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Centennial History of the  City of Washington D.C.
by Harvey W. Crew, William B. Webb, and John Wooldridge; 1892, United Brethern Publishing House, Dayton, Ohio.



Transcribed by Marla Zwakman

CHAPTER VIII.

MILITARY HISTORY:

The Causes of the War of 1812-15 —The Embargoes— Tammany Society of Washington to President Jefferson — War in Prospect— President Madison Convenes Congress — Congress Declares War —Recruiting in Washington — Reorganization of the Militia of the District —Military Organizations — British Ships in the Potomac — Excitement in Washington — General Winder Arrives in Washington — The Battle of St. Leonard's — The Battle of Bladensburg—President Madison's Proclamation — Peace through the Treaty of Ghent — The War with Mexico — Annexation of Texas by Treaty or Joint Resolution — Organization of Troops for the War — Peace with Mexico — The War of the Rebellion — Brief Statement of its Causes — The Insurrection at Harper's Ferry — Ratification Meetings — Attack on the Republican Headquarters — Meeting of Southern Senators to Further the Secession of Their States — The Peace Convention — Mr. Lincoln's Arrival in Washington — His Inauguration — Military Companies — Proclamation Calling for Seventy-five Thousand Men — First Troops to Arrive in Washington — Military Department Created — Militia Officers Commissioned —Battalions Organized — Crossing the Potomac — Colonel Ellsworth Killed — Fortifications Around the City — First War Dispatch from a Balloon — Battle of Bull Run —The Army Bakery — Troops in Defense of Washington — War Meeting in the Capitol — Second Battle of Bull Run—Battle of Antietam — Hospitals in Washington — Proclamation of Emancipation — Drafts in the District — Ladies' Relief Association — General Early Attacks Washington — Surrender of Richmond — Lee's Surrender — Assassination of President Lincoln — Confiscation of Property — The Grand Review — Abolition of Slavery in the District of Columbia.

 

THE War of 1812-15 had its remote origin in the fact that Great Britain claimed and exercised the right to impress seamen from American vessels into her own service, upon the principle that a subject of Great Britain could not expatriate himself. For several years before the commencement of actual hostilities, in fact as far back as the close of the Revolutionary War, the newspapers of the United States contained frequent advertisements in the form of lists of American citizens serving on board of American vessels, arbitrarily seized while engaged in the performance of their duty, and thus impressed into the service of that nation, together with appeals to their friends for proof that they were citizens of the United States, and for the adoption of measures that would lead to the recovery of their liberty. Then, too, deserters from the British navy sometimes enlisted in the service of the United States, to whom, when discovered, but little mercy was shown.

In the spring of 1807, three of the seamen of the British ship Melampus deserted her and enlisted as a portion of the crew of the American frigate Chesapeake, then being fitted out at the Navy Yard at Washington to join the Mediterranean squadron. Mr. Erskine, who was then British minister at Washington, made a formal demand upon the President of the United States for their surrender. The Government of the United States instituted an investigation into the case of these deserters, by means of which it was well established that all three of the men were American subjects previously to their enlistment on board the Melampus. Their names were William Ware, John Strachan, and Daniel Martin. Martin was a colored man and a citizen of Massachusetts; the other two being white men and citizens of Maryland. These facts being sufficiently authenticated, the Government of course refused to surrender them, and Mr. Erskine said no more upon the subject.

