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Washington D.C. Genealogy Trails
Centennial History of the  City of Washington D.C.
by Harvey W. Crew, William B. Webb, and John Wooldridge; 1892, United Brethern Publishing House, Dayton, Ohio.

Submitted by Cathy Schultz



The Washington Gazette — The National Intelligencer— The Washington Daily Gazette— The Washington Federalist — The Washington Republican — The Weekly Messenger — The Washington Mirror — The United States Telegraph —The Globe — The Madismiian—The Notice American — The Columbian Star — The Columbian Gazette — The Washington Union—The Republic — The Spectator — The National Era — The Federal Republican — The American Telegraph — The Washington Sentinel — The Constitutional Union — The American Organ — The Sunday Morning Chronicle — The National Republican—The Daily Patriot — The Evening Star—The Washington Post — The Washington Critic — The Capital — The Public Service — The Home Magazine — The Sunday Herald — The Republic — The Washington Sentinel — The National Tribune — The National View — The American Farmer — The American Anthropologist — The Vedette — Kate Field's Washington Public, Opinion — The Congressional Record — Other Papers — The Electric Telegraph — Press Agencies.

THE Washington Gazette was first published June 15, 1796, by Benjamin More, a bookseller. It was a semi-weekly paper, issued oh Wednesdays and Saturdays, at $4 per annum, from the office then lately owned "by Thomas Wilson, deceased, but subsequently, for a few weeks, in possession of Mr. John Crocker." The Gazette was a good paper for the times in which it was printed; well made up, neatly printed, and ornamented with an engraving of a shield, centered with an eye darting rays in all directions, and with the encircling motto, Nanquam dormio. Mr. More continued to publish his paper for more than a year, and then, in his number of July 26, 1797, he published the following notice: "The Washington Gazette will not be published again until the publication is attended by some profit to the publisher"; and he also stated that "nothing but want of money stops the paper." How its publication was ever to be attended with profit unless it were published, is somewhat difficult for an Anglo-Saxon intellect to perceive. However, Mr. More found encouragement of some kind soon afterward, for on September 16, 1797, the Washington Gazette again appeared, but this time as a weekly paper, containing the following announcement: "The Washington Gazette again makes its appearance, and its editor hopes to receive that encouragement from the public which will enable him to continue the publication uninterrupted, until he shall be able, from experience, to sing of mercy as well as of judgment." Precisely what was meant by this last allusion must be left to conjecture. After a further struggle of about thirty-five weeks, Mr. More, in his number of March 24, 1798, announced as follows: "I shall not be able to continue the publication of the Washington Gazette unless some friend should lend a helping hand. Hope has led me into a thicket of difficulties, and appears to be departing from me." At that time, there was not a large constituency for any paper, and besides this it has been suggested that Mr. More was somewhat caustic in his criticisms of the commissioners then engaged in laying out the Federal District, and was at the same time a Federalist. So far as is known, the Washington Gazette, under Mr. More's management, did not appear again.

The National Intelligencer was established in Washington in October, 1800, about the time of the removal of the Federal Government from Philadelphia to Washington. The first number of this paper appeared October 31, and it was published in a row of brick buildings on New Jersey Avenue erected by Thomas Law. The editor and proprietor was Samuel Harrison Smith, a biographical sketch of whom appears in another chapter. His residence, while he lived in Washington, was one of the conspicuous objects in the vicinity, being situated on a commanding site about three hundred feet above tide water. The paper was published three times each week, and was thus what is generally called a tri-weekly publication. Mr. Smith in his prospectus said: "The appearance of the National Intelligencer has been protracted to this day [October 31, 1800] by the inevitable though unanticipated embarrassments attending the removal of the printing office. The vessel which contained the greater part of the material sailed from Philadelphia on the 20th of September, but did not arrive in this city until the 25th inst., owing to her having been driven on shore by the violence of the late storm. . . . The editor, at the commencement of his duties, considers it as not improper to state the nature of the plan which he intends to pursue, and concisely to notice the principles by which he proposes to regulate his own conduct as well as those by which it is expected that correspondents will regulate theirs," etc. After showing the necessity of the freedom of the press, he said: "But while the editor classes with our dearest rights the liberty of the press, he is decidedly inimical to its licentiousness. As, on the one hand, the conduct of public men and the tendency of public measures will be freely examined, so, on the other hand, private character will remain inviolable, nor shall indelicate expressions be admitted, however disguised by satire or enlivened by wit."

Whatever may be said of this paper, as to its "interminable diatribes," or as to its general character as a "National Smoothing Plane," or as to its first editor as "Silky, Milky Smith," the high tone indicated in the above extract from its first prospectus was steadily maintained by all its managers from 1800 down to 1870, when it ceased to exist.

The terms of publication were at first announced as follows: First, the paper shall be published three times a week, on good demy paper, and with new type; second, the annual subscription shall be $5, paid constantly in advance, by all subscribers not residing in the city of Washington, and $6 by those residing in the city, in which case the payment shall be half-yearly; third, all letters shall be postpaid.

Politically, the Intelligencer supported Mr. Jefferson for the Presidency, to succeed President John Adams. On Monday, November 3, 1800, it said that on the Saturday before, November 1, President Adams arrived in Washington, and took up his residence in the house appropriated to him by the commissioners, the house, however, not being then finished.

Mr. Smith is entitled to great credit for the struggle he made for the right to publish the debates in Congress as they occurred. In his paper of January 19, 1801, he details his interview with the Speaker of the House of Representatives in reference thereto, explaining that he could only secure the Speaker's consent to his having such papers as the clerk of the House should permit him to copy, and that he might publish an account of anything upon which the House had come to a decision. The position of the Speaker, in full, was as follows: "I have no objection to your obtaining copies of those papers that are proper to be published; but you must know it would be manifestly wrong to publish papers that relate to papers in an unfinished state. For instance, a member may make a motion that refers to a particular subject; it may be made inadvertently — its meaning may be equivocal. To publish it in this immature state, before the House has decided upon it, might be to produce misconceptions, and might essentially injure the respect of the people for the Government. Such papers ought not to be published. But in cases in which the House has come to a conclusion, you may publish what has been decided upon."

Theodore Sedgwick, of Massachusetts, was then Speaker of the House of Representatives, and John Holt Oswald, of Pennsylvania, clerk. The progress made by the press in securing the right to publish the proceedings of Congress may be readily measured by comparing the present condition of things with that indicated by the above-outlined position of Speaker Sedgwick; and as to whether the respect of the people for the Government has been diminished, that also may be estimated by a similar comparison.

Mr. Smith continued to edit and publish the Intelligencer alone until 1809, when Joseph Gales, Jr., of Raleigh, North Carolina, entered his employ as stenographic reporter of proceedings in Congress. This fact of itself is a suggestive indication of the progress already made in the direction referred to. Young Mr. Gales's services proved so acceptable to Mr. Smith that he was soon taken into partnership, and in September, 1810, he bought out the entire establishment. The paper continued to be anti-Federal, supporting Madison and Monroe. To the war with Great Britain, which was declared in the fourth year of Mr. Madison's first term, it gave a hearty support. In October, 1812, Mr. Gales was joined by his brother-in-law, William Winston Seaton, a native of King William County, Virginia, a printer by trade, who had served his apprenticeship in the office of the Virginia Patriot, at Richmond.

