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Submitted by John Sharp

Muster Book of the U.S. Navy in Ordinary at the Navy Yard Washington City, from 18 May 1815 to 1 November 1817

This muster book for the period 18 May 1815 to 1 November 1817 is one of earliest such documents to survive from the Washington Navy Yard, and consequently has much information of value to historians and demographers. The Washington Navy Yard “Ordinary” was designated for ships held in reserve, or for later need. Normally these vessels had seen hard service abroad and were awaiting restoration, but due to the small naval appropriations of the era, repairs were not possible. To maintain these ships in reserve required a substantial number of men to keep the vessels preserved and secure, in addition, a number of officers and men in transit were temporarily assigned to the Ordinary. Another small group of officers, e.g., the WNY Commandant, Purser, and Storekeeper were assigned to the WNY Station for indefinite periods. In keeping with naval regulations those assigned to the WNY Station and Ordinary, were required to muster periodically for record keeping and pay purposes. We are fortunate that some of these early muster books survived, for they provide unique insight into the careers and work assignments of officers and men within the early naval service. The muster from 18 May 1815 to 1 November 1817 reflects the increased manpower of the Navy Department during the War of 1812. Officers and enlisted men assigned to the Ordinary were often in transition from one duty station or ship to the next; others were sick or invalided seamen. The period covered by this muster was one of intense reconstruction for most Yard structures were destroyed by a fire set by the Navy to prevent the Yard’s capture by the British army during the invasion and capture of Washington in August 1814. The fire burned most shops, repair facilities and the 44 gun frigate Columbus. After the withdrawal of the British, the Navy Yard was gradually reconstructed and once again resumed shipbuilding and the numbers of men assigned to the Ordinary increased. This particular early muster enumerates ninety- six names, although many names e.g. Charles Lancaster, William Spieden and Charles Grandison , are entered in the muster multiple times, reflecting their movement on and off the roll for pay purposes. Some of the first men who helped rebuild the burned and demolished buildings were from the Ordinary. One group on the early musters not readily identifiable, are the slaves, for these listings rarely contain any reference to color, ethnicity or servile status.

Officially African Americans enslaved and free were excluded from the military service. As early as August 1798, Secretary of the Navy, Benjamin Stoddert had sent out an order forbidding “Negroes or Mulattoes” enlistment in the Navy.i However many of the names enumerated below as seamen are in fact not volunteers for naval service but bondsmen rented by slaveholders to the Navy. The slaveholders were WNY officers, senior civilians, and local citizens of the District of Columbia. Ships in Ordinary typically had small or minimal crews comprised of semi-retired or disabled sailors who stayed aboard to ensure that the ship remained in usable condition, provided security, kept the bilge pump running, and ensured the lines were safe. Slaves assigned to the WNY Ordinary, performed many of the most unpleasant and onerous jobs. For example, the WNY Station Log records for the week of 15 January 1827, the Ordinary men were assigned to scrape the hull of the ship Potomac, move timber from the saw mill, and help suppress a large fire at Alexandria.ii

Enslaved workers apparently slept aboard the ships held in reserve, provided some meals were often given cast off seamen’s uniforms, a practice as Michael Shiner notes in his Diary which could lead an unfortunate man to being manacled and returned to a naval ship as a deserter. Shiner writes of one such incident in 1828.

“When i landed on the Warf they wher a passel of soilgers on the warf and i dress sailer fashion blu frock shirt and Blu Trousers and blue round a Bout and red vest tarpolon hat hell loe Jack wher did you com from i told them i came from Washington Navy yard som of them i dont believ that this fellow is a run away from the st louis i had terible affray with them on the warf anny how i got them oft me som How or Nother”iii

The Navy Department, repeatedly attempted to end the practice of officers and senior civilian employees, placing their enslaved “servants” on the public payroll. Employing slaves in the Navy Yard, provoked some critical comment in the District press and occasionally created, discord with free workers, who perceived their livelihood threatened and their wages reduced. As early as 1808 Secretary of the Navy Robert Smith, wrote to Commodore Tingey, regarding officers placing their “servants” on the payrolls of the Ordinary.iv Smith was not opposed to slavery per se, but gave directions to Tingey to stop the practice. Smith was apparently motivated by a genuine concern that naval officers were drawing public money for their slaves pay and rations. In 1809, the new Secretary of the Navy, Paul Hamilton, reversed Smith, and approved the “for a few slaves in the Ordinary” because of the shortage of white seamen.v Again in 1817 the Department reacting to public criticism banned the employment of all blacks free or enslaved. vi This too was quickly followed by waivers and exceptions granted by the Board.vii

The rationale for the retention of slave labor as stated by Captain John Cassin was clearly economic.

