is a member of the Black Hills Medical Society and the South Dakota State Medical Society and takes a great interest in their proceedings.

In January, 1911, Dr. Fehliman was united in marriage with Miss Lola Shackleford, of Lead. The Doctor is a member of Beemer (Nebr.) Lodge, No. 253, A. F. & A. M.; Golden
Belt Chapter, No. 35, R. A, M., of Lead; and Lead Commandery, No. 18, K. T. He affiliates with the republican party but has not been active in politics. Since 1909 he has been superintendent of the Lawrence county board of health and has done able work in that connection, paying especial attention to public hygiene. He is fond of outdoor life and finds much of his recreation in hunting. Professionally he holds the respect of his colleagues and of the public, and as a man and citizen is held in high esteem by all who know him, as in all relations of life he conforms his conduct to high ethical standards.

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


James W. Fowler, Jr., is a well known member of the bar of Deadwood, where he is practicing in connection with his father. He was admitted to the bar on the 11th of August, 1907, and at-once entered upon the active work of his profession. It is a calling in which advancement depends entirely upon individual merit and it is by close application and ability that Mr. Fowler is working his way steadily upward. He was born at Rapid City, South Dakota, August 8, 1886, a son of James W. and Helen R. (Montross) Fowler. The father was born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1845 and the mother's birth occurred in Pennsylvania in 1856. In early life James W. Fowler engaged in the hardware business. In his youthful days he became a resident of Ohio and attended school there. Later he removed to Crete, Nebraska, where he conducted a hardware business for a number of years. He afterward went to Sidney, Nebraska, where he engaged in the practice of law, having studied for the profession when in Ohio. He continued in practice there for some time and then removed to Rapid City, South Dakota, where he followed his profession from 1879 until 1898. He then located in Deadwood, where he continued as an active member of the bar until 1913, when because of impaired health he was compelled to practically retire. He had gained a prominent place as an able and representative lawyer and one whose devotion to his clients' interests-was proverbial. He also did not a little in shaping public thought and action and was recognized as a leader in his community. He served as a member of the first territorial convention of South Dakota, was city attorney of Rapid City and also filled the same position in Deadwood for a lumber of years. He filled other local positions and in 1907 was elected to represent Lawrence county in the state legislature. He has thus left the impress of his individuality upon many lines of public thought and action and his efforts have been attended with results beneficial to the community and to the commonwealth. To him and his wife have been born three children: Alice, the wife of Frederick H. Whitfield, a practicing attorney of Portland, Oregon; Helen, the wife of J. W. Johnson, formerly vice president of the Bank of Spearfish but now a resident of Chicago and city sales manager for S. D. Childs & Company; and James W., Jr., of this review. The last named attended school in Rapid City and Deadwood and afterward matriculated in the University of Michigan, while still later he attended the University of South Dakota.

When nineteen years of age he was employed by Selden Lewis in his abstract office in Vermillion. He had previously learned the printer's trade, which he followed for a time, and he was also a stenographer in his father's office. These various employments commanded his attention until after he had completed his professional education and was admitted to the bar on the 11th of August, 1907. He then began practicing in Deadwood, becoming the associate of his father in June of that year. The partnership is still maintained, although the senior member of the firm is now practically retired. Mr. Fowler continues in the general practice of law save that he does not take criminal cases. He pays particular attention to commercial law and is the legal representative of various wholesale houses. He is likewise interested in local mining propositions and is the owner of considerable property.

In April, 1908, Mr. Fowler was united in marriage to Miss Meckie L. Peterson, who was born in Vermillion, this state, a daughter of James and Anna Peterson. The father, who was a farmer, is now living retired in Vermillion. He served as a soldier in the Civil war, becoming a member of an Illinois regiment, with which he continued at the front throughout the period of hostilities. He has held numerous township offices in the locality in which he resides and has also filled some city offices in Vermillion. He comes of Danish ancestry. To Mr. and Mrs. Fowler have been born two children: James R., who was born in April, 1909; and Richard M., in January, 1913.

Mr. Fowler gives his political allegiance to the republican party but has never sought nor desired office. He is a member of the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks and of the Modern Woodmen of America. He has always been interested in athletics and manly sports and while at school at Vermillion was general manager of athletics and made the state record for the hundred-yard dash. He also obtained a scholarship prize while at the State University. He now concentrates his energies upon his professional duties and his powers along that line are constantly expanding and have gained for him a position of distinction among the younger members of the Deadwood bar.

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


James T. Gillmore, owner and manager of the Gillmore Hotel at Dead wood, was born at Earlville, Madison county, New York, August 4, 1841, his parents being John Henderson and Ursula A. (Weaver) Gillmore, both of whom were natives of New York. The family comes of Scotch ancestry in the paternal line. James T. Gillmore was reared in his native town to the age of twelve years, when he accompanied his parents on their removal westward to Adams county, Wisconsin, where the father took up government land. The son assisted in the arduous task of developing a new farm and continued to aid in the work of the fields upon the old home place until about 1855, when at the age of fourteen years he went south and spent some time at work at the printer's trade, which he had learned in Portage, Wisconsin. He remained in Memphis, Tennessee, until after the Civil war and then returned to La Crosse, Wisconsin, where he purchased a farm. For several years he carried on general agricultural pursuits and was especially successful in raising hops, which at that time sold at a high price. He continued the further development and improvement of the farm until about 1875, when he sold out and took up his abode in La Crosse, where he conducted a hotel for three years, remaining there until 1878. In that year he removed to Deadwood, Dakota territory, where he resumed work at the printer's trade and for years was employed on The Pioneer and Times. As his financial resources increased and favorable opportunity offered, he made investments in city real estate and in mining properties and won a gratifying measure of prosperity by his activities along both lines. He built the Gillmore Hotel, which for years he leased to others, but in 1913 he took the property under his own management and is now conducting the hotel, which he has made one of the popular hostelries of his part of the state. It is well equipped, being attractively furnished. In addition to his hotel interests he has large mining properties, which are being developed and are considered very valuable, his stock including holdings is Montezuma and the Whizzer mines.

In St. Louis, Missouri, in 1866, Mr. Gillmore was married to Miss Hannah Walker, who died in 1913. Mr. Gillmore is a charter member of the lodge of the Ancient Order of United Workmen of La Crosse, Wisconsin. His political allegiance is given to the republican party and he has been prominent in framing its policy and directing its course in Deadwood, but he has steadily refused to accept office for himself. He is most highly regarded and has done much toward developing his part of the county. His hotel is one of the old landmarks and is liberally patronized, especially during the summer months. Aside from his business activities he has contributed to the improvement and upbuilding of his city in many ways, for he cooperates heartily in all plans and projects looking to its welfare and progress.

"History of Dakota Territory", George W. Kingsbury, 1915


John Crawford Eccles is well known to the hardware trade throughout the state of South Dakota as he has one of the leading stores of the kind in the state and is the largest shipper along that line in the Black Hills district. He was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, August 27, 1859, a son of-James and Margaret Claffy) Eccles, both of whom were natives of Pennsylvania. The father, who was a merchant tailor, emigrated with his family from the Keystone state to Michigan, where he continued in business, and both he and his wife passed away in the Wolverine state.