The Daily National Intelligencer was established January 1, 1813, because of the necessity of the more prompt publication of the news of the war. The price was $10 per annum, payable in advance. When the British entered Washington in 1814, they partially tore out the Intelligencer office, and as a consequence it did not appear from August 24 to October 1, though it did not suffer so much as might have been expected. The paper continued to support the administration in power until President Jackson's time, when it became a strong Whig paper, teaching that Whig principles were the principles of the Presidents in power from Jefferson to Jackson. It was strongly in favor of what would in this day be called "civil service reform," and hence could not tolerate President Jackson's appointment to office of personal friends as a political reward, a policy at once discovered to be laden with manifold evils, and from which it has not yet been found possible to extricate that service. From day to day, during 1829, the first year of President Jackson's incumbency, it published reports of the progress made in the "reform" going on in the various departments. The editors were very friendly to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and extremely doubtful as to whether railroads could ever be made a success in this country.

The weekly edition of the Intelligencer was established June 5, 1841, at $2 per annum, payable invariably in advance. The Intelligencer, after the death of President Harrison, was extremely reluctant to part company with President Tyler, but was at length compelled to do so, because of President Tyler's abandonment of the principles upon which he had been elected. With all its ability and conscientiousness it fought the annexation of Texas, and as an evidence of its influence it published the following letter:

"department Of State, Washington, May 8, 1844.

"To the Publishers of the National Intelligencer:

"gentlemen: I am directed and required to discontinue the copies of your semi-weekly and daily papers sent to this department for the legations abroad.

"I am, Gentlemen,

"Your obedient servant,

"Edward Stubbs, Agent."

Upon the receipt of this letter, the editor remarked: "Were it not for the narrow spirit which it evinces on the part of the Secretary of State, (Hon. John C. Calhoun)  in regard to the freedom of the press, we should feel proud of this letter as a testimonial to the proprietors of this paper of their having discharged their duty to their countrymen, even at the hazard of the displeasure of these official personages."

The paper continued to be published by Gales & Seaton until the death of Mr. Gales, which occurred at Eckington, his country seat, July 21, 1860, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. August 30, Mr. Seaton announced that Mr. James C. Welling would be associated with him in the editorial conduct of the paper in the future. Mr. Welling had then been connected with the paper about ten years. On Saturday, December 31, 1864, Mr. Seaton retired from the proprietorship of the paper, and its editorial management. James C. Welling also retired on the same day, and the new proprietors, Snow, Coyle, & Company, took possession. April 1, 1865, the paper was enlarged to a seven-column sheet. Afterward, the Express was consolidated with it, and the name changed to the Intelligencer and Express. Snow, Coyle, & Company continued the publication of the paper until November 30, 1869, when they sold out to Alexander Delmar, then late Chief of the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department, who announced his intention of placing it in the front rank of journalism. But on January 10, 1870, he was compelled to discontinue its publication.

It has been said of the Intelligencer that it was "Jeffersonian till Jackson's time, and then Whig till Lincoln's time, when it became rebel Democratic, and went into the lobby under Johnny Coyle.' ("Washington Outside and Inside," by G. A. Townsend.)  This is partly true and partly false. It never became "rebel Democratic." Its motto always was "The Union and the Constitution." It was always true to the Union, and, in its own way, it was always true to the Constitution. In 1860, its devotion to slavery, that institution being protected by the Constitution in the States at least, led it to support Hon. John Bell for the residency as against Abraham Lincoln, Mr. Lincoln being the anti-slavery candidate. In 1864, it supported General McClellan for the Presidency, because it could not even then see that slavery had forfeited its right to exist by attempting to overthrow the Constitution by which it had been protected. President Lincoln and his emancipation policy were both too intricate and mysterious for the understanding of the Intelligencer, and hence it had to sustain what it could understand — the restoration of "The Union as it Was," that is, with slavery still unimpaired. Through the stormy reconstruction period, the Intelligencer was a strong supporter of Andrew Johnson and his plan of reconstruction, and it continued on this line of political thought until it gave up the ghost in 1870.

It may not be generally known that Joseph Gales, when driven from England for the freedom which he exercised in the publication of his paper at Sheffield, learned stenography on his way across the Atlantic. This art he found extremely useful in the service of Claypoole in Philadelphia. His son, Joseph Gales, Jr., as one of the editors of the National Intelligencer, found the same art also extremely useful, as did likewise his partner, W. W. Seaton; one reporting the Senate, the other the House. Had it not been for the presence of Gales in the Senate, the great speeches of Hayne and Webster in 1830 would have been entirely lost to the world, and very few of the debates of earlier Congresses would have been preserved but for the efforts of Gales and Seaton, editors of the National Intelligencer. The action of Congress authorizing them to write up and publish their reports of the early proceedings was one of great wisdom, as through this action we have preserved to us the debates of Congress in the early days. Posterity is indebted to them for these, as it is to James Madison for the debates of the Constitutional Convention which framed the Constitution of the United States.

The Washington Daily Gazette was started in Washington October 1, 1800, at $5 per annum, payable half yearly in advance. The projector, in his advertisement, said: "It shall be conducted on a fair, impartial plan, open to political discussions; but no personal pieces or irritating animadversions on parties or individuals shall be admitted." This was signed by Charles Cist. How long this paper was published is not known.

The Washington Federalist was published for several years in the early part of the century, as a contemporary of the National Intelligencer, but advocating opposite views. It is believed to have existed about four years, but no authentic data with reference to this point could be obtained.

The Weekly Register of Political News was first published in November, 1807, by J. B. Colvin. How long it was published is not known.

The Washington City Gazette was established in 1812 or 1813, by William Elliott. It was edited by George Watterston. William Elliott was a native of England, and died December 30, 1838, at the age of sixty-four years. He was a man of considerable scientific attainments, and was one of the earliest and most zealous members of the Columbian Institute.

The Washington City Weekly Gazette was started in 1815, by Jonathan Elliott, who was also an Englishman. He continued the publication of this paper as a weekly until 1817, when he changed it to a daily.

The Washington Republican was first issued in 1822, by James C. Dunn & Company, as a semi-weekly paper. It was published in the interest of John C. Calhoun. It afterward passed into the hands of Haughton & Company, and was the ostensible forerunner of Force's semi-weekly National Journal, begun in November, 1823, and of the Daily National Journal, begun in 1824.

The Weekly 31essenger was started in 1807, by John B. Colvin, who, in 1808, changed the name to the Washington Monitor. This paper was soon succeeded by the Washington Expositor, conducted by Dinmore & Cooper.

The Weekly Messenger was first published in 1817, by Mrs. John B. Colvin, the talented widow of John B. Colvin.

The National Register was first issued in 1816, by J. K. Meade, and edited by George Watterston.

The Washington City Chronicle was started in 1828, by A. Rothwell and T. W. Ustiek, and edited by George Watterston. It was a literary paper, published weekly. It was transferred in November, 1830, to James C. Dunn, and in 1832 it was the property of B. Homans.

The Washington Mirror was commenced October 18, 1834, by William Thompson, an Englishman. The name was afterward changed to the Metropolitan, and edited by Rufus Dawes. Mr. Dawes made his paper popular and successful for some time, but this popularity was not of great duration. In 1836, the paper was merged into the United States Telegraph. Mr. Thompson assumed the position of city editor on the National Intelligencer, and on July 17, 1846, he started the Saturday Evening News, which he continued until 1858, when, on account of an affection of the eyes, he abandoned its publication.

The African Repository was first published in 1835, by Ralph R. Gurley, secretary of the American Colonization Society, who continued its publication for several years.

