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The territory that is now Colorado County was settled by Anglo colonists, many of whom belonged to Stephen F. Austin's Old Three Hundred, beginning in 1821. A number of families settled near Beeson's Ford, several miles south of the site of present Columbus.

Colorado County, one of the original counties of the Republic of Texas, was formed in 1836 and organized in 1837, the first district court being held by Robert M. Williamson in April 1837 at Columbus, the county seat. By 1840 there were 249 heads of families and 319 slaves in the county.

A German settlement grew up around the community of Frelsburg around 1839, and the first German university in the state, Hermann University, was chartered there in 1844. Men from Colorado County made up most of Company E, First Texas Mounted Riflemen, during the Mexican War. Cotton and corn were the main crops grown in the 1840s. Among the more notable plantations in the county was that of Robert Robson, who arrived from Dumfries, Scotland, about 1839 and built a concrete castle of homemade lime and gravel on his estate on the south bank of the Colorado River.

Cities and towns

Alleyton (unincorporated)Glidden (unincorporated)
ColumbusMatthews
Eagle LakeSheridan (unincorporated)
Frelsburg, TexasWeimar
Garwood (unincorporated)Rock Island (unincorporated)

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Surrounding Counties

Austin County (northeast)
Wharton County (southeast)
Jackson County (south)
Lavaca County (southwest)
Fayette County (northwest)

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