Mr. Eccles of this review is the sixth in a family of eight children and was reared under the parental roof. He attended school first at Battle Creek, Michigan, and later at Tecumseh and Charlotte, that state. In 188I he came to South Dakota and located in Deadwood, where he was employed by the Starr & Bullock Company in their hardware department. After one year in their employ he was taken into the firm, which became Starr. Bullock & Eccles. They opened the first hardware store in Sturgis and Mr. Eccles continued in charge of that establishment until 189C or 1897, when he sold his interest in the firm and went to Juneau, Alaska, where he bought a stock of men's furnishings at a bankrupt sale and conducted business for about six months. On disposing of his interests there, he returned to Deadwood, South Dakota, and entered the employ of Avers & Company, dealers in hardware, with whom he remained for seven years. At the expiration of that period he removed to Belle Fourche and purchased the Mortimer & Cock Hardware Company's stock. This was in 1904 and in the intervening years he has been most successful in the conduct of his business and now carries the largest stock of hardware in western South Dakota and the largest stock of wire in any state. His business occupies two floors in the main store and he also uses three large warehouses. He is recognized as the largest hardware shipper in the hills. His success is founded upon those unchanging principles of business which must be the basis of enduring prosperity, namely, knowledge of the stock carried, honesty in all transactions and never-failing courtesy. He carries a full line of paints, oils, shelf and heavy hardware, farm implements, wagons, buggies and wire fencing of all kinds. In addition to his large retail trade he does an extensive jobbing business.

Mr. Eccles was married January o, 18S7, to Miss Elizabeth Maria Ash, a native of Yankton, South Dakota, and a daughter of Henry Clay and Mary Culver (Reynolds) Ash, the former born in Allegany county, Maryland, on Christmas Day, 1827, and the latter in Ohio in 1830. The mother died January 23, 1905, in Yankton, and the father passed away in Sturgis, February 12, 1909. He was a charter member of the first Masonic lodge established in Dakota territory, which was located at Yankton, and was well known in the Masonic fraternity. He and his wife were the parents of five children: Benjamin Cowdin, who resides near Faith, South Dakota, and operates an extensive stock ranch, while his family live in Minneapolis, Minnesota; Julia, the wife of Charles Bates, of Yankton; Harry Clay, who was born in 1858 and died July 25, 1904, in Colorado, where he had gone for his health, which had become impaired while he was .prospecting in Alaska; William Bartlett, a resident of San Diego. California, where he is engaged in the real-estate and loan business; and Mrs. Eccles.

Mr. and Mrs. Eccles have four children. John Crawford, Jr., born May 25, 1889, is associated with his father in the hardware business. He married Miss Katherine Pearson, a native of Missouri, who was brought to Belle Fouche by her parents when but an infant. A daughter. Anna Elizabeth, has been born to this marriage, her natal day being June 25, 1914. The second son, Marston Ash, was born November 8, 1891, and married Miss Ethel Hall, a native of Belle Fourche. He is also associated with his father in the hardware business. Charles Bates, whose birth occurred June 7, 1893, is operating a two thousand acre stock ranch in Montana which is owned by Eccles &. Sons. Although the ranch is in Montana the postoflice is Boise, Idaho. Mary Margaret, the only daughter, was born June 4, 1S95, and is the wife of Lynn Chunning, cashier of the State Bank of Baker, Montana.

Mr. Eccles is a democrat but has been too busy with his business affairs to hold office. He is identified with the Knights of Pythias and the Modern Woodmen of America and in those organizations has made many friends, while he holds the respect and esteem of his fellow citizens, who recognize the fact that his financial success has been won by superior business ability and tireless energy and that it has not been gained by taking advantage of others.

"History of Dakota Territory", George W. Kingsbury, 1915


Dr. John W. Freeman, chief surgeon of the hospital department of the Homestake Mining Company of Lead, has achieved distinction in his profession and is vary popular socially. He was born on his father's farm near Virden, Illinois, on the 13th of December, 1853, a son of Peter S. and Elizabeth Pierce (Warriner) Freeman. The father was born in New Jersey and was one of the pioneers of Illinois, where he followed farming for many years. He passed away in 1874 and his friends long cherished the memory of his well spent life. The mother of Dr. Freeman was born in Kentucky and died in 1S86, having survived her husband for twelve years.

Dr. John W. Freeman was the eighth in order of birth in a family of eleven children. At the usual age he entered the Virden public schools and passed from grade to grade until he was graduated from the high school at that place. He subsequently attended Blackburn University at Carlinville, Illinois, for one year, after which he took a course at the Quincy Business College of Quincy, Illinois. In 1875 he began the study of medicine under the instruction of Dr. David Prince, of Jacksonville, Illinois. During the summers he was thus occupied, and in the winters attended the medical school of the New York University, from which he was graduated with the M. D. degree in 1879. He was then for two years the assistant of Dr. Prince, after which he entered the United States government service in 1881, acting as assistant surgeon in the regular army stationed at Fort Meade, South Dakota, with the rank of first lieutenant. He remained at Fort Meade for two years and in January, 1884, came to Lead as surgeon for the Homestake Mining Company. In 1903 he was made chief surgeon of the hospital department of this company and in the intervening eleven years has performed with marked ability the onerous duties devolving upon him in that capacity. He has the hospital maintained by the company under his charge and has proven not only an expert surgeon but also an able executive and the affairs of the institution have run smoothly under his management. The cooperation of doctors, nurses and all others connected with the work of the hospital has been secured and the institution has a fine record and has proved of inestimable value to the mining community whose needs it serves. Dr. Freeman is one of the eminent surgeons of the state and is widely known in professional circles here, his skillful work commanding the respect of his colleagues. He has successfully performed many difficult operations and his opinion upon any condition requiring surgical treatment is highly valued. Although he has achieved much, he is not content to rest upon his laurels, but is constantly seeking to increase his knowledge and efficiency, attending clinics for a month every year, either in this country or abroad. He also maintains membership in a number of professional societies, namely, the Black Hills Medical Society, the South Dakota State Medical Society, the American Medical Association, the Chicago & Northwestern Surgical Society, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Surgical Society, and the American Railway Surgeons Society. He is also a fellow of the American College of Surgeons, which indicates his high standing in the profession. In addition to being chief surgeon for the hospital, he has been health officer for the city for the past four years- Although his duties as a surgeon and physician are many and make heavy demands upon his energy, he has also found time to devote to other interests, having been a member of the board of education for ten years and having served as president of that body for part of that period. For thirty years he has been connected with the First National Bank of Lead and is now second vice president.

In 1885 Dr. Freeman was married in Lead to Miss Hattie V. Dickinson, of that city. To their union have been born four children: Ercel Dean; Marion E., the wife of S. G. Price, of Rapid City; John B., who is attending the State Agricultural College at Brookings; and Howard.