The United States Telegraph was established in 1826, by Duff Green. Upon the inauguration of Andrew Jackson as President of the United States, the Telegraph became the organ of the Administration; though, if the Hon. Thomas H. Benton is good authority, it was more the organ of John C. Calhoun than of President Jackson. Some time afterward, a very strong article against nullification appeared in the Frankfort Argus, published in Kentucky, to which was called the attention of the President, who, upon being informed that it was written by Franklin P. Blair, invited him to Washington, and the Globe was the result. At any rate, it can be stated that the Globe was established because of differences betweeen President Jackson and Mr. Van Buren.

The Globe, upon its establishment in December, 1830, became at once a power in the Government. While it was not in the Cabinet, it had a cabinet of its own, widely known as the "Kitchen Cabinet." Soon after its establishment, John C. Rives became a partner with Mr. Blair, and Amos Kendall became a regular contributor to the paper. Amos Kendall wrote the broadside editorials of the Globe, at the dictation of the President, but, of course, greatly improving the President's English; for, while he could not write elegantly, yet he was a vigorous thinker. The Globe had the public printing and advertising for eleven years, or until General Harrison was inaugurated, ceasing to be the Government organ on March 3, 1841; but it did not cease then to be the chief organ of the Democratic Party. The National Intelligencer then resumed its old position. The death of President Harrison, however, brought confusion to the Whigs, and the vetoes of President Tyler against the Bank bills disrupted the relations of the Intelligencer with the Government, the Intelligencer adhering to the fortunes of Henry Clay and the Whig Party.

A new paper, called the Madisonian, which had been started August 1, 1837, then became the organ of the President. At its establishment, it announced that it would be devoted to the elucidation of the principles of the Democracy, as delineated by Mr. Madison. In its prospectus, it said that the commercial interests of the country were overwhelmed with embarrassment, and every ramification of society was invaded by distress. The social edifice seemed threatened with disorganization, and the General Government was boldly assailed by a large and respectable portion of the people as the direct cause of their difficulties. Open resistance to the laws was publicly encouraged, and a spirit of insubordination was fostered as a necessary defense to the pretending usurpations of the party in power. Some, of whom better things were hoped, were making confusion worse confounded by a headlong pursuit of extreme notions and indefinite phantoms totally incompatible with the wholesome state of the country. The paper was at first edited by Thomas Allen, and then by John Jones. However, on account of the uncertainty regarding the Intelligencer, with Daniel Webster in the Cabinet, a new paper was begun in December, 1841, edited by Edward N. Johnson, Joseph Segar, and John H. Pleasants. About the 1st of April, 1845, this paper passed into the hands of Theophilus Fisk and Jesse E. Dow, who changed it to a daily, semi-weekly, and weekly Democratic paper, under the name of the Constellation.

When Amos Kendall severed his editorial connection with the Globe, he began to publish, in 1841, a paper which he called Kendall's Expositor, as a semi-weekly periodical, and continued its publication until April, 1844.

The True Whig, a weekly paper, was first issued in 1841, by Calvin Colton. In 1842, he converted it into a daily, and soon afterward ceased its publication.

After the establishment of the Globe, the United States Telegraph was continued under the management of Duff Green, still as the organ of John C. Calhoun. In 1835, it was merged with the Washington Mirror.

The Globe, after giving up its official position, became the publisher of the Congressional debates, Blair and Rives being awarded the contract for their publication in 1846. In 1849, Blair sold out his interest to Rives, who continued to publish them until his death, after which the Globe was published by his sons.

The Washingtonian was started in 1836, by A. F. Cunningham, as a temperance paper. It was a quarto in form, and its publication was continued for a year.

The Metropolitan Churchman was first issued in November, 1838, under the editorship of Rev. Philip Slaughter, of Virginia. It was an Episcopal periodical, and in after years it became the Southern Churchman. For a long series of years it was a power in the Church.

In 1843, John T. Towers established the Whig Standard in the interest of Henry Clay, and continued its publication until the election of James K. Polk.

In the same year, the Daily Capitol was started by an association of printers. It was a penny paper, and had considerable popularity. Its ostensible publishers were Coale, Dickinson, & Devaughn. In 1844, it was transferred to Smith, Murphy, & Company, the name being then changed to the Democratic Capitol, and it was made a Democratic campaign paper. Its publication ceased with Mr. Polk's election to the Presidency.

The Daily Bee was first published August 19, 1845, by Gobright, Melvin, & Smith. Its publication continued for twenty-four days, when it suspended.

The Columbian Fountain first appeared January 4, 1846, under the superintendence of Rev. Ulysses Ward. It was at first a temperance paper, but in 1847 it became a pronounced Whig paper. Its chief editor was supposed to be Worthington S. Suethen.

The Weekly Democratic Expositor was started about the same time as the Fountain, by Rev. Theophilus Fisk and Jesse E. Dow. The former had a most varied experience, and the latter was editor of the Expositor from January, 1846, until it ceased to exist. Mr. Dow had for a long time contributed articles to the Globe under the pseudonym of "Old Ironsides."

The Native American was established in 1837, by the Native American Association, which was organized a few months previously. Its objects were to secure the repeal of the naturalization laws, and the establishment of a national character and the perpetuity of the institutions of the country through the means of the natives of the United States. The subscription price of the paper was $2.50 per year. T. D. Jones was secretary of the association in 1839.

The Columbian Star was a weekly paper published in Washington by a committee of the General Convention of the Baptist denomination of the United States. Its publication was commenced, probably, in 1823. It was a useful and instructive publication, being faulty only in one particular, namely, that of its bigotry. "The editors of the Star seem to think it rank heresy to confide in the representations of a Catholic." This paper was published in Washington until about June 1, 1827, when it was removed to Philadelphia, where it was committed to the care of Rev. William T. Brantly, pastor of the First Baptist Church of that city. While it was in Washington it was edited by Rev. Baron Stow.

We, the People, was the name of a weekly paper started in Washington March 8, 1828, to oppose the pretensions of Andrew Jackson to the Presidency. It was friendly to the administration of John Quincy Adams. It was published every Saturday, at $3 per annum, Jonathan Elliott being both editor and publisher.

The Christian Statesman was a weekly paper, commenced in Washington -in January, 1838, by R. R. Gurley. This paper advocated the cause of African colonization of the negro as meriting the earnest and liberal support of the Nation. The price was #3 per annum payable in advance.

The Columbian Gazette was started in Georgetown July, 1, 1829, by Benjamin Romans, who had lost his office on the accession of Andrew Jackson to the Presidency. The Gazette was a handsome tri-weekly paper. In 1835, the Metropolitan appeared in Georgetown, at the instance, as it was understood, of Joel R. Poinsett, an anti-Calhoun South Carolinian, and was edited by Samuel D. Langtree, having as an associate John L. O'Sullivan. After about two years, the paper was removed to Washington, and the Potomac Advocate became the town paper of Georgetown. This paper was owned by Thomas Turner, but Mr. Turner soon tired, and sold it to Fulton & Smith, who, after a time, dropped the word "Potomac" from the name, and called their paper simply the Advocate, and still later, the Georgetown Advocate. Mr. Smith at length retired from the paper, and John T. Crow became either part or sole owner, and conducted it until about 1844, when he went to Baltimore and became employed on the Baltimore Sun. Afterward, the Advocate was conducted by Joseph Crow, a brother of John T. Crow, until its sale soon afterward to Ezekiel Hughes, of Fredericktown, Maryland. Mr. Hughes continued the paper for about fifteen years, when he abandoned it because he could not make it pay.

Several other papers were published in Georgetown before the War, but as they were all short-lived, it is not deemed worth while to trace their brief careers.