“Understanding it is the intention of the Secretary of the Navy to discharge all Slave employed in this Yard I beg leave to show there are but very few white men in this Neighborhood that can be found to fill the places even for one fourth higher wages, We have also in the Black Smith Shops thirteen firemen consequently they require higher Thirteen independent of the Anchor Shops which also require Six Blowers at 85 cents per day should these men now employed be discharged we should compelled to bank off six fires and turn these six firemen as strikers from 150 to 170 two White men left the Shop last week on account of the wages they received 100 D per day and were not satisfied is also necessary we have from three to five Laborers to attend the Calkers (Caulkers) one to attend the stuff the others to clean before the Calkers and whose wages have not exceeded one half the Calkers the former belonging to the men in the City but unfortunately free to say no.” viii

Employing slaves as stressed by Cassin was cost effective, but the practice was also too far too lucrative to slaveholding officers and senior civilians, to readily end or abolish. Consequently the employment of slaves would continue at WNY into the 1850’s. Because of official criticism, from Robert Smith and others, many of surviving documents and muster books (in contrast to the 1808 list of “Officers, Seamen, Servants, & Boys” http://www.genealogytrails.com/washdc/WNY/wny1808ordmuster.html) , seldom state explicitly, or designate, a particular seaman as a slave,; only by careful comparison to other naval documents and correspondence, cited below in the biographical notes, can we identify at least four of these Seamen as enslaved. Their actual number is almost certainly larger. The practice of employing enslaved labor in the Ordinary continued for many years.ix

Abbreviations: The most common abbreviations used in this muster are for rank or rating; Lieut., for Lieutenant, Master for Sailing Master, Mid., for Midshipman, O.S. for Ordinary Seaman and Boy, in the early United States Navy “boys” were enlisted men who served as seaman. Boys were usually rated Ordinary Seaman at 18 years of age. The following designations reflect muster status: D is discharged, DD for died, and R for Runaway or Deserted. Twelve men are listed as runaway or deserted; some of these may have been slaves. The biographical notes below, are keyed to the muster book numbers below, and provide citations, for known slaveholders and enslaved individuals.

Source: National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 45, Entry, T829, Miscellaneous Records of the Office of the Navy Records and Library, Microfilm Roll 163: Washington Navy Yard p.17-20.

Transcription: This muster was transcribed from microfilm roll 163, pages 17 - 20 I have striven to adhere as closely as possible to the original in spelling, capitalization, punctuation and abbreviation (e.g. "…. , “ , Do" or "do" for ditto or same as above) including the retention of dashes, ampersands and overstrikes. Where I was unable to print a clear image or where it was not possible to determine what was written, I have so noted in brackets. Where possible, I have attempted to arrange the transcribed material in a similar manner to that found in the letters and enclosures. All transcriptions of documents quoted are mine.

John G. Sharp

Concord, California 31 May 2011

Muster Book of the U.S. Navy in Ordinary at the Navy Yard Washington City, from 18 May 1815 to 1 November 1817


No.

Entry

Date/month


Year

Where.

Names.

Stations.

Time last settled and paid to.

D

DD or R

When

Day/month

Year

Where or what reason.

When Mustered.

1




Thomas Tingey

Commodore







2




Nath. Haraden

Lt.Comdt.







3




Edw’d Barry

Master







4




Salvadore Catalano







5

24 Jan

1815


Marmaduke Dove







6

12 May

1815


T. Winn

Purser







7




George Hodge

Boatm.







8




Frederic Barry

O.S.