The failure to secure the surrender of these three men led Vice-Admiral Berkeley to an assumption of authority which caused a great deal of trouble between the two nations. Vice-Admiral Berkeley was on the Halifax Station, and a fleet under his command was at the time lying off Lynnhaven Bay, watching a French fleet that was on the coast, as well as American commercial movements. About the beginning of June, 1807, the Chesapeake sailed from Washington to Norfolk, where she reported as ready for sea to Commodore James Barron, the flag officer of the Mediterranean squadron, June 22. She sailed from Hampton Roads under the immediate command of Captain Gordon, armed with twenty-eight eighteen pounders on her gun deck and twelve carronades on her upper deck. Her crew numbered three hundred and seventy-five men. The British squadron in Lynnhaven Bay were watching her, as well as the French frigates, the Leonard, of the British squadron, being particularly on the lookout for the Chesapeake. The Leonard, mounting fifty-six guns, preceded the Chesapeake to sea several miles, until about three o'clock in the afternoon, when she bore down upon the Chesapeake and hailed her, informing Commodore Barron that she had a dispatch for him. The lieutenant of the British boat which came alongside, who was politely received by the Commodore in the cabin of the Chesapeake, informed the Commodore that he was in search of deserters, and, giving their names, demanded their release, in accordance with instructions issued June 1, 1807, by Vice-Admiral Berkeley, to all the captains in the British squadron. Commodore Barron replied that he knew of no deserters on board of his ship, and that his crew could not be mustered except by their own officers. In the meantime, the officers of the Chesapeake, suspicious of intended mischief, prepared the ship as well as they could for action, and upon the retirement of the British lieutenant, Commodore Barron, himself fearing hostile action in consequence of his refusal to surrender the deserters, called his men to quarters. Soon afterward a shot was sent from the Leonard across the bow of the Chesapeake, and in a few moments another, and then a whole broadside was fired into the American ship. In several broadsides that followed, three of Commodore Barron's men were killed and eighteen wounded. The Chesapeake, being really in a helpless condition, could offer no resistance, and was compelled to surrender. The three deserters above mentioned, and one other named John Wilson, were found on board the Chesapeake, taken on board the Leonard, and thence to Halifax, where Wilson, who was a British subject, was tried and hanged. The other three were reprieved on condition of reentering the British service. One of the three Americans died in captivity, and the other two, in June, 1812, were restored to the ship from which they had been taken.

This act of Vice-Admiral Berkeley, when brought to the attention of the British Government, was disavowed by Earl Canning, and Berkeley was recalled from his command. The commander of the Leonard was discharged from his command, and never again employed by his Government. On the other hand, Commodore Barron was greatly blamed by the American people for his misfortune. The national pride was deeply wounded, and it was necessary that it should be appeased. He was accused of neglect of duty, was tried on this charge by a court martial, found guilty, and suspended for five years without pay. Captain Gordon was also tried on the same charge, as well as Captain Hall, but both were only privately reprimanded, while the gunner was cashiered for not having sufficient priming powder prepared. It is altogether likely, however, that the blame rested with the Government more than with the officers of the Chesapeake, though it is not deemed proper to pursue the investigation of this point in this volume.

The President, on July 2, issued a proclamation, in which he complained bitterly of the habitual insolence of the British cruisers, expressed his belief that the outrage on the Chesapeake was unauthorized, and ordered all British armed vessels to leave the waters of the United States immediately. The schooner Revenge was sent to England with instructions to the American ministers, Monroe and Pinckney, who demanded reparation for insults and injuries in the case of the Chesapeake, and insisted by way of security for the future, that the right of visitation of American vessels in search of British subjects should be totally relinquished. The British Government refused to treat on any subject except that of reparation. A disavowal of the act had already been made, and every disposition shown to be just and friendly. But no satisfactory understanding could be arrived at.

President Jefferson, in his message to Congress, December 18, 1807, on account of the attempted destruction by France under Napoleon, and by the British Government, of the commerce of the United States, by the operation of the Berlin decree of the former and the orders of the Council of the latter, suggested by way of retaliation the passage of an embargo act. And what is most remarkable, the Senate on the same day, after four hours' debate, passed such an act by a large majority. Three days later the House passed the same act, and on the 22d the President approved it. The object of this act was to preserve and develop the resources of the United States and to compel France and England to relinquish their hostility to the commerce of a neutral nation. But in both directions it was a failure, except that to a slight extent it tended to develop American manufactures. But how to develop commerce through its destruction is a problem that has not yet been solved. It turned out to be of assistance to France in her efforts to destroy the commerce of England, and the pride of England would not permit her to modify her action with reference thereto, she thinking she could endure the inconveniences of the American embargo as long as could the United States. In this position England was correct. The United States could not prosper without intercourse with the outside world, and the evils inflicted on her commerce by her own embargo were far greater than those inflicted on that of England or France. After considerable unfortunate experience, the policy of decree, orders, and embargo were alike abandoned.

On the occasion of the taking of the Chesapeake, the Tammany Society of Washington City sent an address to the "Grand Sachem of the Seventeen United Tribes of America," Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States, expressing regret that they had reason to believe that the calumet of peace was to be exchanged for the tomahawk of war, the Nation having been insulted and menaced by a foreign tribe. They beheld with horror the perfidious attack made upon our national canoe, the Chesapeake, on our own shore by the mercenary warriors of another tribe, beyond the wide waters, professing toward us amity and friendship.

