transcribed by Karen Seeman

A History of the Dakota or Sioux Indians

by Doane Robinson, 1904

CHAPTER I - Distinction Between Dakotan and Siouan * Indian Traditions Worthless * Speculations as to Origin of Name Sioux * Dakota * Earliest White Knowledge of Tribe * Home About Lakes of Northern Minnesota * Emigration to Prairies * Secession of the Assinoboins * Effect of Horses and Firearms

CHAPTER II - French Contact * Radisson * Menard * Allouez * Marquette * Joliet * Discovery of Mississippi * Death of Marquette * LaSalle * Hennepin * Captured by Dakotas * Language, Habits and Customs * Medical Treatment * First Dakota Baptism * Duluth to the Rescue * French Trade * LeSueur's First Commission to Dakotas * Civil Organization of Dakotas in LeSueur's Time * Earliest Dakota Wars

CHAPTER III - Character of Traders * How Trade was Conducted * Influence on Indians * Intermarriages * Two Hundred Fifty Years of Bloodmixing * Little Pure Blood Left * Effect on Character and Views * Early Maps * Corronellis * Hennepin * LeSueur * Intertribal Wars * French Interference * Post at Lake Pepin * War with Chippewas for Forty Successive Years * Verendrye Probably Visits South Dakota * Calling in Courier des Bois * Delusigan * Date of the Emigration from Big Woods * Carver's Visit * The Carver Grant * Tetons Go to Missouri and Yanktons Settle on James * The Crime of Ixatape * Wapasha's Heroic Sacrifice * Uncertain Soveriegnty Over Dakota Country

CHAPTER IV - The Great War Between the Dakotas and Chippewas * Battle at Crow Wing * Battle at Shakopee * Bigg Marten's War * Old Chief Killed * The Yanktonais Take a Hand * Yellow Hair's Vengeance on the Wahpetons * War on the Chippewa River * Wapasha's Struggle for the Wisconsin Lands * Big Chippewa's Heroism * Little Crow Holds the St. Croix

CHAPTER V - Lewis and Clark's Expedition * Pierre Durion Probably First Settler * Meet Yanktons at James River * Shake Hand's Speech * Strike the Ree Born * Arrive at Pierre * Black Buffalo Obstreperous * Great Council and Dance * Strange Customs * Police Regulations * Detained by Force * John Valle's Post

CHAPTER VI - Pike's Visit * Calls on Redwing * Treaty with Little Crow * Prohibition * Winter with the Chippewas * Peace with Chippewas * Joe Rollette and Murdoch Cameron Violate Prohibition Law * Council at Prairie des Chien * Little Crow Made Head Chief * Game of LaCrosse * English Flags and Medals Delivered Up * Santees Favor English Trade * Americans and French Popular on Missouri * Black Buffalo Helps Rees Against Americans * The Astoria Expedition

CHAPTER VII - War of 1812 * Dickson's Activity * Tecumseh and the Prophet * Their Influence Penetrates to Missouri * Like Messiah Craze * Joseph Renville Elists Dakotas * Red Thunder and Waneton * Wapasha's Loyalty Questioned * Refuses to Go East, but Sends His Nephew * Itasapa Balks and Brings Disaster to British * Events at Prairie du Chien * Tamaha the One Eye Sioux * Manuel Lisa's Patriotic Action * The Tetons Remain Loyal to America * Fur Trade Destroyed * England Makes Peace Without Regard to Dakotas' Interests

CHAPTER VIII - Settling Up the War * Treaties at St. Louis * Death of Black Buffalo * Oration of Big Elk * Little Crow and Wapasha not in Evidence * Visit to Drummond Island in 1816 * What Occurred There * What Little Crow and Wapasha Reported had Occurred There upon Their Return

CHAPTER IX - Waneta Wins Greatest Honors in 1812 War * Story of His Life * Sun Dance * Anecdote of the Bear's Claws * Personal Appearance * Feasts Major Long * Removes to Missouri River * Protectorate of Rees * Great Treaty Maker * Trader's Estimate of Him * Something of His Father, Red Thunder or Shappa * Peace with Chippewas * Flatmouth's Suspicion * Treachery of Shappa * Flatmouth's Revenge

CHAPTER X - The Little Crow Dynasty * Four Little Crows Known to History * Chatan Wakoowamani * American Made Chief, Described by Schoolcraft * Liked by Forsyth * Talks of Indian Warfare * Not a Dangerous Pastime * Mr. Pond's Figures * Little Crow Goes to Washington with Faliaferro * Signs Treaty of 1825 * Dies About 1827 * Succeeded by His Son, Big Eagle * Industry of Big Eagle * Good Example * Sons Killed by Chippewas * Leaves Their Corpses to be Scalped * Meets with Fatal Accident * Parting Admonition to His Son Taoyatiduta, Little Crow, Jr.

