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The Texas legislature established Throckmorton County in 1858, and Williamsburg initially was chosen to be the county seat. In 1859 the Comanche reservation was relocated to Indian Territory, and by 1860 the United States census found only 124 people living in the county. The outbreak of the Civil War also impeded settlement of the area, and the county remained unorganized for almost twenty years after it was formed.  Throckmorton County was organized in 1879, and the town of Throckmorton, located near the center of the county, became the county seat.
The area that is now Throckmorton County was a part of Red River Municipality until 1837, when it became part of newly organized Fannin County. In 1854 the Comanche Indian Reservation, (18,576 acres), was established at Camp Cooper on the Clear Fork of the Brazos. In 1855 some 450 Comanches of the Penateka band settled there and tried to adapt to an agricultural economy. John R. Baylor, Indian agent from 1855 to 1857, settled his family at Camp Cooper in 1856. That same year Lt. Newton C. Givens built a stone ranch house near the old California Trail and the Haskell county line. At the time this was the last house between Texas and New Mexico settlements. The Butterfield Overland Mail route crossed the area, and Franz Station was a well-known stop.

While ranching remained an important component of the local economy, hundreds of new farms were established in the area between 1900 and 1930, as the cultivation of cotton and wheat spread. Cotton was the first cash crop to be planted on a fairly large scale in the county; by 1910 cotton was being grown on 21,000 acres of county land and had become the county's most important crop. With expanding cotton production came more intensive settlement. There were 694 farms or ranches in Throckmorton County by 1910, and the population had more than doubled to reach 4,563.

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Surrounding Counties

Baylor County (north)
Young County (east)
Stephens County (southeast)
Shackelford County (south)
Haskell County (west)

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