About the time of these occurrences news came to Washington from all along the northern frontier that the English were exciting the Indians against the Americans, and making treaties with them to the end that they would certainly be on the side of the British in case of war. Even as far toward the north and west as Chicago it was firmly believed that war with Great Britain was inevitable. Then, too, to add to the gloom of the prospect, the embargo was bitterly denounced in many sections; though of course it was sustained by the friends of Mr. Jefferson and many others, who, though not especially his friends, yet were friends of their country without reference to his administration. The probable effect of the embargo was not understood by all, and many had so much confidence in Mr. Jefferson's wisdom that through this confidence they sustained the embargo, instead of through knowledge of its nature. "In 1794 an embargo did not produce a war, and we hope in 1807 it will avert one. If in this we should be disappointed it will at least yield the means of waging it with good effect."

In April, 1808, the names of seventy seamen claiming to be citizens of the United States were published by the War Department, with the request that their friends would supply the department with the proof necessary to establish their citizenship, and the promise was made that then measures would be taken to secure their liberty.

Thus matters continued until after Mr. Madison was elected President, and all through his first term, — the English persisting in their aggressions and the United States Government striving to avoid a war. At length, on July 24, 1811, President Madison, desirous of serving a second term, and hearing the ground trembling with dissatisfaction at his peaceful policy, convened Congress in extra session, to meet November 4, that year. This Congress, in January, 1812, passed a measure providing for the addition of 25,000 men to the military forces, which was the first war measure adopted. On February 21, 1812, appropriations were made for sustaining this additional forte, and on the 24th nearly six hundred nominations of officers were sent into the Senate by the President, which nominations were confirmed March 12. During this month recruiting for the addition to the military was commenced, and by the 15th the mails were burdened with notifications of appointment to officers in all parts of the country.

April 4, 1812, another embargo was laid upon all ships and vessels in the ports of the United States, for ninety days from the passage of the act, with certain exceptions. April 13, a meeting was held at which was organized a company to manufacture solid shot, the factory established being named "Bruff's Pressed Shot Factory." By May 1, Thomas Ewell & Company had their gunpowder mills in operation, the capacity of which was two thousand pounds per day, both of these establishments being in the immediate vicinity of Washington.

War was declared by Congress, June 18, 1812. The enlistment of troops proceeded somewhat slowly until the surrender of Detroit by General Hull, August 16, 1812. This surrender filled the country with indignation, it being felt as an inglorious stain upon the country's honor. Then volunteers in great numbers flocked to arms, impelled by the noblest sentiments of patriotism. This sentiment now was well-nigh universal; for while previously there had been a difference of opinion as to the necessity or policy of war, yet, when actual hostilities commenced, and a stigma had been cast upon the American name, it became almost universally the opinion that no course but that of war was admissible. In Washington, the "Union Light Infantry Company" was organized, and commanded by Captain Davidson, and the "Washington Troop of Horse," by Captain Elias B. Caldwell. By September 29, a full company of one hundred and sixty men was ready for the field in Alexandria, having been organized on the 26th by the election of James McGuire captain, Robert Smith lieutenant, and Charles L. Nevitt ensign. Their services were tendered to and accepted by the President. The "First Legion of the District of Columbia" was officered as follows: William Smith, lieutenant colonel, commanding; George Peter, adjutant; William Whaun, quartermaster; Clement Smith, paymaster; Dr. Frederick May, surgeon, John Ott, surgeon's mate; E. Cummings, quartermaster's sergeant; John Simpson, fife major.

February 16, 1813, Adjutant George C. Washington, by order of Brigadier-General John P. Van Ness, required the commanding officers of the cavalry of the District to be ready "to march at the sound of the trumpet, and on March 30 Brigadier-General Van Ness issued orders to the cavalry to hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment's notice. John Tayloe was lieutenant-colonel of cavalry. In connection with these orders was published a list of the officers of the several companies, together with the dates of their several commissions, as follows:

Columbian Dragoons — Captain, William Thornton, June 6, 1811; John Law, first lieutenant, June 6, 1811.

Georgetown Hussars — Captain, John Peter, June 6, 1811; first lieutenant, J. S. Williams, June 15, 1811; second lieutenant, William S. Ridgely, May 30, 1812.

Washington Light Horse—Captain, Elias B. Caldwell, May 30, 1812; first lieutenant, R. C. Weightman, May 30, 1812; second lieutenant, N. L. Queen, May 30, 1812.