The Washington Union was started immediately after the election of James K. Polk to the Presidency. The Nashville Union had been the home paper of the Polk wing of the Democratic Party, just as the Globe, in Washington, was published in the interest of the Van Buren wing. The Richmond Enquirer had been instrumental in defeating Van Buren in the convention. From the Nashville Union and the Richmond Enquirer there were brought to Washington two men, Thomas Ritchie and John P. Heiss, who purchased the Globe of Blair & Rives, and established the Washington Union, the first number of which appeared May 1, 1845. The Union continued to be the organ of the Government until 1849, when the Whig Party came again into power. At this time, the Republic was established as the organ of the Government. The Union continued to be edited and published by Thomas Ritchie until 1859, when he sold it to A. J. Donelson, who had been private secretary to President Jackson, Charge d'Affaires to Texas, Minister to Prussia, and also to the Germanic Confederation. The sale was made by Mr. Ritchie because of the immense amount of printing thrown upon him by Congress, and because of an unfortunate contract made by him, which involved him heavily in debt. Mr. Donelson said in his salutatory that he "threw himself upon the indulgence of the Republican-Democratic Party for the support which may be due to one who can promise so little to justify in advance the confidence which has been given to me in advance."

During the same year, George W. Bowman purchased the Union, and changed the name to the Constitution, announcing his purpose to be to make the Constitution a thoroughly Democratic paper, advocating the principles which the Democratic Party all over the country claimed as common property. William M. Browne became the owner of this paper early in 1860, and continued it until January 31, 1861, when he said he was making arrangements for its reissue elsewhere under more favorable auspices.

The Republic was started, as has been stated, immediately after the inauguration of President Taylor, who did not recognize the National Intelligencer because it was devoted to Daniel Webster, and Daniel Webster had said that the nomination of Taylor was one "not fit to be made." Alexander Bullitt, of the New Orleans Picayune, and John O. Sargent, of the New York Courier and Enquirer, were the first editors of the Republic, but for certain reasons they could not succeed in Washington. Upon the death of President Taylor, and the succession of Vice-President Fillmore, with Daniel Webster in the Cabinet, the National Intelligencer once more resumed its old place as Government organ. But it was the last of its line — that is, of the Whig organs to the Government. With President Pierce in the Executive Mansion, the Union was again the Government organ, and continued to sustain this relation to the Government through both the administrations of Presidents Pierce and Buchanan. It then became somewhat confused in its political relations, as did the Democratic Party itself, and, as has been already stated, ceased to exist about the close of the control of the Government by the Democratic Party.

The Spectator was published in Washington under the influence of Senator Rhett, of South Carolina. It had succeeded the Telegraph as the organ of the South Carolina section of the Democratic Party. It was published by Martin & Heart, with Virgil Maxcey as one of its editors. After Martin went to Paris, William A. Harris became the partner of Heart, and they changed the name of the paper to the Constitution. Subsequently, Harris went to Buenos Ay res as charge d'affaires, and Heart joined the Charleston, South Carolina, Mercury, when the Constitution closed its career. Harris, on his return from Buenos Ay res, became connected with the Union.

The National Era was established in 1847, the first number appearing January 7 of that year. A fund of $20,000 was raised by the friends of freedom, with which it was established. Lewis Tappan was at the head of these gentlemen. Dr. Gamaliel Bailey, of Cincinnati, Ohio, was selected as the editor, and Lewis Clephane was their clerk. The publishers of the paper were Martin Buel and William Blanchard. Dr. Bailey was at the time well known throughout the country, having, though a young man, had an eventful career. In 1834, he cordially espoused the cause of freedom and did not look back. In 1836, he became connected with James G. Birney (who afterward, by accepting the nomination of the Abolition Party for the Presidency, defeated Henry Clay for that high office) in the editorship of the Philanthropist, of Cincinnati, which paper was devoted to the cause of the slave. About August 1, 1836, the office of the Philanthropist was attacked by a mob, the type scattered about the streets, and the press thrown into the Ohio River, causing a suspension of the paper for a few weeks; but late in September it again appeared, printed in a neighboring village, but published in Cincinnati. Dr. Bailey soon became sole proprietor and editor, and conducted the paper without incident worthy of special note for five years, or until September, 1841, when on account of the commission of some improprieties by negroes, not in any way connected with the paper, u mob assailed the office with a violence which defied the municipal authorities for four days, during which time the type was scattered all over the streets and the press broken in pieces and thrown into the river. This second destruction of the office, however, caused a delay in the publication of the Philanthropist for only a few days, when it resumed publication and went on as before.

Dr. Bailey, in the fall of 1846, as intimated above, was invited to Washington to take editorial control of the new anti-slavery paper to be established here in the then near future, where no pretense of State rights could be urged as a motive or offered as an apology for the suppression of, or interference with, the freedom of the press. From the first, the elevated tone of its able editorials and correspondence commanded the respect of all intelligent men. The regular corresponding editor was John G. Whittier. Dr. James Houston, an accomplished Irishman, wrote a series of graphic sketches of men and things about Washington, and H. B. Stanton, author of "Modern Reformers," was also an able contributor. Theodore Parker, Alice and Phoebe Cary, Dr. Pierpont, and William D. Gallagher were occasional contributors. Later in the history of the paper, such characters as Edward Everett Hale, S. P. Chase, Charles Sumner, Wendell Phillips, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Gail Hamilton, and Mrs. Dr. Bailey contributed to its columns. Mrs. Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin" first appeared, in 1851, as a serial story in the columns of the National Era.

The most interesting event connected with the history of the National Era, in Washington, was the attack upon its office by a mob, on Tuesday night, April, 1848, the attack being occasioned by the supposed interest taken by the paper in the attempted escape of seventy-seven slaves from their masters in this city. Of these seventy seven slaves, thirty-eight were men and boys, twenty-six were women and girls, and thirteen were children. The attempted escape was made in a sloop, named the Pearl, which sailed down the Potomac with a fair wind on Sunday, April 16, and came to anchor in Cornfield Harbor, on the Maryland side of the river, near Point Lookout. A party of volunteers in the steamer Salem started in pursuit, overtook the Pearl, and brought her and her cargo of fugitives back to Washington, where H. C. Williams, a magistrate of the city, summoned the parties engaged in the kidnapping of the slaves before him, and committed the slaves as runaways, and Edward Sayres, the captain of the Pearl, and Caleb Aaronson, for further examination. These two individuals were afterward tried and appropriately punished according to the laws of those days.

On the 20th of the month, the Era gave an account of the attack, highly commending Captain Goddard and others who had vigorously sustained him in the preservation of order, for saving the press and the honor of the city. The press of the entire country condemned the mob— even that of the Southern States, which, while it condemned the principles advocated by the Era, yet spoke in the highest terms of Dr. Bailey. The office of the Era was at this time on Seventh Street, between F and G streets. It was afterward removed to the corner of Indiana Avenue and Second Street, into what is now the Tremont House, and here, upon the election of Mr. Lincoln to the Presidency, it was subjected to another attack by a mob, in common with the Republican headquarters, which were in the same building. Only slight damage was, however, done on this occasion.