CHAPTER XI - The Wapashas * A Long Line of the Name * Wapasha of the Revolution * Wapasha of 1812 * Serves the English * A Man of Sense and Modesty His Son Joseph * Other Indians of Note * Tamaha, the One-Eyed Sioux * His Loyalty to the Americans * Redwing, Another Dynastic Name * Shakopee, Whose Name Means Six

CHAPTER XII - Major Long's First Expedition up the Mississippi, 1817 * Witnesses Bear Dance at Winona * Wazzacoota's Romances * Lover's Leap * Tragedy of the Falls * The Two Redwings * Little Crow's Village * Topographical Survey of Mississippi from Prairie du Chien to St. Anthony

CHAPTER XIII - Summary of Events Following the War * Robert Dickson Again in Trade * The Selkirk Colony * Leavenworth Lays Foundation of Fort Snelling * Forsyth Pays an Old Debt to the Dakotas * The Redwings not Liked * High Opinion of Wapasha and Little Crow * Leavenworth's Attempt to Make Peace Between Dakotas and Chippewas * Visit of Cass * Reconnoissance from Council Bluffs to Snelling * Killing of Poupin and Andrews * Iron Friend and His Father Surrender * Waneta's Conspiracy Revealed * War with the Crows * Joseph Renville's Columbia Fur Company * Trade on the Missouri * Ree War * New Treaties Contemplated

CHAPTER XIV - The Treaties of 1825 * Taliaferro, Indian Agent * Takes Dakotas to Prairie du Chien * Beautiful Entry of Flotilla of Canoes * Opposition of Traders * The Boundary Treaty * Its Provisions * Famous Dakotas Sign * Trade and Intercourse Treaties on Missouri * Personnel of Expedition * Treaty of Fort Lookout * Treaty of Fort Tecumseh * Waneta Signs * Other Signers * Visit to Medicine Rock * Fourth of July at Pierre * Success of the Treaty Enterprise * British Shut Out from American Trade.

CHAPTER XV - Fort Snelling Fails In Its Purpose of Preserving Peace Between Dakotas and Chippewas * Massacre under its Walls * Arrest of the Miscreants * The Chippewas' Revenge * The Storey of Joseph Snelling * Comment by General Sibley * Snelling Blameworthy * Indian Stoicism Exemplified

CHAPTER XVI - Dakotas Threaten Hostilities * A Severe Winter * Many Sissetons Perish * Wakpekutes Move to Cannon River * Trading Post on the Elm * Wapasha Sells Timber * Gibson Loses His Cattle * Missionary Reconnoissance * Boundary Treaty of 1830 * Taliaferro Again Defeats Traders * The Neutral Strip Reserved * Sissetons Massacred by Sacs * Black Hawk War * Wapasha Takes a Hand for the Government * Follows and Destroys Black Hawk's Refugees * General Atkinson Justly Reproached * Catlin Visits the Dakotas * Comment upon His Work and Reliability

CHAPTER XVII - Coming of the Missionaries * Revolution in Methods * The Pond Brothers * Dr. Williamson and Family * Mr. and Mrs. Stephens * The Ponds Near the Fort * Williamsons Settle at Lac qui Parle * Discouraging Beginnings * Arrival of the Riggs * Translation of the Bible and Making of the Grammar and Dictionary * Laying Deep and Broad Foundations * Swiss Missionaries * The Methodists under Dr. Brunson * Rev. S. W. Pond's Record of Indian Wars from 1835 to 1845

CHAPTER XVIII - A New Treaty and Another Victory for Taliaferro * Wisconsin Pine Lands Relinquished * Nicollet and Fremont Visit the Pipestone Quarry * Sibley's Hunting Party on the Neutral Strip * Police Regulations Very Strict * Power of the Soldiers' Lodge * A Perilous Night in Camp * Nicholette and Fremont at Fort Pierre * Fremont Offered a Wife * Hunting Party on the Cheyenne