Alexandria Dragoons — Captain, J. H. Mandeville, June 6, 1811; first lieutenant, William H. Maynadier, June 6, 1811; second lieutenant, John Dulany, May 8, 1811.

The regimental start" was as follows: Adjutant, George C. Washington; quartermaster, William Crawford; paymaster, Daniel Brent; surgeon, Dr. G. Clark; sergeant-major, Nicholas Worthington. Benjamin H. Latrobe was civil and military engineer at the Navy Yard.

May 8, 1813, there was a mass meeting of the citizens of Washington held to consider the propriety of adopting such measures as might further promote the defense of the city. Mayor Daniel Rapine was called to the chair, and Joseph Gales, Jr., made secretary. After some discussion it was determined to appoint a vigilance committee, whose duty it should be to consult with the citizens of the District and to communicate with the General Government on behalf of the city upon the subject of the probable security or danger of the city. The committee as appointed consisted of the Mayor and eight other citizens as follows: Thomas Munroe, John Davidson, Walter Jones, Jr., Peter Lenox, Buckner Thruston, Daniel Carroll of Duddington, Alexander McWilliams, and John Davis of Abel.

About this time the militia of the District was reorganized, with the following officers:

Major-general, John P. Van Ness; brigadier-generals, Robert Young and Walter Smith; adjutant-general, John Cox; assistant adjutant-general, George Peter; brigade-majors, Philip Triplett and John S. Williams; colonels, George Magruder, William Brent, and William Allen Dangerfield; lieutenant-colonels, James Thompson, Michael Nourse, and Adam Lynn; majors, Lawrence Hoof, Adam King, and Joel Brown.

Captains of infantry, Charles L. Nevitt, David Whann, Josiah M. Speake, Richard Johns, James Cassin, John Hollingshead, Elisha W. Williams, Craven T. Peyton, George Fitzgerald, and Alexander Hunter; captain of riflemen, Horace Field.

Captain of artillery, Benjamin Burch with numerous lieutenants and ensigns, as follows: Lieutenants of infantry, Edward Edmonston, Abraham Wingart, John Fowler, Henry Beatty, Charles Warren, William Morton, Thomas L. McKenny, Bernard H. Tomlinson, Ambrose White, Thomas W. Peyton, Levin Moreland, Leonard Adams, Gustavus Harrison, Robert Smith, and Alexander L. Jonchcrez.

Lieutenant of riflemen, David Mankins; first lieutenant of artillery, Alexander McCormick; second lieutenant of artillery, Shadrack Davis; lieutenant of grenadiers, John Goddard; ensign of grenadiers, George Ripple; ensign of riflemen, Francis Hucern; ensigns of infantry, Gustavus Alexander, Marsham Jameson, John Mitchell, James B. Holmead, William Williams, Francis Lowndes, Robert B. Kirby, and John Gilily.

May 11, 1813, Assistant Adjutant-General C. K. Gardner issued orders to Major-General John P. Van Ness that he should furnish from his division of militia the following detachment, to rendezvous at Washington on the 20th of the same month, under the law of February 28, 1795, and to report to Colonel Carberry, of the Thirty-sixth Regiment of United States Infantry:

Of infantry, 1 major, 4 captains, 4 lieutenants, 4 ensigns, and 400 rank and file; of artillery, 1 captain, 1 first lieutenant, 1 second lieutenant, 1 adjutant, 1 quartermaster, 1 surgeon's mate, and 100 rank and file.

The militia of the District had already, on the day before, been organized as follows, by Major-General Van Ness:

"The President of the United States having been pleased, under the authority vested in him by law, to adopt a new organization for the militia of the District of Columbia, better adapted to its present circumstances and more agreeable to the present army arrangements, whereby the militia of the District is formed into a division consisting of two brigades, each brigade to consist of two regiments," etc.

"In reminding the officers of the division of the late arrangements the Major-General thinks proper, in conformity therewith, to order that Colonels Magruder and Brent, and the regiments under their respective commands, compose the First Brigade, under the immediate command of Brigadier-General Smith; and that Colonel Dangerfield and Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Tayloe, with the regiments under their respective commands, compose the Second Brigade, under the immediate command of Brigadier-General Young.

"Majors Robert Y. Brent and William S. Radeliff are selected as Major-General's aids-de-camp."