D

31 Dec

1815



9




Jacob Johnson


D

10 Nov

1815



10




Benj. Hays

Boy


D

31 Dec



11




Wm. Freeman

O.S.


D

10 Aug

1815



12




Charles Dean

Boy


D

31 Dec.



13




Charles Lancaster

O.S.


D





14




Thos. Stevens

Boy


D

2 Sept.

1815



15




Wm. Mc Darer


D

31 Dec.



16




Francis Herbert


D




17




Luke Shorter

O.S.


D



18




Anthony Munroe


D





19




Wm. Munroe


D





20




John Davis


D

19 Oct.

1815



21




Charles Hanson


D

31 Dec.



22




Henry Adams


D

16 Nov.



23




John Wallace


D

31 Dec.



24




Saml. Johnson


D



25




Wm. Chapman


D

19 July

1815



26




Andrew Marshall

Boy


D

31 Dec.



27




Gerard Dade

O.S.


D

31 Dec.



28




Thos. Penn


D



29

2 June

1815


Wm. Butler

Surg. Mate


D

3 May

1816



30

4 June

1815


Purlette

O.S.


R

27 June

1816



31

July 29

1816


Nathum Warren

Master







32

Sept. 8


Edward Johnson

O.S.


D

31 Dec.

1815



33

“ 1


Willm. Spieden

Steward


D



34

Nov. 11


Charles Grandison

O.S.



31 Dec.

1815



35

7 Oct.


John Kornberry

Boy


D



36

24 Nov.


John Pie

O.S.


D



37

1 Jan.

1816


William Spieden

Steward







38


Charles Lancaster

O.S.


D

31 March

1816



39


Charles Dean

Boy


D





40


Wm. Mc Darer


D

8 March

1817



41


Frederic Barry

O.S.


D

31 Dec.

1816



42


Charles Grandison







43


Thomas Barry

Boy


D

31 May

1816



44


John Kimbery


D

30 June



45

1 Feb.


Francis Herbert







46


Nelson Conery

O.S.


D

2 April

1816



47


Wm. Monroe


D

8 May



48


Anthony Sims


D

31 March

1816



49

12 “


Will Corson







50


Edw’d Johnson


D

11 Sept.

1817



51

14 Nov.


[illegible] Richardson


D

7 May

1816



52

29 “


Basil Brown

Boy


D

13 April



53

1 April


William Chapman

O.S.


D

30 June



54

9


James Nesmith

Boy


D

14 June

1817



55

14


Willm. Rissick







56

8 May


Marmaduke Dove







57

10


James Leonard

Seaman


R

26 June

1816



58

13


Charles Hamilton

Assistant Surgeon Mate


D

4 Sept.

1817



59

21


John Kendrick

Seaman


R

3 June

1816



60



John Walker



R



61

21 May


William Chess

O.S.


D

23 Dec.

1816



62

1 June


Adam Short


D

7 Dec.



63

5 “


Patric Johnson


D

25 July

1816



64

7 “


John Shepherd


D

13 June

1816



65

24 “



George Milton


D

7 Oct.



66

“ “


Willm. Bracer

Seaman


R

11 July

1816



67

1 July


Jeremiah Graves

O.S.


D

14 July



68

5 “


Jeremiah Warren


D

31 Dec.



69

1 “


Charles Lancaster







70

2 “



James Kennedy


D

7 Sept.

1818



71

23 Augt.


John Mitchell







72

3 Sept.


Griffin Warren


D

31 Dec.

1816



73

28 “


Thos. Barry

Boy







74

19 Oct.


Richard Thompson

Seaman


R

4 Sept.

1816



75

“ “


William Stevens


R

4 “



76

“ “


Henry Stevens


R

11 “



77

“ “


David Dunning



R

4 Sept.



78

1 July


Edward Sanders

O.S.







79

22 Oct.


Thos.Mc Dowel







80

31 “.


Rich Thorton

Seaman


R





81

9 Nov.


Francis Russell

O.S.







82

13 “


Jack Pie







83

14 “


Joseph Cross

Lieut.







84

29 “


A. B. Pinkham,

Midshipman


D

26 Feb.

1817



85

1 Jan.

1817


Francis Hull

O.S.