In politics Dr. Freeman is a republican and takes the interest of a good citizen in everything relating to the public welfare. Fraternally he belongs to Central City (S. D.) Lodge, No. 22, A. F. & A. M.; Golden Belt Chapter, No. 35, R. A. M., of Lead; Lead Commandery, No. 18, K. T.; Black Hills Consistory, No. 3, A. & A. S. R., of Deadwood; and Naja Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Deadwood. He has held the principal offices in all of the above mentioned bodies and is a prominent Mason of the state. He also belongs to Lead Lodge, No. 747, B. P. O. E. Dr. Freeman is one of the foremost citizens of Lead and the city has benefited by his labors in her behalf. His character is such as wins friendship and there are many who feel for him a warm personal regard as well as a deep respect for his undoubted ability.

"History of Dakota Territory", George W. Kingsbury, 1915


Judge John R. Russell, of Deadwood, has served three terms as county judge of Lawrence county, South Dakota, and is an attorney of recognized ability. He was born in Lindsay, Ontario, Canada, on the 15th of October, 1870, a son of Michael and Johanna C. (Raymond) Russell. The mother was born in Dresden, Germany, September 12, 1849, and emigrated to the United States, being married in Chicago. The father's birth occurred in April, 1847, in Limerick, Ireland, and in 1849 he accompanied his parents to Canada, his father having been evicted from his estate in Ireland. While still a boy Michael Russell went to Kansas and resided in Leavenworth in 1864 and 1865, being employed by railroad contractors, and while there he met Buffalo Bill, who became his fast friend. In 1865 he went to Salina, Kansas, and thence to Cherry Creek, Colorado, the site of the present city of Denver, and later went east. Later he returned to the west, staying for a time in Colorado and Nebraska, but in 1S77 he came to Deadwood by stage. In March of that year he embarked in business at Deadwood and continued in that connection for a number of years. He also was interested in mining and at the present time holds patents to a number of valuable mining properties. He also owns considerable real estate.

The subject of this review was the second in order of birth in a family of three children, the others being: Mary Harriet, who died in Deadwood in 1888; and James Emmett, of that city, who is a mining engineer and a graduate of the University of Michigan in the class of 1904. The mother passed away on the 11th of September, 1907.

Judge Russell attended the common and high schools of Deadwood and after graduating from the latter was a student in the Spearfish State Normal School. He also attended the University of Notre Dame at Notre Dame, Indiana, for a number of years. In 1892 he began the study of law in the office of Edwin Van Cise, acting at the same time as law clerk for about eight years. He has his degree from the Chicago Law School and was admitted to the bar in 1899. In 1900 he began the practice of his profession in Deadwood and has continued independently until the present time. In 1902 he was nominated as states attorney but was defeated and in 1904 was again offered the nomination, which he declined. In 1902 he was made city attorney and in 1908 was elected to the office of county judge, in which position he served three terms. He was an admirable judge as he has that impartiality that is essential to the administration of justice, allowing no personal predilections to influence his decisions, which are based upon the law and equity. He continues the private practice of his profession and has appeared as counsel in some of the most important litigation of the district. He has other business interests, being a director in the Black Hills Trust & Savings Bank and a stockholder in the Gold Mountain Mining & Milling Company. He also is connected with a number of other companies in the vicinity of Deadwood and has recently sold some valuable mining lands, though he still owns a number of patented mining properties.

Judge Russell was married on the 7th of May, 1905, to Miss Anne Galvin, who was born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, a daughter of John and Mary Galvin, both of whom are now deceased. Mrs. Russell was reared by an aunt and at one time lived in the west, but met her future husband while visiting relatives at Deadwood. They have one child, Dorothy Anne, who was born June 29, 1906, and is now attending school. The Judge is a member of the Roman Catholic church, of which he is a trustee, and is also a member of the Knights of Columbus. Fraternally he belongs to Lodge, No. 1906, B. P. O. E., of which he is exalted ruler and of which he was treasurer for six years, and also district deputy of the order in 1913. In 1904 he was president of the Deadwood Business Men's Club and under his administration the organization was able to do much for the good of the city. He has used his ability not only to gain personal success but to secure the good of the community and those who know him honor him for his integrity
and public spirit.

"History of Dakota Territory", George W. Kingsbury, 1915


Hon. Loring Ellis Gaffy, lawyer, jurist and Dakota pioneer, now one of the leading citizens of Pierre, was born in Clinton county, New York, on the 12th of January, 1850, a son of James Gaffy, whose birth occurred in County Westmeath, Ireland, and who in the year 1834 crossed the Atlantic to the United States, settling in New York, where he remained until 1855. In that year he removed westward to Wisconsin with his family, settling near Fond du Lac, where he engaged in farming until his death, which occurred in 1836 when he was on a visit to North Dakota. He wedded Nancy Dale, a native of Vermont, and of their family of three children. Judge Gaffy is the second in order of birth. His sisters are Mrs. C. A. Walker, of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin; and Mrs. W. J. Young, of Seattle, Washington.

The public-school system of Fond du Lac afforded Judge Gaffy his early educational privileges, which were supplemented by study in De Lands Commercial College. His review of the broad opportunities of the business world led to his selection of the law as a life work and he began his preliminary reading in the office and under the direction of Judge Drury in his home city. In 1871 he went to Greeley county, Nebraska, where he remained until 1873, when he became compass man on the United States survey of western Nebraska. In 1874 he went to Grand Island, Nebraska, where he continued his studies in the office of George H. Thummel, and in 1876 was admitted to the Nebraska bar. The following year he came to Dakota territory, settling at Deadwood, where he continued in active practice until 1884. In the meantime he had become recognized as one of the leaders of the republican party in that locality and was made the candidate for the territorial senate in his district in 1880.

Four years afterward Judge Gaffy removed to Pierre, where he has since resided, and throughout the intervening years he has been almost continuously in office, his official duties, however, always being in the strict path of his profession. He was elected states attorney of Hughes county in 1888 and was the incumbent in that office for four years, or until 1893.

In 1894 he was appointed judge of the sixth judicial district and was thereafter elected and reelected to the bench until he had served continuously for twelve and a half years. His decisions were strictly fair and impartial and were characterized by a masterful grasp of every problem presented for solution. On his retirement from the bench he resumed the private practice of law as a member of the firm of Gaffy & Stephens and is now senior partner in the well known and leading law firm of Gaffy, Stephens & Fuller. He has always made the practice of law his real life work and there is no one who more fully recognizes the necessity for a most thorough preparation or prepares his cases with greater care. In argument he is strong, logical and convincing and his utterances lead through the steps of orderly progression to the logical conclusion upon which the decision of every case finally turns. His interests outside of his profession are those which have to do with general business development as well as with individual success. In 1912 he was elected president of the First National Life & Accident Insurance Company and now largely devotes his time and energies to his important and responsible duties in that connection. He is also president of the Suburban Acreage Company and through that medium is largely interested in irrigated lands.

Judge Gaffy has been married twice. In March, 1878, he wedded Fannie B. Price, whose death occurred in Pierre in 1887. In February, 1900, he wedded Adelaide W. Warwick, of Mount Pleasant, Iowa, a daughter of Judge William I. Warwick, and again death entered his household on the 14th of February, 1913.