Brigade orders were issued, May 13, by Brigadier-General Walter Smith, to the effect that th'e militia of the District of Columbia, with the exception of the cavalry, should be formed into two distinct regiments, and constitute the First Columbian Brigade; the First Regiment to be commanded by Colonel George Magruder, assisted by Lieutenant-Colonel Thompson, and to consist of the following companies: Captains Ross's and Briscoe's infantry, and the infantry previously commanded by Captains Nourse, Keely, and Brown, who had been promoted; Captains Davidson's and Ruth's light infantry, Captain Stull's riflemen, and Captain Edmonston's grenadiers. The Second Regiment was to be commanded by Colonel William Brent, and to consist of Captains Morse's, McKee's, Parry's, 13. King's, Bestor's, Blake's, Varmint's, and Hughes's infantry, Burch's artillery, and Cassin's, Lenox's, and Young's light infantry.

The "senior volunteers," who had enrolled themselves in the summer of 1812, were requested to meet May 20, in order to be reorganized into a company, and the citizens of the Third Ward who were above the age of forty-five were also requested to meet May 22 for the same purpose. Accompanying these requests, the hope went forth that no one was so old as to have no patriotism in his bosom. According to the National Intelligencer, there was a good deal of a military spirit manifest among the people at that time. There had then recently been formed several companies, as has been narrated in our late paragraphs, and particular mention was made of the artillery company under Captain Burch. Four hundred of the militia of the District, drafted in accordance with a requisition of the War Department, and under the command of Major King, had been placed in the command of Colonel Carberry, of the regular army, and were then encamped on the hill above Way's Glass Works, between Georgetown and the Potomac River. The Government was roused to the necessity of guarding against any possible danger, and it was believed that the steps taken were sufficient to defend the city against any invading force the enemy could bring against it.

On May 20, the corporation of the city of Washington made an appropriation of $5,000 to aid in the execution of such measures as the President might adopt for the safety and defense of the city. This sum of money was expended under the direction of Mayor Rapine, and John Davidson, Peter Lenox, Elias B. Caldwell, and Joseph Cassin.

May 29, 1813, a dinner was given at Davis's hotel in honor of the recent naval victories of the United States, which dinner was attended by a large number of citizens, without regard to party affiliations, from Washington, Georgetown, and Alexandria. Of this occasion it was said that it was the most numerous and respectable, and at the same time the most brilliant, assemblage of citizens that had ever been convened in the District. Among those present were the Vice-President of the United States, George Clinton; the Speaker of the Douse of Representatives, Henry Clay; and many members of Congress. General Robert Bowie, Governor of Maryland, acted as president of the day. Among the toasts drank were the following:

"The American People. Self-collected in prosperity, undaunted in adversity."

"The Genuine Republican. He that is ever ready to defend his country against her enemies."

"The Mission to Russia. As it is pledged to pacific intentions, so may it prove the precursor of an honorable peace."

"The Flag of Decatur. To the lightning of heaven it bows, to British thunder, never."

On Thursday, July 15, 1813, great excitement was produced in Washington by the report that the enemy's ships were approaching the city, his force in the Potomac consisting of fourteen sail. One-half of the regulars, drafted militia, and volunteers encamped at Warburton Heights, Thursday night, and the remainder within a few miles of them. The fort itself was in good order and well garrisoned, and the frigate Adams lay within a short distance. The Secretary of the Navy went down to Warburton on the same day that the report gained circulation, and arranged for the erection of a battery on the water's edge, which mounted nine heavy cannon. The Mayor of the city issued an order on the 15th requesting every man, whether or not subject to military duty, to enroll himself in some volunteer company for the defense of the city in case of an attack by the enemy. A meeting of the citizens was held in the afternoon of the same day in Capitol Square, at which it was resolved that the citizens who had not enrolled themselves should do so, and that a city commandant be appointed by a majority of the company officers, and that the Mayor be that officer. Regular patrols were organized among the citizens, which patrolled the city at night.