D

30 April

1817



86

“ “


James Nevins

Boy


D

12

1817



87

“ “


Richard Edward

Lieunt.







88

6 May


Stephen Cassin

Master Commandant







89

1 June


James Nevins

Boy







90

24 “


Francis Hall

O.S.


D

30 June

1817



91

“ “


Robert Sinclair


R



92

Augt. 26

1817


Benjamin Munson

O.S.


R.

1 Oct.

1817



93

Sept


Thos. Freeman

Seaman







94

Sept. 2


John Cremer

Mid.







95

Sept. 11


Sylvanius S. Conklin

Boy


D

3 Sept.

1817



96

Oct. 25


John Gerard

Seaman








May 23

1816


Marine Guard

22 Men








Aug. 21


Do.

28 “








Sept. 8

1816


Do.

27 “








April 25

1817


Do.

28 “








June 21


Do.

27 “








Aug. 12


Do.

26 “








Oct. 18


Do.

29 “




















Navy Yard, Washington City 1 November 1817

[Signed] T. Winn

Purser


Approved

[Signed] Thos. Tingey

Commd.

Biographical Notes: Much of the information in these notes is derived from, Officers of the Continental and U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, 1775-1900 online at the Naval History and Heritage Command http://www.history.navy.mil/books/callahan/index.htm, and The Pictorial Field – Book of the War of 1812, by Benson J. Lossing originally published in1869 and now online at Archive org. http://www.archive.org/details/fieldbookswar181200lossrich.

1. Thomas Tingey, Commandant Washington Navy Yard (1750-1829). Tingey was born in London and had served in the British Navy and later became an American citizen. He was commissioned a naval officer in 1798. He was the first Commandant of the Washington Navy Yard serving from 1801 until his death in 1829. He directed the destruction of the Navy Yard during the War of 1812 less it fall into British control and managed the rebuilding after the war. Thomas Tingey is buried at the Congressional Cemetery R 57 S 1 Washington DC, see http://www.history.navy.mil/bios/tingey.htm.

2. Nathaniel Haraden, Master Commandant USN had long service in the Navy, serving as Sailing Master; Lieutenant, and later promoted April 16, 1816 to the rank of Master Commandant. Nathaniel Haraden had served as Sailing Master aboard the USS Constitution during the Barbary Wars. Haraden served the last decade of his life at WNY as an executive officer to Thomas Tingey. He died at his house near the Yard gate on January 20, 1818.see http://genealogytrails.com/washdc/bio_haraden_n.html.

3. Edward Barry, Sailing Master USN, appointed Sailing Master 28 February, 1809. Edward Barry died 2 May, 1830. The Barry family was well represented at the Washington Navy Yard with brothers, Richard M. Barry working as a Clerk of the Check, Francis Barry, Navy Pay Clerk and Thomas Barry, Sailing Master, see number 35.

4. Salvadore M. Catalano, US Navy, Sailing Master, 1767 - 1846, native of Palermo, Sicily, Catalano sailed with Commodore Stephen Decatur as pilot on 16 February 1804 into the harbor at Tripoli and helped recapture and burn the Frigate Philadelphia. Catalano later returned with Decatur in 1805 to Washington DC and went to work at the navy yard (see 1808 list of WNY Ordinary). For his services Catalano was granted US citizenship and appointed into the U.S. Navy as a Sailing Master, on 9 August, 1809. Sailing Master Catalano held that position until his death see, http://genealogytrails.com/washdc/obit_catalano_sm.html

5. Marmaduke Dove, Sailing Master.  Warrant dated November 11, 1802.   Attached to the USS John Adams March 31, 1804.  Served on the USS Constitution in the Mediterranean n and for many years as Sailing Master WNY, died 3 July, 1846. Dove is buried at Congressional Cemetery R 57/33.