Judge Gaffy is prominently known as one of the foremost leaders of the republican party in South Dakota. He was among those most active in the spirited contest which finally resulted in the choice of Pierre as the state capital and he has always been found in the van of every movement of a progressive nature affecting his city or the state at large. His fraternal relations are with the Masons and Huron Lodge, No. .444, B. P. O. E. and along professional lines he is known as a member of the South Dakota Bar Association and the American Bar Association. He has broad insight into the basic principles of the law, supplemented by an intellect keen, discriminating and analytical. Moreover, he is a profound student along many lines and an omnivorous reader of the best English literature. Outside the diverse activities of an especially busy life he has found time to devote to the many complex questions arising from the development of a new country from the condition when sod and claim shacks were prevailing features of the landscape to that of modern civilization. His influence has ever been a potent force for progress and development. For many years he has been deeply interested in prison labor reform and the general betterment of prison conditions and is a member of the Prison Labor Reform Society. In fact, he has studied deeply the grave political, sociological and economic questions of the day and at all times keeps abreast with the best thinking men of the age. He finds pleasure and recreation in hunting, fishing and horseback riding and through these means has maintained that even balance in life which is lacking when business cares monopolize attention. The state accords him position as one of its foremost lawyers and Pierre places him among its most prominent citizens.

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


The development of the Black Hills country largely coincides with that of its wonderful mining resources and in that development Ernest May has been an important factor. He was for many years prominently connected with the commercial growth of Lead as an active merchant. He still owns the store, which is conducted under the name of May & Company, but has turned its management over to others. He also owns about eight thousand acres of valuable land in Wyoming. Although he has had many important business interests which have made heavy demands upon his time, he has still found opportunity to take part in public affairs and has served efficiently in both the lower and upper houses of the state legislature.

Mr. May was born November 8, 1847, in Ebertshausen, Saxony, Germany, a son of Adam and Barbara May. His father was by trade a carpenter. Our subject received his education in Germany and while still living in his native land learned the gunsmith's trade. In 1867, when about twenty years of age, he emigrated to the United States, as he did not wish to serve the required term in the German army. He first made his way to St. Louis and was for two years employed in a stove factory there. In 1869 he went up the Missouri river to Helena, Montana, where he engaged in placer mining, but later entered the mercantile field and continued to give his attention to that business until 1876, when he removed to Deadwood, arriving there on the 12th of August. He became one of the owners of the Wheeler claim in Deadwood Gulch and after selling his interest in the same returned to St. Louis, where he remained until the spring of 1877. He then again made his way to the Black Hills, which had been officially opened to white settlement only a short time before. He opened a store in Lead, which was at first conducted under the name of May &, Johnson. At length he purchased the interest of his partner and admitted a cousin to membership in the firm, the style becoming E. & L. May. In 1886 our subject bought out L. May and continued to conduct the store alone until 1901, making it one of the leading mercantile establishments of the city. He then sold the business to John Gilroy, but, owing to the purchaser's failure Mr. May again became the owner of the store in 1903. He then turned its management over to a relative, Henry E. May, and an old employe, Charles Stevens, but the latter was interested in the business a few years only, and the store is now conducted under the name of May & Company, the firm being composed of Ernest May and Henry May.

At various times Ernest May has been heavily interested in all of the large and successful mining ventures in the district surrounding Lead, among which should be mentioned: Golden Reward, Isadore Mining Company, Double Standard, Plutus, Harmony, Tornado Consolidation, Mark Twain and later Wasp No. 2. He still has investments in many paying mines in the neighborhood of Lead and is a foremost figure in local financial circles. He is also a large stockholder in the First National Bank. His unquestioned business ability, his enterprise and power of initiative, combined with his faith in the possibiltics of the Black Hills district, have made him one of the leaders in its development as a mining district, a development which has been little short of marvelous.

Mr. May was married in 1883 to Miss Gertrude Roderig, and they have two sons, Ernest R., who is a graduate mining engineer; and William F., who is a lawyer by profession. Both, however, are now engaged in looking after their father's extensive landed holdings in Wyoming.

Mr. May is a republican and has been a conspicuous figure in public affairs. He has served as alderman for ten years, was mayor of Lead for one term and is one of the trustees of the town site. His influence has extended beyond local circles, as he represented his district in the house of representatives one term and for six terms in the state senate, during which time he was instrumental in securing the passage of much legislation that has proved of value to the state as a whole. He attends the Congregational church, to the support of which he contributes liberally, and he is well known in Masonic circles, belonging to the various bodies of the York Rite and having taken the thirty- second degree in the Scottish Rite. In all fields of human activity with which he is connected he stands out as a leader among men and may justly be termed one of the foremost citizens not only of Lead but of the whole Black Hills district.

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


Harry Piatt Monheim, an employe of the Homestake Mining Company, makes his home at Piedmont. He was born at Brownsville, Lawrence county, South Dakota, his father being at that time manager of the Homestake store at that place, and is a son of John and Mattie (Piatt) Monheim. The father's birth occurred near Berlin, Germany, and the mother was born in Whiteside county, Illinois. The youthful days of our subject were uneventfully passed until be reached the age of seventeen years, when he made his initial step in the business world by securing employment in a store at Sturgis, where he remained for about four years. He then removed to Piedmont, and through the succeeding four years was engaged in farming. He next entered the employ of the Homestake Mining Company, with which he is still connected in the capacity of track foreman. His long identification with the business indicates his faithfulness, capability and trustworthiness. He is also engaged in the live-stock business to a considerable extent and has recently erected a comfortable and commodious residence in Piedmont.

On the 6th of July, 1904, Mr. Monheim was united in marriage to Miss Marie A. Gore, who was born at Carroll, Iowa, a daughter of James H. and Mary T. (Webber) Gore, both natives of Michigan. In early life the father followed various lines of work, including railroading and contracting. He became one of the pioneers of the territory, and his cousin, Mahlon Gore, filed on the first homestead in Dakota territory, and established the Sioux City Journal. J. H. Gore came to the Hills about 1878 and entered the employ of the Homestake Mining Company. He resided in Lead until 1890 and then removed to Piedmont, where he now resides, operating a ranch near that town. Mrs. Monheim is the eldest in a family of three children. The second, Ursula, is Mrs. S. R. Cleaver, of Denver, Colorado, where she is employed on one of the leading dailies as commercial artist. James Gore, Jr., resides at Goldendale, Washington, where he is agent for the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company. Mrs. Monheim is a graduate of the Spearfish Normal School, taught for several years in Lead and Sturgis, and was also county superintendent of schools for Meade county. To Mr. and Mrs. Monheim have been born four children: John Henry, born November 21, 1906; Harold Maxwell, May 30, 1908; Margaret, July 18, 1910; and James Nesbit, November 15, 1912.

Mr. Monheim's political allegiance is given to the democratic party. He has always been a stalwart champion of the cause of public education and has served as both president and treasurer of the school board. He is yet a comparatively young man, but his worth in business connections and in citizenship is widely acknowledged and he merits the goodwill and confidence which are universally accorded him.

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


Thomas H. Moore is engaged in the collection business and has proved very successful in collecting outstanding accounts that but for his efforts would have remained unpaid. He is also United States commissioner and county commissioner of Lawrence county, dividing his time between his business affairs and his official duties and finding that he has but little leisure. As industry has characterized him through life, he finds pleasure in doing well the task at hand.