While it is perhaps within limits of safety to say that, at the time of the beginning of the war with Great Britain in 1812, Federalism was confined mainly to the New England State?, yet there were many Federalists in other parts of the country. This was particularly the case in Maryland. A number of these Maryland Federalists in Frederick, Montgomery, and Prince George's counties, desiring to extend their views among their fellow-citizens as much as possible, united their means and established a newspaper in Baltimore for this purpose. This paper thus established was named the Federal Republican, and it had for its editor Alexander Contee Hamilton, who was assisted by a Mr. Wagner. On Saturday, June 20, 1812, two days after the declaration of war with Great Britain, the Federal Republican contained an article unusually bitter in its denunciation of the Administration. It had, therefore, in the minds of the friends and supporters of the Administration, fully identified itself with the enemy of the country. The population of Baltimore became very much excited over this publication, and a mob of them turned out on the following Monday night, pulled down the office, scattered the type, and broke the presses to pieces. The Federalists throughout the country were very much excited, and did not hesitate to intimate that the Government at Washington was implicated in the riot. The friends of the Federal Republican resolved that if possible the liberty of the press should be vindicated in the republication of their paper, and on the following Monday, July 27, 1812, it reappeared from a rented building on Charles Street, though it had been set up and worked off in Georgetown, District of Columbia. This issue of the paper was extremely severe in its condemnation of the people, mayor, and courts of the city of Baltimore. Anticipating the result of the course they were pursuing, they had taken the precaution to station throughout the building a considerable number of their adherents, and when, in consequence of their animadversions upon the people of Baltimore, an attacking party appeared in front of the building, throwing stones at and breaking some of the windows thereof, those inside, for the purpose of repelling any attack that might be made, fired a volley at them, killing a Dr. Gale, an electrician of Baltimore, and wounding several others. The next morning, about seven o'clock, the garrison of the rented building, about twenty-three in number, were marched to the city jail by the military under General Strieker. Everything was quiet throughout the day, and at nightfall it was unfortunately deemed by the authorities safe to permit the military to repair to their homes. Taking advantage of the unguarded condition of the jail, a terrible mob assembled in front of the jail, broke it open, and with clubs and other weapons made a furious assault upon the unarmed and unprotected inmates, killing General Lingan outright, and so fearfully maltreating General Harry Lee, of Virginia, "Light Horse Harry," the father of the rebel chieftain, General Robert E. Lee, that his eyesight was ever afterward permanently impaired. Eleven of the others were fearfully beaten, eight of them being thrown out in front of the jail for dead, and two escaped. One of these eight was Dr. Peregrine Warfield, afterward a distinguished member of the medical profession of Georgetown. The Federal Republican did not appear in Baltimore. It was removed to Georgetown, and was largely patronized by the Federalists throughout the country.

The American Telegraph was started as an afternoon paper, March 25, 1851, by Connolly, Wimer, & Magill. This paper is remarkable for being the first in Washington in which the word telegram was used as a heading for telegraphic dispatches. The date was the 27th of April, 1852. The editor at that time was Thomas C. Connolly. He thus introduced the word telegram: "Telegraph means to write from a distance; telegram, the writing itself. Monogram, logogram, etc., are words formed upon the same analogy and in good acceptation, hence telegram is the appropriate heading of a telegraphic dispatch. Well, we'll go it; look to our heading." Mr. Connolly was, however, following the example set by the Albany Evening Journal, which, on April 6, 1852, first used the word in this way.

This heading was continued for some time, but, as it found no favor with the press of the country generally, it was dropped on May 18, 1852, and the old heading, "News by Electric Telegraph," resumed.

The Washington Sentinel was established by Beverly Tucker, in September, 1853. He said in his announcement that he should support the principles of the great Democratic-Republican Party of the United States; but would permit his paper to be the organ of no department. The paper would uphold the Union upon the basis of the rights of the States under the Constitution. The paper was, however, of little ability, and of short life. August 20, 1856, Mr. Tucker published a card in the National Intelligencer, informing his friends of his intention to abandon the publication of the Sentinel, and it was thereupon abandoned.

The Constitutional Union was established in 1863, by Thomas B. Florence, who had for some years been a Democratic member of the House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. It was a conservative daily paper, and struggled on for three or four years with varying but not with satisfactory success. Mr. Florence afterward published the Sunday Gazette in Washington. Mr. Florence had previously published the National Democratic Quarterly Review in this city, commencing it in 1859.

The American Organ was established in Washington as a daily and weekly paper by an association of native Americans. In their prospectus, they said: "We have reached an important crisis in our political history. The two leading parties of our country, hitherto separated by broad lines, either of principle or of policy, differ now scarcely in anything but in name. A national bank, formerly an essential point of difference between the rival parties, has now no advocates. A protective tariff for the sake of protection, which once divided parties and distracted our national councils, has become obsolete as a question of party policy, simply because a revenue tariff affords incidental protection to American manufacturers. The distribution of the proceeds of the public lands, the improvement of the rivers and harbors by Congressional aid, and other such questions have become obsolete; and a new era has arrived which has to be distinguished by being the 'Era of Patriotism,'" etc. The daily, every afternoon except Sunday, was $5 per year, and the weekly, every Monday, $2 per year. Francis S. Evans was the agent of the association. The first number of this paper appeared November 13, 1854. It was under the editorial control of Vespasian Ellis, with R. M. Heath as associate. Mr. Ellis found it necessary to deny that he belonged to the Whig Party, having, as he said, mostly supported Democrats for office. This paper was not published many years, and this notice of it is introduced to exhibit a phase of thought that passed over the country a few years before the War.

The Sunday Morning Chronicle was established in Washington early in 1861, as the property of John W. Forney, of the Philadelphia Press. It was published by James B. Sheridan & Company, from the building at the northeast corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and Seventh Street. It was announced as entirely independent of party politics, although strongly devoted to the Union of the States. Joseph A. Ware was editor of the paper from the beginning, but in August, 1863, he resigned, and accepted a position as private secretary to Adjutant-General Thomas. John W. Forney soon became clerk of the House of Representatives, and later, of the Senate, and the Sunday Morning Chronicle was overshadowed by the Daily Morning Chronicle. This paper moved into new quarters on August 1, 1863, on Ninth Street, between E and F streets,— a brick structure one hundred and seventy by twenty-two feet in size and three stories high, of which Thomas U. Walter was the architect. The Chronicle was sold in 1870 to John M. Morris, ex-clerk of the United States Senate, who was also the proprietor of the South Carolina Republican, and John W. Forney went back to the Philadelphia Press. This paper has always been Republican in politics, and has been published since 1882 by J. Q. Thompson & Company, Mr. Thompson being the editor.

The National Republican was established in 1860, the first number appearing on Monday, November 26, that year. While this paper disclaimed all design of becoming an organ, yet it proposed to support, so far as possible, the then incoming administration of Mr. Lincoln. Lewis Clephane was the principal member of the company which established this paper. The paper remained true to the Government throughout the War, but toward the latter part of the sixties relaxed somewhat its political tone and thereby gained somewhat in circulation. In 1867, or 1868, the original proprietors sold it to William J. Murtagh and S. P. Hanscom, the latter becoming its editor. Afterward, Mr. Harris, formerly of the Patriot, became editor, then Mr. Connery, and then John P. Foley. The paper continued to be published for several years.

The Daily Patriot was the result of an effort made by several wealthy gentlemen in the Atlantic cities to collect a fund of $100,000 with which to found a conservative Democratic paper at Washington. The office began operations November 14, 1870. It was at that time the only Democratic paper in the city. Its chief editor was James E. Harvey, with Oscar K. Harris as chief of the news department, the business manager being James G. Berrett, formerly Mayor of Washington. By 1872, all of these gentlemen had retired from their positions, and the general direction of the paper was then in the hands of Colonel W. H. Philip, J. C. McGuire, and R. T. Merrick, A. G. Allen was the editor-in-chief, and Louis Bagger local editor. This paper is not now published.