CHAPTER XIX  - Missionary Visits to Fort Pierre * Dr. Riggs and Mr. Huggins Hold Service There in 1840 * Adventure With Hostile Indians on the Way * Dr. Riggs' Estimate of the Dakota Population * Father Ravoux Visits Fort Pierre and Fort Vermillion * Killing of Drover Watson * Military Expedition Against Sissetons * Death of Joseph Renville * Sketch of His Career * Removal of the Winnebagoes to the Reservation Between the Sioux and Chippewas

CHAPTER XX - The Affairs on the Missouri * Successive Indian Agents * Inkpaduta on the Missouri * Payment of Annuities * The Scare at Crow Creek * Joe LaBarge's Boat Attacked by Yanktonais * Father DeSmet Among the Dakotas * Red Fish and His Lost Daughter * Father Hoecken and His Death * Influence of Father DeSmet

CHAPTER XXI - Minnesota Territory Created * Governor Ramsey Recognizes Wamundiyakapi * Inkpaduta Appears on the Stage of Action * Pressure for More Land * Negotiations for the Sioux Lands in Minnesota * Commissioner Brown's Letter of Instructions to the Commissioners to Negotiate Treaty * Lea and Ramsey Meet Sissetons and Wahpetons at Traverse des Sioux * Thunderbird Dance * The Treaty Made and Signed * Its Terms * Large Cash Payment * Treaty of Mendota * Similar to that of the Traverse * Trouble Relating to Education Fund Adjusted * Claims of the Traders * Secure Power of Attorney from Indians Through Fraud * Agencies Established on the Minnesota * Story of Wamdesapa, Inpaduta's Father * Inkpaduta Claims Part of Treaty Money

CHAPTER XXII - California Trail Disturbs Tetons * Hostility and Many Emigrants Killed * Mitchell Proposes Treaty with Plains Tribes * Great Assembly of Indians near Laramie in 1851 * Incidents of the Council * Scarcity of Provisions * Treaty Made * California Trail to be Respected by Indians * Paid for Right of Way * Father DeSmet Takes a Hand * Another Instance of His Influence and Usefulness * Indians Disregard Treaty and Go On Killing Emigrants * Harney Sent Against Them in 1855 * Entraps Little Thunder and the Brules at Blue Water * Horrible Massacre * Harney at Fort Pierre * A Five Days' Council * Designates Official Chiefs for Each Band * A Wise Plan Defeated * Warren in Black Hills * Consults with Bear's Rib

CHAPTER XXIII - Changes in the Missionary Field * Personnel of Inkpaduta's Band * Outrages on the Little Sioux * Massacre at Spirit Lake * Attack on Springfield * Women Captives Taken * Military Movement Falls * Drowning of Mrs. Tacher * Rescue of Mrs. Marble by Seahota * Murder of Mrs. Noble * Rescue of Abbie Gardner by Paul and John * Attempts to Capture Inkpaduta * Roaring Cloud Killed * Indians Pursue Inkpaduta * Fight Him at Lake Thompson * Government Guilty of Neglect

CHAPTER XXIV - Settlement at Sioux Falls * Inkpaduta Troublesome * The Noble's Road * Negotiations with the Yanktons * Treaty of 1858 * Medary Settlement  Destroyed * Reynolds' Expedition * Speech of Bear's Rib * Factions Among the Yanktons * Struck by the Ree Loyal * Smutty Bear Hostile

CHAPTER XXV - Events Preliminary to the Outbreak * General Situation of the Dakotas * Progress in Civilization, Eduation and Christianity * Effect Upon Them of the Civil War * Bad Faith in Payment of the Money Under the Treaties * Foolish Action of Superintendent Thompson * Little Crow Unpopular * Deposed from Chieftainship by His Tribe * Traveling Hall Elected * Soldier Lodge Organized * Note of Warning from Dr. Williamson * Inkpaduta Shows Up * Sheean Fails to Catch Him * Attack on the Warehouse by Starving Indians * The Sissetons are Fed and Return to Big Stone

CHAPTER XXVI - The Outbreak * Massacre at Acton * News Carried to Little Crow * General Uprising Ordered * Attack on Agency * James Lynde First Victim * Fight at the Ferry * Captain Marsh Killed * The News Carried to Upper Agency * Heroism of the Christian Indians * The Missionaries Protected * John Otherday Conducts the Agency People to Safety * Missionaries in Hiding * Death of Amos Huggins * Marauders Sent to Remote Settlements * Attack on Fort Ridgely * Battle at New Ulm