Mr. Moore was born in Nashville, Tennessee, on the 4th of April, 1848, a son of James G. and Mary Ewing (Hiter) Moore. The father was born in Strabane, County Tyrone, Ireland, and the mother in Franklin, Williamson county, Tennessee. The former came to the United States when nineteen years of age and for a number of years resided in Pennsylvania but subsequently removed  to Nashville. In 1846 he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. He was a manufacturer of harness and saddlery and supplied the Confederate troops with a portion of their equipment. In 1877 he passed away, having survived his wife for many years. The latter's family were well known and her grandfather, Colonel Thomas McCrory, served in the Revolutionary war. He was born in Ireland but emigrated to North Carolina in colonial days. Members of the family participated in all the subsequent wars and were prominent in public affairs.

Thomas H. Moore was reared in Nashville and received his early education there. From 1863 to 1865 he attended Notre Dame University at Notre Dame, Indiana, after which he returned to Nashville and became a clerk in a hardware store when sixteen years of age. He continued with that concern until 1879, in which year he removed to Lead and had charge of the hardware department of the Thomas James store, now the Hearst Mercantile Company, until 1881. In the last named year he removed to Terraville, near Lead, and acted in the capacity of timekeeper for the Deadwood Terra Mining Company until 1883. He then became manager of the George Hearst store and so continued until the spring of 1886. The following year he removed to Sundance, Wyoming, and engaged in the grocery business there until 1892, in the intervening years he was chief chairman of the board of county commissioners of Crook county, for two years was county treasurer and for the same period of time deputy county treasurer.

In 1897 Mr. Moore .returned to Lead and engaged in the furniture business for two years. At the expiration of that period he entered the employ of the Homestake Mining Company and was connected with that concern for five years. In 1904 he became associated with the Lead-Deadwood Gas Light & Fuel Company and for a year had charge of their Deadwood office, after which he was manager of the Lead office for two years. In 1907 he was elected police judge of Lead and served until 1910, holding the office during the serious labor troubles that occurred at that time. In 1911 he established his present business, that of a collection agency, in which he has proven very successful. He is persistent and uses excellent judgment in his dealings with people, adapting his methods of procedure to conditions of the case in hand. In 1908 he was appointed United States commissioner for South Dakota and is still serving in that capacity. In the fall of 1913 he was appointed county commissioner of Lawrence county to fill a vacancy and was later elected to that position.
On the 19th of September, 1873, Mr. Moore was united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth R. Driver, also a native of Nashville, Tennessee, and a daughter of Captain Driver, who named the American flag Old Glory. To Mr. and Mrs. Moore were born three children: Sadie M., the wife of Dr. John H. Graham, of Lincoln, Nebraska; Van Dyk, who was accidentally killed in Colorado in 1910 when thirty years of age; and Elizabeth D., who married Lee B. Dougan, of Terraville, South Dakota, where he is superintendent of the cyanide plant of the Mogul Mining Company.

Mr. Moore is a republican and has always been active in politics. In 1890, during his residence in Wyoming, he was a member of the constitutional convention held at Cheyenne. He is a member of the board of education of Lead, representing independent district No. 6. Fraternally he is a member of Golden Star Lodge, No. 9, A. F. & A.M., of Lead, of which be is secretary; Golden Belt Chapter, No. 35, R. A. M.; Black Hills Council, No. 3, R. & S. M.; Lead Commandery, No. 18, K. T., in which he is recorder; and Naja Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Deadwood; and he also belongs to the South Dakota Masonic Veterans Association. Mr. Moore has gained financial independence and is known as one of the representative business men of his city, being also held in high esteem for his many admirable traits of character.

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


E. D. Payne is the president and founder of the J. C. Elliott Company, a wholesale and retail mercantile business conducted at Lemmon. This is one of the important commercial enterprises of the western part of the state and the energy, insight and ability which E. D. Payne displays in the conduct of his interests mark him as a valued citizen. He was born in Berlin, Wisconsin, December 15, 1863, a son of Ansyl F. and Julia A. (Palmer) Payne, both natives of Indiana, where they were reared and married. Subsequently they removed to Wisconsin and in 1871 went to Nebraska, where they spent their remaining days upon A farm.

E. D. Payne was educated in the common schools and remained at home until his sixteenth vear, when he became a wage earner, working with the surveying crew of the Union Pacific Railroad, which was being built from Columbus to Fullerton and thence to Cedar Rapids, Nebraska. Mr. Payne was engaged on the survey of this section and subsequently became identified with the livery business at North Loup, Nebraska, where he continued for a year or more. He then went to the northwestern part of the stale and afterward he and his employer established a livery business in Hemingford, Nebraska, where he continued until 1888, when he opened a lumberyard at Alliance, that state. He was prominently identified with various business enterprises there until 1897, when he came to South Dakota, settling at Lead, where he became very actively and helpfully connected with important business interests of the town as a member of the W. H. Dacy Grocery Company, with which he was connected for six years. He next removed to a ranch south of Grand River, in what was then Butte but is now Perkins county, and engaged in the cattle business for four years. When the railroad was built through the county and the town of Lemmon was established, he erected the first building on the site and opened the first general mercantile store. J. C. Elliott was in his employ and subsequently became connected with Mr. Payne in incorporating the business, the latter becoming president of the company, with Mr. Elliott as the secretary and treasurer and business manager. This is one of the most important commercial interests of the western part of the state, business being conducted along both wholesale and retail lines, their constantly growing trade now covering a wide territory. Mr. Payne is also identified with the I. T. Skiles Lumber &, Mercantile Company, operating at Lemmon and at Chance, South Dakota, and was formerly connected with a mercantile house at Meadow, South Dakota, but disposed of his interest there in 1903. He now has extensive land holdings in Perkins county and the importance of his business connections places him with the foremost men of the town.

In 1897 Mr. Payne was united in marriage to Miss Bessie Beckwell, of Alliance, Nebraska. They occupy an enviable position in social circles and theirs is a hospitable home, its good cheer being enjoyed by many friends. Each change which Mr. Payne has made in his business connections has marked a forward step in his career. His entire course has been characterized by an orderly progression, resulting from the wise utilization of his time, talents and opportunities, and he is today standing in the foremost rank of the business men of Perkins county.

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


Olaf Seim was well known as a general contractor for a period of a quarter of a century or more in Deadwood, being closely identified during that time with building operations. He is now practically living retired but is vice president of the Black Hills Trust A. Savings Bank and is proprietor of the Seim flat building. He was born in southern Bergen, Norway, September 20, 1866, a son of Nels L. and Christie Seim, also natives of Norway, the former born November 13, 1813, and the latter in 1824. The father learned the trade of shipbuilding in early life and followed that pursuit for a long period. Afterward he purchased a farm, on which he lived partially retired to the time of his death, which occurred in 1905. He served in the regular army of Norway for three years. His wife passed away in 1908. Olaf Seim, the youngest of their seven children, attended the schools of southern Bergen and when seventeen years of age began learning the builder's trade, which he followed in Norway until the spring of 1885, when he came to America. He first settled in Iowa, near Lansing, Allamakee county, where he worked at his trade for about two years. He then removed to Watertown, South Dakota, where he began contracting along the line of the Great Northern Railroad, which was then being built into Huron. He erected houses along the line of that road in the new towns which were being established and after two years spent in that work arrived in Deadwood in the spring of 1889. There he worked at his trade and did general contracting of all kinds, continuing in the business until a recent date, when he practically put aside business cares save for the supervision which he gives to his invested interests as proprietor of the Seim flat buildings and as a stockholder and the vice president of the Black Hills Trust & Savings Bank. He is also owner of the Seim mine near Deadwood and has a mine formerly known as the Porth mine. He likewise owns stock in other mining properties and is the owner of the Black Hills Steam Laundry and the Black Hills & Kilker Garage. He has various residence properties and his investments represent the results of a life of well directed activity, energy and thrift. He is now numbered among the substantial citizens of his community and his prosperity is well deserved.