6. Timothy Winn Purser USN, 1773 – 1836, Winn was born, to a prominent family in Burlington Township, Middlesex County, Massachusetts. Winn entered the United States Navy in 1799, and served on the Frigate Chesapeake. As a Purser on the U.S.S. Chesapeake he had served on an expedition to North Africa against the Barbary Corsairs (1801-1805).1 He married Rebecca Ann Dulaney (1784-1865) at Alexandria, Virginia in 181l. The couple had three children: Eliza Rebecca Winn (1812-1835), William Timothy Winn (1813-1848), and Mary Louisa Winn (1818 -1854). Timothy Winn was appointed Purser at the Washington Navy Yard in 1815; a powerful position which he held until his death on 18 February 1836. The Washington Navy Yard Purser was almost by definition an extremely influential position and as such, Timothy Winn was in charge of contracting for the District of Columbia's largest employer and industrial concern. As the Washington Navy Yard Purser, Timothy Winn was in charge of all procurement and contracting for naval supplies and equipment. Timothy Winn was said to be a man of considerable scholarship and learning. Winn was also slaveholder and his last will and testament, http://genealogytrails.com/washdc/will_winn_t.html lists among his slaves, Charles Grandison see below.

7. George Hodge, Boatswain USN, appointed 11 May, 1798. Hodge served in the USS Ganges under Captain Thomas Tingey. Hodge later served on the Frigate USS Philadelphia during the war against the Barbary Powers was captured and along with the rest of the Philadelphia crew, held prisoner in Tripoli. Hodge was able to return home in 1805 then served on the Frigate President and was assigned Boatswain of the WNY Ordinary 1807.Hodge died 19 September, 1820.

10. Alexander Hays was enslaved to WNY Sailing Master Maraduke Dove “Mr. Hays was born in 1802 and belonged originally to the Fowler family in Maryland. When a boy he served for a time at the Washington Navy Yard, in the family of Captain Dove, of the navy, the father of Dr. Dove, of Washington, and it was in that family that be learned to read. Michael Tabbs had a school at that time at the Navy Yard, which he taught in the afternoons under a large tree, which stood near the old Masonic Hall. The colored children used to meet him there in large numbers daily, and while attending this singular school, Hays was at the same time taught by Mrs. [Margaret Dove], with her children. Manumitted in 1843 and started a school in a residence on Ninth street west, near New York Avenue for black children. District of Columbia Department of Education. Special Report of the Commissioner of Education on the Condition of Public Schools in the District of Columbia, submitted to the Senate, June 6, 1868, and to the House, with Additions June 13, 1870. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1870, p.215.

13/38/69. Charles Lancaster, Ordinary Seaman, Lancaster’s name is enumerated on the list of slaves in the Ordinary in 1808 as number C37. Commodore Tingey wrote that Lancaster was enslaved to Dr. Alexander McWilliams, a local physician with strong ties to the navy yard and worked as a “servant” in the Ordinary of Stephen Cassin see, http://www.genealogytrails.com/washdc/wny_1808ordinary.html

22. Henry Adams Ordinary Seaman.. Henry Adams, a free black caulker, had served as a seaman on American merchant vessels and had worked as a caulker in Europe. In July 1809 Adams unsuccessfully wrote the Secretary of the Navy, Paul Hamilton, requesting higher wages Today we only have Commodore Thomas Tingey's response to Secretary Hamilton but even this limited one sided glimpse reflects Henry Adams had the courage to speak to power. Tingey to Paul Hamilton, 1 August 1809. Sir I have been duly honored with your letters of the 24th & 31 ultimo accompanying letters from Henry Adams, which I am concerned that you should be thus pestered with, and will certainly endeavor to discover, who it is thus prone to disturb or destroy the regulations & discipline of this yard, by aiding such men as Adams with their pens and stimulating them to troublesome acts Henry Adams, Sir is an ignorant impertinent Negro man, who however, it is allowed , is a good journeyman caulker, but his assertion that he "has much experience in his trade as a caulker in France & England" - is certainly devoid of truth: for by his own verbal account , he merely "helped" to caulk a merchant vessel h belonged to while laying in France - And, his operations in England it is presumed are not superior, if he wer worked there at all The particulars relative to caulking & in his last letter are certainly correct, but they are such as have been in constant practice long before Adams, came into existence, and such as have been invariably practiced, on the public Ships repaired at this place. I have been thus prolix on his subject, in the hope that no more of his letters, may be suffered to trouble you otherwise than as clue, to lead to the writers.