CHAPTER XXVII - Missionaries Providentially Reach Henderson * General Sibley Called * Battle of Fort Ridgely * McPhail Fails to Bring Relief * Sibley to the Rescue * Hostilities at Upper Agency * Intimidation of Friendlies * Christians Organize Soldiers' Lodge to Protect Captives * Little Paul in Council * Sibley's Correspondence with Little Crow * Paul's Fearless Oration * Release of the Captives Refused * Sibley Moves Out Against the Hostiles * Another Council * Preparing for Battle * Soloman Two Stars Outwits Little Crow * The Indians Defeated * Little Crow Flies * The Captives Rescued * Minor Incidents

CHAPTER XXVIII - Trial of the Hostiles * Three Hundred Convicted * Lincoln Delays Execution * Exasperation of People * Lincoln Takes His Time * Two Hundred Sixty Sentences Communted by President * Thirty-eight Finally Hanged * Treaties Abrogated * Massacres at Shetak, Sioux Falls and on the James * The Shetak Captives * White Lodge the Villian * Carries Women to Missouri * Discovered by Major Galpin * The Fool Soldier Band * Their Effort on Behalf of Captives * How Rescue was Effected * Credit Due Charger and His Fellows * Yanktonais Assist * The Scare on the Missouri * Settlers Fly for Safety * Stockades at Yankton and Elsewhere * Strike the Ree's Friendship * Inkpaduta at Sioux Falls

CHAPTER XXIX - Little Crow's Escape * Alarm of the Sissetons * Campaign of 1863 * Pope's Plan of Action * Sibley's Army Starts for Devils Lake * Capture of Wowinapa * Death of Little Crow * Sissetons in Bad Company * Dr. Weiser Shot * Battle of Big Mound * Sissetons Escape with Their Families * Affair at Dead Buffalo Lake * Display of Strength at Stony Lake * Hostiles Cross Missouri * Sibley Returns to Minnesota *

CHAPTER XXX - Hostiles Recross the Missouri and Hunt on East Side * Sully Comes Up River Too Late to Join Sibley * Battle of White Stone Hill * Fort Sully Built * Rescue of Mrs. Kelly * Outrages on the Missouri * Campaign of 1864 * Sully in Command * Death of Feilner * Sully's Revent * Fort Rice Buil * Battle of Kildeer Mountain * Trip Through Bad Lands * Fisk and His Emigrant Train * Building of Fort Wadsworth * Jack Campbell's Raid * Solomon Two Stars Fights Red Iron's Young Men at Bristol

CHAPTER XXXI - Governor Edmunds Treats for Peace * General Sibley a Providence * Men Developed by the War * Sketch of Little Crow * Something of Inkpaduta * The Strongest Man Developed by the Crisis * A Great Soldier but a Very Bad Man * Other Leading Men * John and Paul * Standing Buffalo * Sam Brown and His Wonderful Ride

CHAPTER XXXII - Bad Conditions on the California Trail * Spotted Tail Mischievous * Open War on the Platte * Building Montana Road * Red Cloud Comes into Prominence * Holds Colonel Sawyer's Party in Siege * Refuses to Permit Roads Built * Red Cloud Meets Treaty Commissioners * Refuses to Treat * Spotted Tail Signs and Remains Faithful * Red Cloud on the War Path

CHAPTER XXXIII - Carrington Moves Out to Protect Montana Trail * Red Cloud Camps on His Trail * Unable to Remove Fort Reno * Phil Kearney Built * Red Cloud Constantly Harasses the Soldiers * Daily Skirmishes * Attacks Upon the Wood Trains * Fetterman's Charge and Annihilation * Awful Peril of Fort Phil Kearney * Fetterman Disobeyed Orders

CHAPTER XXXIV - Red Cloud Continues His War on the Fort * Montana Trail Rendered Impassable by Hostiles * Red Cloud's Great Feat in Subsisting His People in Hostile Country * Numerous Attacks on Phil Kearney * Determination to Destroy the Fort * Attack on Wood Camp * Powell's Heroic Resistance * A Miraculous Repulse * Awful Loss to the Hostile Forces * Red Cloud Undismayed, Keeps up the War

CHAPTER XXXV - The Peace Commission * Communication Established with Red Cloud * Withdrawal of the Forts and Soldiers and Abandonment of the Montana Road His Only Terms * His Demand Acceded * Forts Abandoned * Soldiers Withdrawn * Red Cloud's Victory Complete

CHAPTER XXXVI - A Gathering of Loose Ends * The Indian Settlement at Crow Creek * Settling the Sissetons on Reservations * Terms of Treaty * Flandrau Settlement * Proposed Reservation Between Sioux and James * General Stanley's Analysis of Indian Situation in 1869