In September, 1896, Mr. Seim was married to Miss Eda Martin, who was born in Norway, near Christiania. Her parents never came to America but still occupy the old homestead farm in Norway, where the father is an extensive owner of timber lands. Mr. and Mrs. Seim have one child, Ida Selma, eleven years of age, now attending school. Mr. Seim is a member of the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks and of the Lutheran church, and these associations indicate much of the nature of his interests and the principles which guide his actions. In politics he is a democrat and served as a member of the city council for eight years, being chairman of the council or acting mayor of the city for two years. He has ever exercised his official prerogatives in support of measures for the general good and his cooperation in citizenship has been an element of value in the upbuilding and progress of Deadwood.

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


Albert E. Stirrett is state's attorney of Lawrence county and a well known lawyer of Deadwood. He is one of the younger representatives at the bar but already has gained a reputation that many an older practitioner might well envy. He was born at Forest, Ontario, Canada, October 4, 1885, a Bon of Robert and Olivia (Hoskins) Stirrett, both of whom were natives of Uttoxeter, Ontario, the former born July 5, 1854, and the latter December 1, 1861. The ancestors in the Stirrett line came from Scotland, and the paternal grandfather of our subject was born in Pennsylvania. His wife was a native of Ireland. Robert Stirrett followed farming in Canada, where he resided until 1896, when he became a resident of Colorado, settling at Cripple Creek, where he engaged in mining. He passed away February 1, 1915. When a young man he was a member of the Canadian militia and he held various local offices in Canada.

Albert E. Stirrett is the eldest in a family of four children. He was a youth of eleven years when his parents went to Colorado, and after attending the public schools at Cripple Creek he entered the University of Colorado at Boulder, from which he was graduated on the completion of the law course with the class of 1910. After completing his high-school course at Cripple Creek, however, he worked for one year in Cripple Creek and then attended school in the west for a year, starting in the fall of 1906. During his college days he continued to work for others and thus secured the means of providing for his own support. Completing his law course in 1910, he made his way to Lead, South Dakota, in the fall of that year and was physical instructor in the Lead high school for one year. He then entered upon the practice of law there in the fall of 1911 and in 1912 was elected state's attorney for Lawrence county, entering upon the duties of that position in January, 1913, at which time he removed to Dead wood. He now devotes his entire attention to his official duties and to the general practice of law, and hit ability has gained him wide recognition as one of the abler among the younger members of the bar.

On the 24th of May, 1913, Mr. Stirrett was united in marriage to Miss Edith A. McPherson, a native of Deadwood and a daughter of D. A. McPherson. Mr. Stirrett belongs to the Business Men's Club of Deadwood and to the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. He attends the Episcopal church, although not a member. His political allegiance has always been given the republican party since age conferred upon him the right of franchise and he has made a creditable record in office.

"History of Dakota Territory", George W. Kingsbury, 1915


Thomas Johnston Grier, whom the Daily Call characterized as "Lead's best friend and her people's," was the superintendent of the Homestake Mining Company for thirty years, or until death called him on the 22d of September, 1914. In the famous Black Hills district of South Dakota the Homestake Mining Company developed its interests with such signal success that the region is today second to no other mining district in the world. The business management of the company, which has for more than a generation never failed to declare a liberal dividend annually, creates admiration among miners and mining experts of the world as well as among the captains of industry and finance. Wide experience and sound practical judgment are evident in every feature of the control of this colossal enterprise. The man who was responsible for the uniform advancement and to whom more than to any other is due the high reputation and wide prestige which the Homestake mines enjoy is Thomas Johnston Grier, the late efficient superintendent, a man not only familiar with every detail of the mining industry, but also the possessor of business tact and executive ability of high order, as his thirty years of successful management attest. The manner in which this gigantic enterprise is conducted led someone to remark, "It is a huge and highly efficient manufacturing plant with gold as its product." Back of every such mammoth concern is a strong personality and in this instance it was that of Thomas Johnston Grier, a man whose business ability and executive force were equalled by his keen sagacity and his broad humanitarianism.

Mr. Grier was born at Pakenham, Ontario, Canada, May 18, 1850, and was the fourth in a family of ten children, six sons and four daughters the others being: J. R. H., who died in Montreal in 1911: George E., now a resident of Iroquois; Annie M, the wife of Gilbert Fell, of Ogden, Utah; William John, who died at San Francisco in 1909; Elizabeth V., the wife of Arthur Williams, of Montreal; Margaret A., who died at Annheim [sic], California, in 1883; Albert E., who died in Denver, Colorado, in 1907; Charles Allen, who died in Iroquois in 1882; and Georgetta Clara, now the wife of Charles Withycomb, of Montreal.

Thomas Johnston Grier spent his youth largely in Iroquois, Ontario, Canada, where, in the acquirement of his education, he passed through consecutive grades to the high school. His first practical business training and experience came to him as a clerk under his father in the postoffice and while thus engaged he devoted his leisure moments to the study of telegraphy. At the age of seventeen he went to Montreal and became an employe in the main office of the Montreal Telegraph Company, with which he was connected until 1871. He then crossed the border into the United States and made his way to Corinne, Utah, where he was employed as an operator by the Western Union Telegraph Company for about two and a half years. He was then placed in charge of the operating room at Salt Lake City, where he continued for four years.

The year 1878 witnessed Mr. Grier's arrival in the Black Hills, at which time he entered the employ of the Homestake Company as bookkeeper. Six years later, or in 1884, following the demise of Samuel McMaster, he was appointed to the vacant position of superintendent of the company and so remained for three decades, honored and respected alike by stockholders and employes. Under his direction was developed the largest gold mine in the world, but Mr. Grier, although he had every opportunity to do so, never became a stockholder, feeling that he could serve the interests of both employers and employes with greater fairness and justice if he was not financially connected with the corporation. He was, however, president of the First National Bank of Lead. Working his own way upward, Mr. Grier never forgot the fact that he won his advancement and was therefore in sympathy with the humblest employe. Any man with a just grievance was sure to obtain an audience and recognized the fact that fairness would be meted out to him. It is probable that no other superintendent of a like corporation in the United States ever enjoyed so fully the respect of the employes - respect which he won by reason of his great consideration and fairness to the man who earns his bread by honest toil. As manager and superintendent he was also ever looking out for the welfare of the corporation which he represented. He was given carte blanche in regard to the control of affairs and he continually studied out methods to promote efficiency and produce more substantial results. Under his direction many millions of dollars were expended in improvements which have added to the value of the plant and promoted its efficiency. In this connection the Daily Call wrote:

Under his regime was built the great water system which supplies the company's works, the city of Lead and other towns. The Spearfish hydro-electric plant was completed during his term of office, the great Ellison hoist, the viaduct connecting the mills with the railway system of the company, the Star and Amicus mills, adding to the capacity of the company's milling plants, and other works which, while adding to the efficiency and the output of the company, have given employment to hundreds of people. Under him the work of building the new B. & M. hoist, the power plant and boiler plant, which is now under way, was started. The Recreation building was conceived by Mr. Grier, and the plans for its completion carried out by Chief Engineer and Assistant Superintendent Richard Blackstone. It is one thing that will stand as a monument to Mr. Grier, and a reminder of the thought and care which he gave to the interests of those who worked under him." As manager for the Homestake Company Mr. Grier superintended the efforts of twenty-five hundred people with a payroll of two hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars per month, the mines turning out over six million dollars in gold and owning over sixteen million dollars worth of property. The business was largely developed through the efforts of Mr. Grier. Labor troubles in 1908, when the company was obliged to take issue with the Western Federation of Labor, were finally settled after Mr. Grier had put into effect a card system, by which all employes declared they would not become affiliated with the union. This has since been in effect and the soundness of his judgment in the matter is indicated in the fact that neither riot nor murder accompanied the labor trouble and there were few arrests for disturbances, so perfectly were his orders executed by his subordinates.

Perhaps one of the greatest public testimonials of the business worth and ability of Mr. Grier was given at the time when the United States Industrial Commission made its recent investigation of the Homestake Company, going carefully into all details with the result that the commission made the public statement that they had never found any corporation so equitably managed or so perfectly systematized as the Homestake under what they termed, "Mr. Grier's benevolent despotism."

On the 8th of August, 1896, Mr. Grier wedded Mary Jane Palethorpe, of Glasgow, Scotland, and they became parents of four children, Thomas Johnston, Evangeline Victoria, Lisgar Patterson and Ormonde Palethorpe. Mr. Grier also had two stepchildren, whom he regarded with the same love and affection that he entertained for his own. These are James and Madge Ferrie. His home was his recreation.

A little more than two weeks prior to his death Mr. Grier, accompanied by his wife and two sons, went to California and at Los Angeles, on the 22d of September, 1914, he passed away. He was.a life member of the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, a member of several of the Masonic bodies and also of the organization known as the Homestake Veterans. His religious faith was evidenced by bis membership in and regular attendance at the services of the Episcopal church. When the news of his death was received in the city in which he had so long lived it was said that old men that had been in the employ of the company for over thirty years could be seen on the street crying like children over the loss which they regarded as personal. Every form of public amusement or entertainment was cancelled or postponed from the time the news was received until after the funeral, and not only in Lead but in every portion of the country public tribute was paid to the memory of the man who was so highly revered where he was best known. Perhaps something of the nature of Mr. Grier's splendid life work can best be gleaned from the remarks made by Professor Commons, of the industrial commission, after his investigation of the Homestake properties and
their management. He said:

"I would like on this question of the underlying causes that you have brought out, I would like for my personal use, not as stating any idea of my colleagues, to state to you what seems to me to be our purpose and line of suggestions which, from my standpoint, would be of use in the work that we have to do. As I stated at the beginning, we are required by congress to investigate the underlying causes of industrial unrest, and to make recommendations for legislation to congress and, naturally, to the states. If we find unrest, what are its causes and what legislation we should recommend as a remedy.

"Now, I might state what seems to me to be the summing up of this testimony, that is, the way it strikes me from my own point of view, not representing either the employer or the employes, but simply as a looker-on, you might say: You have here the most remarkable business organization that I have come across in the country. You have developed welfare features which are beyond anything that I know of, and they are given with a liberal hand. You have a high scale of wages, reasonable hours - very fair hours. There has been evidently great progress made in taking care of the employes in the hospital service, and you have taken care of the cost of living, have kept it down below what employes in other communities have been forced to pay. You have practically been able by your great strength here as a huge corporation, dominating the whole community, to look out for the welfare of your employes, and to bring in an admirable class of citizens. It seems also that you are influential in politics, that you secure a good class of officials, and that you have secured the enforcement of law, the reduction of immorality. It seems also that you make an effort to build up the religious life of the community and that your policy is broad and liberal in all respects. I take it also that this policy depends solely upon your personality. Such inquiries as I have made here indicate that in all cases the stockholders leave all these matters to you personally and that this broad policy has been carried out by you on your own initiative, and that you have felt that it was necessary, for the good of the community, the securing a fine class of labor here, which you have undoubtedly done, that you should hold the reins pretty tight on this community."

Adding that he had visited business men and talked with individuals in the camp, the chairman stated that from all he could see or hear the Homestake management had wielded its power with the utmost fairness, had encouraged the religious life and educational life of the community, and asked suggestions from Mr. Grier as to recommendations to be made congress as a basis for legislation, pointing out in the course of his remarks the fact that another man in Mr. Grier's place might not exercise his power with the same fairness, justice and generosity that have characterized Mr. Crier's administration.

Splendid and well merited tribute to Mr. Grier was paid by one of the local papers which said:

"It was not his great executive genius alone, his ability for the management of a great property involving countless details and unlimited capacity for work, that Mr. Grier in his superintendency of the Homestake Mine made Lead unique in the industrial world. It was by the high character of the man - the honor, courage, justice and generosity. It was not merely a working policy that gave to Homestake employes and to Laad people in general whatever of good it lay in his great power to bestow, it was the big, fatherly heart that made it possible for every man to look to Mr. Grier for justice and generous treatment and never to look in vain. In the management of Homestake affairs Mr. Grier was given all power. It rested with him to institute and carry out policies and plans for the control of an industry upon whose successful working Lead and her people depend absolutely while all the Hills is to a great degree dependent upon it- How many men would have been able to lay aside every consideration of personal aggrandizement or personal ambition and think only of the interests of the employes of the company and the rights of the stockholders? There was no reason why Mr. Grier should not have been a heavy stockholder. No reason why
he should not have been a millionaire many times over without in any way breaking the requirements of law and of honesty. There was no reason, that is, except the line sense of honor that prompted him, feeling that not being a stockholder would place him in better attitude toward the company and its operatives, to refuse to profit himself by the increase in values brought about largely through him. That unselfishness showed itself in many ways. Mr. Grier could have spared himself much of anxiety and of effort had he been less concerned for the welfare of others and more for his own. But in all things the well-being and happiness of those under him and the interests of the company whose property he controlled came before any personal consideration."

A modern statesman and philosopher has said: "In all this world the thing supremely worth having is the opportunity, coupled with the capacity, to do well and worthily a piece of work, the doing of which shall be of vital significance to mankind." Such an opportunity came to Mr. Grier and well did he improve it and his career illustrates the saying of another eminent American statesman, "There is something better than making a living, making a life."