33/37. William Spieden 1805 -1861 one of the executors’ of Timothy Winn last will. His career began when Winn appointed the 18 year old Spieden to a position at Washington Navy Yard Purser's office. Spieden's appointment as Purser Clerk was challenged by Treasury Department auditors and Timothy Winn as Purser was deemed liable for the funds allocated. In 1836 Speiden was appointed US Navy Purser for Norfolk Va. William Spieden later served with Commodore Perry's expedition to Japan. Information on Spieden is from the Heritage Gazette fall 2006 issue p.4. The Heritage Gazette is a publication of the Association for the Preservation of the Historic Congressional Cemetery.

34 /42. Charles Grandison, Ordinary Seaman. Slaveholder Timothy Winn rented Charles Grandison to the Navy. Grandison remained a slave throughout his long life. He apparently continued to reside with the Winn family and he died close to age one hundred. The Navy Yard Section During the Life of the Rev. William Ryland, Columbia Historical Society, Volume 4. Timothy Winn’s will stipulated, “I give & bequeath to my Son my Servant Man Charles Grandison, & to my Daughter my Servant Woman Lizy, or Eliza Savoy. They are neither of them to be sold, nor be set free on any account whatever. I have too much regard for them to set them free to provide for & support themselves in their old age, after having had their faithful services for the best part of their lives. They must be comfortably & well provided for & kindly treated & supported & receive every indulgence compatible with their situation, & should either of my Children die, or by reason of any casualty or misfortune become incapable of providing for his or her Servant, the other Child must take such Servant & fully comply with all the requirements herein stated” Last Will and Testament of Timothy Winn, District of Columbia Orphan's Court (Probate Court) No.1, 848 O.S.

36/82. Jack Pie AKA John Pie, Ordinary Seaman, John Pie is listed on the 1819 -1820 employee payroll, paid 68cents a day and enumerated as a laborer, Pie is apparently enslaved, see http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/wny_payroll1819-1820.htm.

43. Thomas Barry, Sailing Master USN, born circa 1779 first appointed 1794 Gunner USN aboard the USS Constellation later served aboard the USS Macedonian appointed Gunner, NY 2 July, 1814. Resigned 19 November, 1826 but continued to work at WNY as a pyrotechnist . Barry was appointed Sailing Master 19 February, 1841 and killed in an accidental explosion at Washington Navy Yard on 27 June, 1842. He is buried at Congressional Cemetery Washington DC, R42/19.

52. Basil Brown, Boy, later , Ordinary Seaman. Basil Brown was born in Maryland in 1803. He manumitted prior to 1850 and worked as a laborer. He is listed in the 1870 Washington, DC census, which states that he then owned property worth $3,000.00. Brown is also mentioned by Commodore Isaac Hull to Board of Navy Commissioners, as a slave; see BNC Letters RG 45.3 NARA “A List of Colored men free & Slaves now Employ'd in the Blacksmiths & Engine department & in Ordinary at the WNY April 1830” See the 1830 list of enslaved seamen in the Ordinary http://genealogytrails.com/washdc/wny1829.html. Brown is also mentioned in the Diary of Michael Shiner, see pages 22, 34 and 41, http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/shinerdiary.html

56. Maramaduke Dove, son of Marmaduke Dove, Sailing Master USN number 6 and Margaret Dove. Young Dove was appointed Midshipman but died 14 September 1821 he is buried at Congressional Cemetery R 57 33.

65. George Milton, Ordinary Seaman, was enslaved to Timothy Winn Purser USN see biographical note number 6. Milton is mentioned in two letters regarding the alleged theft of liquor from the Purser Stores. Letter from Timothy Winn to Thomas Tingey 16 September 1816 and Tingey to the Board of Navy Commissioners 3 October 1816 deal with the case but provide little information regarding Milton. Since George Milton, was enslaved his case was adjudicated before a civil magistrate, it’s unclear, what penalty was accorded or if Milton continued to work at the Navy Yard.