CHAPTER XXXVII - Establishment of Whetstone Agency * War with the Cheyennes * A Period of Peace * Red Cloud and Spotted Tail Make Their First Visit to Washington * Red Cloud's Speech * Go to New York * Reception at Cooper Institute * Go Home Satisfied

CHAPTER XXXVIII - The Heathen Indians under Gall, Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull * They Remain Quietly on Powder River * Northern Pacific Railway invades Their Lands * Violation of Treaty of Laramie * The Sioux Resist * Daniels and Williamson Sent to Treat with Them * Continual Attacks upon the Surveyors Who Enter the Indian Lands Without Permission

CHAPTER XXXIX - Custer Prospects Black Hills in Violation of Treaty * Indians not Consulted * Finds Gold * Makes Enthusiastic Report upon Beauty, Fertility and Resources of Country * His Report a Rhapsody * Perfectly Calculated to Cause Epidemic of Gold Fever * Accomplishes that Purpose

CHAPTER XL - The Gold Fever * Movement Towards the Black Hills * Military Interference * Yankton's Hopes Dashed * The Gordon Party Evade the Soldier's * Jenny's Expedition of 1875 * The Allison Commission to Treat for Cession of Hills * Fails to Make Terms * Views of the Indians * Military Withdrawn * Miners Rush to Gold Fields * Eleven Thousand in Sixty Days * Indians Resolve to Fight

CHAPTER XLI - Tetons Gather in Rosebud Country * Have Permits from Agents * Insufficient Supplies at Agencies * Compelled to Hunt for Subsistence * Notified to Return to Agency Before January 31, 1876 * Unreasonable Order * Impossible to Comply * Declared Hostile and Turned Over to Military * Crook's Winter Campaign * Great Suffering * Destroys Crazy Horse's Camp * The Summer Campaign * Battle of Rosebud * Crook Defeated * Terry Moves Out from Fort Abraham Lincoln * Gibbon Moves Down from Fort Ellis * Yellowstone Reached * Fatal Error of Military in Relation to Strength of Enemy

CHAPTER XLII - Custer's Fatal Scout * Moves Up the Rosebud * Strikes the Hostile Trail Passes Over to the Little Horn * Divides His Force in Three Columns * Reno's Advance * Charges the Villages * Meets Overwhelming Numbers * Compelled to Retreat * Custer Charges Lower Villages * Rides Into an Ambush * His Column Annihilated * Reno Entrenched * Beseiged Two Days * Terry Arrives * Indians Retire * Indian Army Dissolves * Agency Indians Go Home * Remnant of Hostiles Go to Canada

CHAPTER XLIII - Demand for Opening of the Black Hills * A New Commission and New Methods * No General Council Held * Head Men Approached at Each Agency and Treaty Signed * Its Terms * Gall and Sitting Bull in Canada * Spotted Tail Induces Crazy Horse to Surrender * Death of Crazy Horse * Repeated Removal of Agencies * McGillicuddy Manages Hostiles Without Soldiers * Gall Surrenders * Sitting Bull Abandoned * Sitting Bull Comes in and Is Confined at Fort Randall * Spotted Tail Killed * Sitting Bull Released * Fails to Bluff Agent McLaughlin * Village Life Broken Up * Indian Courts for Trial of Civil Offenses

CHAPTER XLIV - The Beginning of the Messiah Craze * Jack Wilson's Vision * The News Reaches the Sioux * Delegates Sent to Pyramid Lake to Learn the Truth * Short Bull and Kicking Bear Among Them * Their Report is Believed * The Dance Inaugurated Among the Dakotas * Dance Described * A Weak Agent * Information Reaches Washington

CHAPTER XLV - Official Action Taken * Short Bull's Progressive Views * McLaughlin Visits Sitting Bull * Military Called Out * There was no Outbreak * Indians Retire to the Bad Lands * Attempt to Arrest Sitting Bull * Death of the Old Disturber * Praise for the Indian Police

CHAPTER XLVI - Northern Indians Start for Bad Lands * Good Behavior of Hump * Big Foot Escapes to Messiah Camp * He is Apprehended and Placed Under Arrest * Attacks Soldiers * Battle of Wounded Knee Ensues * Agency Indians Alarmed * Affair at the Mission * Miles at the Front * Understanding Promptly Reached * Quiet Restored * Concluding Remarks



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