The Evening Star was first issued as a specimen paper, December 12, 1852, the regular daily issue beginning December 16. Its original size was but little larger than a good-sized letter sheet, and its edition was but little more than eight hundred. The printing was done on a hand press. It was first issued by Captain J. B. Tate at the corner of Eighth and D streets, but the next year it was removed to the corner of Sixth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. In May, 1854, it was removed to the second story of a blacksmith shop on D Street, near Twelfth Street, Northwest, on the site of the present Franklin Engine House. Soon after this removal, Mr. Tate sold the paper to W. D. Wallach and W. H. Hope, Mr. Wallach becoming sole proprietor a short time afterward. Toward the latter part of 1854, the office was removed to the corner of Eleventh Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, the corner recently occupied by Dowling, the auctioneer, but now included in the city post-office site. In 1855, C. S. Noyes, the present editor-in-chief, became connected with the paper. Mr. Wallach retained his ownership until 1867, at which time he sold it to C. S. Noyes, S. H. Kauffmann, Alexander R. Shepherd, Clarence Baker, and George W. Adams, for $110,000. In 1868, these gentlemen were incorporated into the Evening Star Newspaper Company, by a special act of Congress. Some time afterward, Messrs. Baker and Shepherd sold their interests. In about 1863, a Hoe rotary press was introduced into the establishment.

In 1881, the rapid growth of the paper demanding for it more commodious quarters, the Evening Star moved to its present location, at the northwest corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and Eleventh Street, and at the same time added to its facilities by the introduction of a modern perfecting press and folding machine. But even this press, with its wonderful speed, was unable to keep pace with the growth of the paper's circulation, and the following year another press of similar character was added, and since then still another press has been put in, so that now three of the fastest presses which invention has produced, having a combined capacity of twelve hundred papers a minute, are required to print the Star every evening in time for early distribution to its subscribers. The Star, when it moved to its present location, purchased the property fronting on the avenue, and also the adjoining building fronting on Eleventh Street. These two buildings, however, were not sufficient to meet the growing demands of the paper; so, in 1890, the company erected an additional four-story building on Eleventh Street, having a front of fifty-five feet and a depth of one hundred feet, making the entire frontage of the Star buildings

on Eleventh Street one hundred and eighty feet. Recently, the company purchased the building on Pennsylvania Avenue, adjoining the corner, and now occupies a portion of that also. One great characteristic of the paper is its devotion to local interests, and the care and fullness with which it covers Washington news; but its .enterprise does not stop here, for it gives every evening, with a completeness and fullness never exceeded by any evening paper, the news of the day from all the world. Special wires bring into the office the latest intelligence from all over the globe up to the moment of going to press; private telephone wires, with improved long-distance telephones, connect the office with the Capitol and the District Government buildings, and other long-distance telephones give read)' communication not only with every point in the District, but with distant cities as well. The Evening Star, though so preeminently a local paper, has a reputation as the representative paper of the Capital, and its writers furnish much of the reading in the way of Washington news that the people of the country get, for the Washington correspondence of newspapers in different parts of the country is largely borrowed from the columns of the Star, that which appears in the Star in the evening being telegraphed away, and appearing the next morning in the dailies throughout the country. The circulation of the Evening Star averaged, for 1891, thirty-three thousand, seven hundred and seventy-five copies daily.

Shortly before nine o'clock, April 13, 1892, a fire broke out in the Star building, which caused a loss of $22,000, in the aggregate, $14,000 of which was covered by insurance. This was on the building and printing materials. The paper was, however, issued as usual on the same day, and on Saturday, April 16, it was printed on the same presses as before the fire, and with the usual-sized page.

The editorial staff of the Evening Star is composed of Crosby S. Noyes,1 editor-in-chief; Theodore W. Noyes, associate editor; Rudolph Kauffmann, managing editor; H. P. Godwin, city editor; Franklin T. Howe and Alexander T. Cowell, news editors; Philander C. Johnson and Cicero W. Harris, editorial writers. Besides, there is u large staff of reporters, special writers, and suburban correspondents. The reportorial staff includes John P. Miller, George H. Harries, W. B. Bryan, Victor Kauffiuaun, Thomas C. Noyes, T. H. Brooks, James Croggon, J. E. Jones, Helena McCarthy, Rene Bache, N. O. Messenger, and R. W. Dutton.

The business management of the paper is in charge of Mr. S. H. Kauffmann, president of the Evening Star Company; Mr. Frank B. Noyes, treasurer and assistant business manager, and Mr. J. Whit Herron, cashier. Mr. Richard A. McLean is foreman of the composing room.

The Washington Post was established December 6, 1877, by Mr. Stilson Hutchins. It was a well-printed four-page paper, and at once attracted attention by the force and originality of its editorial management and its comprehensive news service. Politically, the Post was Democratic. It was not then so well understood as it is now that the interests of neither of the great political parties required representative organs at the scat of government, where politics has no organized foothold.

The Post at once became the leading morning newspaper at the National Capital, and its establishment became an assured success. January 1, 1889, Messrs. Frank Hatton and Hon. Beriah Wilkins became the sole proprietors of the Post. Mr. Hatton had had many years' experience in the newspaper business as editor and manager, and later was Postmaster-General in President Arthur's Cabinet. Mr. Wilkins had been a Democratic member of Congress for several terms from Ohio, before which he had been a successful banker. Under this ownership, the Post became an independent newspaper, and entered upon a broader and more successful career than it had ever before enjoyed.

The Post is an eight-page, eight-column paper, with from sixteen to twenty-four pages on Sunday, and is at this time the only morning newspaper in Washington. It has the exclusive news service of the Associated Press and of the United Press for a morning paper, and together with its special service, its news facilities are unsurpassed. Its circulation throughout the South and West is larger than that ever before attained by any paper at the National Capital.

Der Volks-Tribun was established in 1875, by E. Waldecker and Carl Roeser, as a German Republican weekly. It has been continued by them in the same relations to the present time. Mr. Roeser had previously been connected with some of the largest German papers in the United States.

The Washington Critic was established in 1868, as an independent daily, and in the early part of its career it enjoyed considerable prosperity. It was an evening paper, published every evening in the week except Sunday. In 1881, it was published by Ringwalt, Hack, & Miller. Subsequently, it passed into the hands of Hallett Kilbourn, and still later into those of Richard Weightman and his associates. On May 14, 1891, it passed into the hands of a receiver, and in a few days thereafter its outfit, United Press franchise, type, etc., were purchased by the Evening Star Newspaper Company.

The Capital was started in 1870, and was published by the Capital Publishing Company. The paper was edited for a number of years by Don Piatt, who made for it a national reputation. In 1880, A. C. Buell became the editor, and its publication was continued until 1889, when it was discontinued.

The Government Official was established by John E. Peterson, who, after a time, took into partnership a Mr. Smith, of Hobert, Indiana, and a Mr. White, of Fort Wayne, Indiana. In 1891, they retired, and Mr. Peterson sold one-half interest to Gilbert E. Overton, and later in the same year he sold the other half to Mr. Overton, so that Mr. Overton became sole proprietor. About the same time, the name of the paper was changed to the Public Service, and it is now published by the Public Service Company, which is incorporated with a capital of $50,000. James R. Young, formerly executive clerk of the United States Senate, is the president of the company. There are three vice-presidents, and Mr. Overton is secretary and treasurer. This paper, while admitting that the civil service of the Government has its faults, yet advocates the elimination of these faults in preference to the abolition of the system.

