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Before white settlement, Apaches, Wichitas, Tawakonis,
Kichais, Caddoes, Comanches, and later Kiowas camped and hunted in the area now known as Archer County. Spaniards
and Anglos crossed through the area at various times, and in the eighteenth century French traders operated a post
close to the two small mesas in the west central area later called Little Arizona. Kichais defeated the Texas Rangers
in the battle of Stone Houses in southeastern Archer County in 1837, and Kiowas led by Kicking Bird defeated United
States cavalrymen led by Capt. Curwen B. McClellan in the battle of the Little Wichita River in the northwestern
part of the county in 1870.
On January 22, 1858, the Texas legislature marked
off Archer County from Clay County and named it in honor of Republic of Texas commissioner Branch Tanner Archer.
By 1875, the United States Army had driven all the Indians from North Texas and the area was open to settlement.
The county seat is Archer City.
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