I have to state that the cellar where Provisions for the Navy in Ordinary are deposited for issuing has been several times entered by the means of a false key. This species of fraud, I have reason to believe has been practiced for considerable time past. The Steward States, that on thursday the 10th ins. in the afternoon he detected George Milton , a blackman belonging to the ordinary in the Cellar in the act of drawing Vinegar, he supposed , he mistook for Whiskey and that he gained admittance by a false key, which he found with him. Milton made his escape, but understanding he had been apprehended today, I have taken the liberty to make this statement, hoping at the same time , that you will cause a thorough investigation , which I have no doubt you will consider the public interest requires. - T.Winn

Not having the Navy Officers sufficient in this place to form a legal court of Inquiry - I caused Geo Milton belonging to the Navy in ordinary to be brought before a justice of the Peace, where he was convicted of having entered the Pursers provisions store by means of a false key, where he was caught in the act of drawing off Vinegar, which from the circumstances it is believed he mistook for Whiskey – these facts he Acknowledged and he being put on his oath, he declared, the key by which he entered the store , was given to him to take care of by Tom Macom ( to whom it belonged) a slave belonging to Capt. Haraden , who is employed in the Yard as a Sawyer – No evidence however appeared that Macom was any otherwise concerned in this robbery altho there is great reason to believe the provision store has been opened and pillaged by means of the key in question - All which is respectfully Submitted for the decision of the Board. Thomas Tingey

84 A.B. Pinkham, Midshipman USN, appointed Midshipman, 17 June, 1814. Lieutenant, 13 June, 1825. Commander, 8 September, 1841. Pinkham died 23 July, 1843.

88. Stephen Cassin (16 February 1783 – 29 August 1857) was an officer in the United States Navy. Born in Philadelphia, the son of naval officer John Cassin, Cassin entered the United States Navy as a midshipman in 1800, and served in Philadelphia in the West Indies during the latter part of the Quasi-War with France. In the War of 1812, he commanded the USS Ticonderoga in the Battle of Lake Champlain and was awarded a gold medal for bravery by the United States Congress. He later served during the Second Barbary War on the USS Peacock and in the West Indies Squadron against piracy see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Cassin

i End Notes

Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Stoddard to Lt. Henry Kenyon, 8 August 1798, Naval Documents Related to the Quasi-War Between the United States and France (Washington, 1935), I, p.281.

ii Washington Navy Yard Station Log 1822 -1830, RG 181, NARA 15 - 10 January 1827.

iiiShiner, Michael. The Diary of Michael Shiner Relating to the History of the Washington Navy Yard 1813-1869. Navy Department Library online, transcribed with an Introduction and Notes John G. Sharp, 2007, http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/shinerdiary.html p.33.

iv Secretary of the Navy Robert Smith to Commodore Thomas Tingey, 21 April 1808, National Archives and Records Administration Record Group 45.

v Secretary of the Navy Paul Hamilton to Captain John Cassin, 10 July 1809, NARA RG45/M125.

vi Board of Naval Commissioners to Commandants of Naval Shipyards, 17 March 1817, RG 45, NARA. “Abuses having existed in some of the navy yards by the introduction of improper Characters for improper purposes, the Board of Navy Commissioners have deemed it necessary to direct,That no Slaves or Negroes, except under extraordinary Circumstances, shall be employed in any navy yard in the United States, & in no case without the authority from the Board of Navy Commissioners.”

vii Board of Navy Commissioners to Commodore Isaac Hull 9 April 1830 inquiring the number of slaves employed. NARA RG 45

viii Captain John Cassin, to Secretary of the Navy Robert Smith, 18 May 1808, NARA RG45/M125.

ix Sharp, John G. History of the Washington Navy Yard Civilian Workforce 1799-1962. Stockton, CA: Vindolanda Press, 2005. [http://www.history.navy.mil/books/sharp/WNY_History.pdf] See pages 16 -17, and Appendix B., for quotations from Isaac Hull’s 1829 letter and his separate report on the employment of slaves. The number of slaves employed declined over time. The WNY civilian employee population in 1808 was 194 employees with 64 African Americans of these 6 are listed as free.


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