History of Dakota Territory, George W. Kingsbury, Vol. 4, 1915


Edward H. Warren, owner and editor of the Queen City Mail, published at Spearfish, was born in Horicon, Dodge county, Wisconsin, February 6, 1859, a son of James H. and Augusta B. (Horton) Warren. The father was born in Eden, Erie county, New York, September 4, 1820, and his wife's birth occurred in western Pennsylvania, March 12, 1831. In early life he went to Ohio and in 1845 removed to Wisconsin, settling near Milwaukee. He taught penmanship and other branches and also followed the trades of a carpenter and mason, but later in that year he returned to Ohio, where he took up the study of medicine. He also made several trips to the Allegheny mountains, gathering blazing star root and other herbs of medical value, which he took to Cincinnati and sold. Returning to Wisconsin, he settled in Dodge county, near Mayville, where he engaged in hunting, and sold deer skins, which were manufactured into mittens and gloves. He also gathered wild honey, for which he found a market, and in fact he resorted to every honorable method to secure a dollar and gain a start in life. In 1852 he entered the employ of the firm of Hamilton & Bishop, proprietors of a linseed oil mill, remaining thu6 employed for a year or more. In 1859 he established his home in Trempealeau county, Wisconsin. He remained for a year at Arcadia and in 1862 went to Eau Claire, where he worked for the Daniel Shaw Lumber Company as a sealer in the summer and as head millwright in the winter months.

There he continued until May, 1866, when he built a flatboat thirty-three feet long, twelve feet wide and three feet deep. With the family aboard the boat floated down to Dubuque, where they sold the boat and by rail proceeded to Iowa Falls and thence by team to Algona, Kossuth county. They took up their abode in an old log cabin south of Algona, where a number of months were spent, and later they became residents of Algona, where the father engaged in carpenter work. In 1866 he purchased a newspaper plant of Mrs. Read and without experience in that line of work began the publication of a paper, the Upper Des Moines. In order to make ends meet he found it necessary to work at his trade of building houses, plastering or laying brick, at all of which he was proficient, and he wrote his copy for the newspaper in the evenings. During the first year or two of his career as a newspaper publisher the only press which he had was one of the Washington type, the first one brought into Iowa. In 1868 he purchased a Ruggles job press at Fort Dodge, the first ever introduced in that county, and it did service until 1880. In 1870 the Upper Des Moines purchased a cylinder press and Mr. Warren went to Milwaukee and bought a Potter cylinder, which did good service until the Upper Des Moines ceased to exist as a separate business in 1902. When he settled in Iowa the nearest railroad was eighty miles distant and the entire country round about was sparsely settled. It was uphill work establishing a profitable newspaper, for at that time paper sold for from eight to twelve dollars per bundle. He served as postmaster at Algona, Iowa, for three years and as deputy United States revenue collector for three years. He was also county supervisor at Estherville, Emmet county, Iowa. At the time of the Civil war he attempted to enlist but because of physical disability was not accepted.

In the summer of 1888 he made his way to the Black Hills and in January, 1889, established the Queen City mail at Spearfish, conducting it as a daily paper for five years. The daily, known as the Daily Bulletin, was discontinued in August, 1894, but the weekly edition was published. Mr. Warren remained at Spearfish until the July prior to his death and was active in the management of the paper. He passed away August 31, 1895, and his wife died on the 8th of November, 1904. They were the parents of three children. Eliza L., who was born February 2, 1848, was married November 9, 1870, at Algona, Iowa, to Hugh Waterhouse and died in 1908. Robert B., born December 1, 1850, is engaged in the printing business in Spokane, Washington.

Edwin H. Warren, the youngest of the family, attended the public schools at Algona, Iowa, and when eighteen years of age, having previously learned the printer's trade under his father, was employed as foreman in the office of the Vindicator at Estherville, Iowa. He remained in that position for eighteen months and then returned to Algona, where he continued from January, 1880, until January, 1884. He was next at St. Paul on the Pioneer Press for several years, after which he again went to Iowa and established a paper at West Bend, Palo Alto county, where he continued for a year and a half. In July, 1888, he went to Rapid City, South Dakota, where he was connected with the Daily Republican until with his father he established the Queen City Mail at Spearfish. He has been continuously engaged in the publication of this paper since that time except for a period of three years following the sale of his plant, and he was also out of the business while in the county auditor's office. He repurchased the plant and is now actively engaged in the publication of this paper, which he publishes in a substantial building that he owns. He now devotes his entire time to the Mail and has made it a very readable and attractive journal.

On the 15th of July, 1881, Mr. Warren was united in marriage to Miss Flora C. Bates, who was born July 1, 1860, in the southeastern part of Iowa, a daughter of O. C. and Mary (Sweeting) Bates, the former a native of western Pennsylvania and the latter of Michigan. The father was a newspaper man and went to Iowa long prior to the Civil war. Until 1885 he was continuously enaged in newspaper work at various points in Iowa. He removed from that state to Atkinson, Nebraska, where he resided until about 1900 and then came to South Dakota. He is now living retired and spends most of his time in the home of Mr. and Mrs. Warren. His wife passed away in Aberdeen, South Dakota in 1912. He was at one time a postmaster in Iowa. To Mr. and Mrs. Warren have been bom three children. James R., born June 19, 1882, and now serving as deputy postmaster at Spearfish, married May 9, 1903, Olive May Packard, of Sturgis, who was born in 1882. They have one child, Russell Edward, born February 22, 1904. Nellie G., born January 2, 1886, is a graduate of the Normal School at Spearfish and is now superintendent of schools for Lawrence county, South Dakota. Hazel, born January 3, 1890, was graduated on the completion of a special course in domestic science from the Spearfish State Normal School.

Mr. Warren belongs to the Masonic fraternity, holding membership in the lodge and chapter. He has served through all of the chairs in the former and for two terms was master of the blue lodge. He was also junior deacon pro tem of the grand lodge in Pierre, and at Huron was appointed junior warden. In 1897 he was appointed senior warden at the grand lodge in Mitchell. He took his first degree of the chapter in 1901, was exalted in January, 1902, was elected scribe in 1906 and served for two years, afterward filled the office of king for one year, then high priest for one year, and in 1912 received the degree of high priesthood at the grand lodge in Deadwood. There is no duty too arduous for him to undertake to advance the cause of Masonry and he exemplifies in his life the beneficent spirit of the craft. He is also connected with the Knights of Pythias and the Owls. Politically a stalwart republican, he served for two terms in the state legislature during the sessions of 1899 and 1901. He was also county auditor of Lawrence county for two years and was a member of the board of education of Spearfish for two years. His interest in public affairs is deep and sincere and he cooperates heartily in all measures and movements which he deems of benefit and value to the community and to the commonwealth. His life has been a busy and useful one fraught with activity in business and in behalf of public interests and his labors have been productive of good results.

The Biographical Directory of the Railway Officials of America

T. Addison Busbey, 1906

Dennis, George G. - General Agent Chicago & Northwestern Ry. Office Deadwood, S. D. Born Aug. 23, 1863. Entered railway service 1880 as station baggagemaster Chicago & Northwestern Ry, since which he has been consecutively to 1898, station baggagemaster, operator and agent same road; 1898 to date, successively division freight agent Fremont Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Ry at Deadwood, S. D., and general agent Chicago & Northwestern Ry same place.


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