The Home Magazine is a monthly periodical of twenty-four pages, published by the Brodix Publishing Company, at 614 Eleventh Street Northwest. It is now in its fourth year, the April number of 1892 being No. 6 of the fourth volume. It is a magazine for the home, and is filled with fresh material important to the home and social circle. It is edited by Mrs. John A. Logan.

The Sunday Herald was established in 1866, by Captain I. N. Burritt, and when the National Intelligencer was discontinued in January, 1870, Captain Burritt, having acquired title to the property, added to the title of his paper "and National Intelligencer" which title it has retained to the present time. In a more limited field, the Sunday Herald has been a worthy successor of the National Intelligencer. Its aim has always been to be a high-class social and literary paper, devoted to the interests of Washington and her people. In 1889, upon the death of Captain Burritt, the paper passed into the hands of its present proprietors, Messrs. Soule & Hensey, who have extended its field of usefulness, enlarged its size, and improved it in many ways, and it has a large local circulation.

The Republic, a straight-out Republican paper, issued early every Sunday morning, was established in 1875, by John Brisben Walker, now editor and proprietor of the Cosmopolitan, with offices at the northwest corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and Eleventh Street, Northwest. Mr. Walker sold it to the late H. J. Ramsdell in 1876, who, in 1883, sold it to M. V. S. Wilson, of whom its present proprietor, Rufus H. Darby, purchased it in 1884. Up to about six years ago, it was in pamphlet form with a green cover. It was changed to its newspaper form by its present proprietor. Its weekly edition averages about five thousand in circulation. Its present location is at No. 1308 Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest.

The Washington Sentinel was established July 1, 1873, by its present proprietor, Mr. Louis Schade. The Sentinel is devoted to general liberty, personal and religious, and it assigns that reason for leaning toward the Democratic Party. It is not, however, strictly a party paper, as it reserves the right to oppose the Democratic Party. When that party is not pursuing the right, the Sentinel opposes it, as was the case in 1878, when Hon. Thomas Ewing was candidate for Governor of Ohio, and again in 1891, when Hon. James E. Campbell was the Democratic candidate.

The National Tribune was established in 1877, by Captain George Lemon, the present owner, in an office at 1405 G Street Northwest. Here it remained until more room was needed for its growing business, when it removed to its present location in the Lemon building, at 1729 New York Avenue Northwest, an elegant five-story brick structure. The Tribune has developed into a great national paper, its average circulation during 1891 being one hundred and fifty-six thousand. Its subscribers live in every State and Territory of the Union. Its specialty is the interests of the old soldiers of the Union Army, and the history of the War of the Rebellion. John McElroy is editor, and Charles Flint business manager, of the Tribune.

The National Tribune Company purchased, in February, 1892, the American Farmer, which was established in April, 1819, and which claims to be the oldest agricultural paper in the United States.

The National View was established in May, 1878, as an independent Greenback-Labor journal of education, by Mr. Lee Crandall, editor and proprietor, both of which relations he still sustains to the paper. It continued in the same line of thought until the Silver Convention assembled in St. Louis in 1889, at which time it began the advocacy of the free and unlimited coinage of silver. While it is not an organ, it represents to the best of its ability the interests of the People's Party, which was called into existence at Cincinnati in 1891, of the national committee of which Mr. Crandall is a member.

He is secretary of the National Silver Committee and of the National Executive Silver Committee. The offices of the View are at No. 1202 Pennsylvania Avenue.

The American Anthropologist is the principal journal in the United States devoted to the science of anthropology. The initial number was issued by the Anthropological Society in January, 1888. It is an octavo quarterly, of ninety-six pages, and is published on the first of January, April, July, and October, the subscription price to non-members being $3 per annum. Its pages contain many contributions from various parts of the country by writers not connected with the society.

Owing to the rapid growth of the society, and the accumulation of numerous valuable papers presented at its meetings, the publication of the Anthropologist became a necessity, that there might be some means of disseminating their contents. The first editor of the periodical was Mr. Thomas Hampton, whose death was announced April 25, 1888. His successor, Mr. Henry W. Henshaw, the curator of the society, has performed the duties of editor-in-chief from that date to the present time.

The Vedette is a monthly journal devoted especially to the interests of the surviving veterans of the Mexican War. Alexander M. Kenaday is the editor and proprietor. It was established in 1878, for the purpose of advocating the claims of those veterans to be placed upon the pension rolls upon the same footing as those of the War of 1812, and through its advocacy of their cause, in part at least, the movement was at length a success, Congress on the 29th of January, 1887, passing an act placing about twenty-eight thousand survivors and widows on the rolls at $8 per month. In 1889, the publication of the paper was temporarily discontinued. But in 1890, Congress having passed a Pension bill allowing dependent soldiers of the Union Army in the War of the Rebellion from $6 to $12 per month, Mr. Kenaday decided to reissue the Vedette for the purpose of advocating an equalization of pensions, so that his comrades of the Mexican War should have pensions of at least $12 per month during their natural lives. The headquarters of the National Association of Veterans of the Mexican War is at No. 507 F Street, from which office the Vedette is published. The local association of survivors numbers about three hundred members, survivors and widows.

Kate Field's Washington was established January 1, 1890, by Miss Kate Field as editor and proprietor. Caroline Graysingle is managing editor, and Ella S. Leonard publisher. This paper is a national independent review, devoted principally to literature, society news, poetry, and stories.

The Congressional Record is a Government publication, devoted to the measures introduced into Congress, together with the speeches thereon, and to the proceedings of Congress generally. It was established to take the place of the Globe, after the Globe ceased to be published.

Public Opinion was established in 1887, by F. S. Presbrey, at No. 306 Ninth Street. This periodical is unique in its field of work, being devoted to the collection and publication of the opinions of the press and of leading thinkers on all leading and current questions. It is similar in its plan to Littell’s Living Age, but it is much wider in its scope. It has recently moved into elegant quarters in the Washington Loan and Trust Company's building.

There are numerous other newspapers published in Washington, devoted severally to a great variety of purposes, among them the following: The Sun, established in 1877, and still published by W. D. Hughes; the Washington Law Reporter, established in 1874, by Hugh T. Taggart, since then published by different parties, and at the present time by the Law Reporter Company; the Western Land Owner, established in 1874, now named Copp's Land Owner, published by Henry M. Copp; American Annals of the Leaf, by Edward A. Fay, Ph. D., and published at the National Deaf Mute College, Kendall Green; and several others.

In this chapter on the "Press," it may not be out of place to present a brief history of the first successful electric telegraph established in this country, though, perhaps, not the first electric telegraph in the history of the world. On this point, too, it may be well to state that, according to the decision of Levi Woodbury when a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, messages were sent by means of electricity so long ago as in 1827 or 1828, the inventor of this telegraph being Harrison Gray Dyar. He was proved by a Mr. Cornwell to have constructed a telegraph on Long Island, at the race course, with wires on poles, using glass insulation. Dr. Bell fortified this statement, having seen some of the wires, and understood its operation to be by a spark sent from one end of the wire to the other, which made a mark on paper prepared by some chemical salts.

In 1831, Professor Joseph Henry, of Princeton College, described a method of forming magnets of intensity and quantity produced from correspondent batteries, by the use of which, with relay magnets prepared by him, magnetic effects could be produced at a distance of from one thousand to two thousand miles.

Professor S. F. Morse, in 1835, produced a rude working model of a telegraphic instrument, thus anticipating Steinheil in the matter of a recording telegraph. In October, 1837, Professor Morse entered his first caveat for an American electro-magnetic telegraph, claiming that his first thought upon the subject of a magnetic telegraph was on his passage across the Atlantic in 1832.

On September 7, 1837, "A New American Invention" was referred to in the public prints, and at the same time a certain writer claimed that this invention by Professor Morse was only a repetition of a French invention. To this Professor Morse replied, that if it were true that his method of communicating intelligence by means of the electro-magnetism had been previously invented, and if he could be assured of that fact, he would be the last to attempt to detract from the honor of the real inventor, or of his country.

Professor Morse's claims to the invention of the electro-magnetic recording telegraph were, of course, recognized and sustained, and after several years' delay, Congress on February 23, 1843, passed an act making an appropriation for the construction of a telegraph line from Washington to Baltimore. This line was completed on May 24, 1844, and on the next day, Saturday, the batteries were charged and the telegraph put in operation, conveying intelligence between the Capitol and the Pratt Street Depot in Baltimore. The first message, according to many writers, was sent from the Capitol to Baltimore by a young lady named Miss Annie Ellsworth, to whom Professor Morse was at the time ardently devoted, a granddaughter of the famous Governor Ellsworth, of Massachusetts, and whose father at the time was Commissioner of Patents. This first message was in these words: "What hath God wrought?" At 11:30 A. M., the question was asked from Baltimore: "What is the news in Washington?" and almost instantaneously the answer was flashed back: "Van Buren stock is rising." Sixteen persons witnessed the experiment in the Capitol. This was May 25. On the 27th, the working of this wonderful instrument won universal admiration from all who were fortunate enough to be spectators. Messages passed between Baltimore and Washington at intervals during each hour throughout the day. At 1:40 P. M., information was received in the Capitol building of the nomination of James Carroll for Governor of Maryland; a few moments later came the news of the nomination by acclamation, by the Tyler Convention, of John Tyler for President of the United States, and also of a speech of more than two hours in length by Benjamin F. Butler, in favor of the majority rule in the convention. On Wednesday, the 29th, the telegraphic news from Baltimore caused great excitement at the north end of the Capitol building, in that it announced on that day the nomination of James K. Polk, "a subaltern," for the Presidency, by the Democratic Convention. This announcement was of so surprising a nature, and the telegraph was of so recent introduction, that neither the announcement nor the telegraph was believed; and in order to ascertain the truth, two special messengers were dispatched by railroad to Baltimore, but of course the result of their mission was only to confirm the telegraphic announcement.

Among the many reasons given by different persons for the continuance of the seat of government at the city of Washington, was that of the invention of the Morse telegraph. In locating the seat of government, one of the requisites was centrality, and Mr. Madison remarked that "if there could be any means of instantaneously promulgating the laws throughout the country, the center would be of less consequence." This means was supplied by the electric telegraph, and hence it was inferred by some that the seat of government would never be removed.

On Monday, April 5, 1847, connection was made between Baltimore and Alexandria by means of the telegraph passing through Washington.

In the summer of 1846, the first attempt was made to determine longitude by means of the telegraph. A line of wire was extended from the General Post Office in Washington to the Naval Observatory, and another was carried from the High School observatory in Philadelphia to the main Baltimore line. Still another wire was carried from the Jersey City telegraph office to the Presbyterian church. The observations at Washington were made under the direction of Mr. Sears C. Walker; those at Philadelphia, under Professor Kendall, and those at Jersey City, under Professor Loomis. Each observer had at his command a good clock and a transit instrument for regulating it with precision. The signal used in determining the difference of longitude of these three places was the click of a magnet. Signals were exchanged between Washington and Philadelphia, October 10, 1846, but none were obtained for Jersey City. On August 3, 1847, the experiments were resumed upon the following plan: Commencing at Jersey City at 10:00 p. M., the operator strikes a key, and simultaneously a click is heard at each of the three places. The observer at each place recorded the time of the click, each by his own clock. Ten seconds afterward, the same sign is repeated, and so on for twenty signals. The series of signals was then repeated for Washington and Philadelphia, and from these sixty signals, averaged up, the difference of time was obtained with almost perfect accuracy. The difference of time thus obtained between Jersey City and Philadelphia was four minutes and thirty seconds.

On February 9, 1848, a paragraph in the London correspondence of some American paper noticed the fact that the electric telegraph had begun its work in England, the price charged for sending one hundred words from London to Liverpool, a distance of two hundred and twenty miles, being £5, while at the same time, in this country, the rate charged for sending a telegram of one hundred words from Washington to New York, a distance of two hundred and twenty-five miles, was only $5.

The Associated Press and the United Press both have offices in Washington, as well as all of the leading newspapers in the country, many of which have private telegraph wires.

1 - Crosby S. Noyes was born in Maine in 1825. He is a journalist, thoroughly trained in every branch of his profession. In his youth, while employed in a cotton mill, in Maine, he wrote a dialect sketch, relating with rich humor the unhappy experiences of "A Yankee in a Cotton Factory," which was printed in the Yankee Battle, of Boston, and widely copied. Other sketches in a similar vein were equally successful, and his youthful productions made their way into such books as "The Harp of a Thousand Strings," which collected the best work of the recognized humorists of the day. Ill health drove him from Maine to a milder climate. He entered Washington on foot in 1847, and became a Washington correspondent of some Lewistown, Boston, and Philadelphia papers. His letters were keen, witty, and picturesque. Some of them gave admirable descriptions of exciting scenes in Congress, and of the peculiarities of the great men that figured in them. 1n 1855, he enlarged his information and broadened his views by a foot-tramp in Europe, after the Bayard Taylor fashion, and described his experiences in an interesting series of letters to the Portland Transcript. At the close of the same year, he became a reporter on the Evening Star, his connection with which paper still continues. After a successful career as an enterprising news-gatherer, he was made assistant editor, and in 1867 he became editor-in-chief and part proprietor of the Star, from which time his public history and that of the Star have been the same. As assistant editor and editor, he gave t« it the precise character which fitted the situation and tended to make it the paper of the people. At the start, when it had a place to win for itself, it was made audacious and aggressive, but since his paper gained its present circulation and influence, he has been more conservative, as befitted the paper's larger responsibilities. Through his paper, Mr. Noyes has been a potent factor in the development of the modern Washington. With Alexander R. Shepherd, he chafed at the spectacle of the Capital held up to the world's contempt because of local old-fogyism and national neglect, and in the columns of his paper fought steadily and effectively to assist Shepherd to put into practical operation in the National Capital those noble projects about which they had dreamed and planned while fellow-members in the local Common Councils in 1863. Afterward, he was among the foremost in the movement which led to the assumption by the National Government of one-half of the debt and expenses of the District of Columbia, and the reclamation of the Potomac Flats. And in every great work for Washington, from that time down to and including the establishment of Rock Creek Park, he has played an influential and important, though unostentatious, part. Commencing in 1863, he served one term as a member of the city Council, and then two successive terms as alderman, from the old Seventh Ward, now South Washington, since which time he has steadily declined public service. In his later years, he has traveled much, and has contributed to his paper many articles containing vivid pictures of scenes and events in foreign lands. Under a mild, quiet, unassuming exterior he conceals a strong will, a steady, unflinching purpose, and the capacity for a vast amount of brain work of the highest order. There could be no higher tribute to his journalistic abilities than the fact that in Washington, noted, as it is, as the graveyard of newspaper enterprises, he has made a conspicuously successful newspaper, one which everybody reads, from the President of the United States down to the casual visitor to the city of Washington.

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