A strong detachment of United States artillery occupied Fort Warburton in Washington, and the ridge upon which the fort stood was held by a battalion of the Tenth and a company of the Twentieth United States Infantry, a battalion of drafted men, and a detachment from Captain Burch's men, all under the command of Colonel Nicholl, of the First Regiment of United States Artillery. On the road leading from Piscataway to Port Tobacco were the dragoons, supported by Captain Davidson's infantry, Captain Stull's riflemen, the Georgetown Grenadiers, and several companies of infantry. Near where the Warburton and Washington City roads meet, was the Thirty-sixth Regiment, under Colonel Carberry, with the remainder of Colonel Burch's artillery. This arrangement, besides guarding against the enemy's approach, admitted of a ready concentration of the American troops. At that time an invasion of the city seemed imminent. The various militia companies were under arms every morning at five o'clock, and through the day they were drilled and exercised, and fitted for the duties of the field. At Greenleafs Point works were commenced upon which to erect a battery of heavy cannon, and furnaces were constructed with which to supply the cannon with red hot bolts. Below the Navy Yard, also, a similar fort was constructed. On Tuesday morning, July 22, 1813, the enemy's ships descended the river, and were then not in sight at Point Yates, about seventy miles away. A troop of cavalry under Captain Osburn, and two companies of infantry under Captains Lastly and Means, all from Loudon County, Virginia, arrived in Alexandria on Monday and Tuesday, July 19 and 20.

The British squadron was under the command of Admiral Warren. He having apparently abandoned his designs against Washington, an order was issued on Sunday, July 25, for the discharge of the volunteers, and they returned to their families and friends on the 26th, the regular troops and drafted militia remaining near Fort Warburton.

Matters were then quiet for several months. General Winder, who had been a prisoner of war in Canada, and who had been released on parole, arrived in Washington April 29, 1814. On July 17, 1814, quite alarming news was again received in Washington, that the enemy was at Patuxent, that he had burned the villages of Benedict and Lower Marlborough, and was in sight of Nottingham. Orders were immediately issued from the War Department to put on the march by 10:00 A. M., Saturday, June 18, detachments from the cavalry, artillery, and riflemen of this county to the number of about two hundred and fifty men. Contradictory advices being received in the afternoon of the same day, the above mentioned orders were countermanded. On Sunday, June 19, news was again received that the enemy was reentering the Patuxent and had arrived opposite Benedict. Assistance was asked by the citizens of Nottingham, and the Secretary of War caused the necessary orders to be distributed by General Van Ness. By 10:00 A. M., the Georgetown Artillery and Riflemen, the Georgetown Dragoons, Captain Thornton's troop, of Alexandria, and Captain Caldwell's, of Washington, were ready to march, and all departed for the Patuxent under command of Major George Peter.

The Intelligencer said: "We learn that the enemy have pursued the same system of barbarous warfare that was commenced last summer under the notorious Cockburn. They have burned many dwellings and plundered many families on the shores of the Patuxent."

A new volunteer corps was organized about this time, known as the "Legion of Mounted Infantry," and composed of the elite of the entire District. The companies above mentioned reached Nottingham on Monday, June 20, and were immediately ordered to Benedict, where Colonel Wadsworth was in command of the troops previously collected. These troops included those under Major Peter, an artillery force with eight eighteen-pound cannon, and a battalion of the Thirty-eighth Regiment of United States Infantry from Baltimore. In connection with the notice of these movements of the soldiers, the Intelligencer said: "It is superfluous to notice the contemptible asseverations of facetious editors who rail at the National Government, without looking into the conduct of those whose willful neglect of duty has brought incalculable mischief upon a large portion of the citizens of Maryland."

On Tuesday, June 21, 1814, a slight battle was fought between the belligerent forces, in which one American named Francis Wise was killed. He was shot by a British soldier, "who most bravely fought until he was killed by repeated wounds, and who proved to be a sergeant of marines of proverbial courage and strength, and before he was disabled wounded another of the troops with his bayonet, and very nearly overpowered General Stewart, of the militia, who engaged him after Wise was killed." The British soldiers were, however, driven on board their ships, and the Americans withdrew out of reach of their guns. Six of the British were taken prisoners and brought to Washington on the 24th, and committed to the custody of the marshal. June 26, firing from the British vessels was kept up in St. Leonard's Creek all day, and fears were entertained for Commodore Barney, the British having been re-enforced; but Barney extricated himself from his useless position in St. Leonard's Creek and went to Benedict on the Patuxent. Commodore Barney brought on this engagement, and in two hours the enemy "got under way and made sail down the river. They are now (10:00 A. M.) warping round Point Patience, and I am sailing up the Patuxent with my vessels. My loss is Acting Midshipman Asquith, killed, and ten others killed or wounded."1

In consequence of the retreat of the enemy down the Patuxent, the volunteers from Washington set out on their return on Wednesday, June 29, the cavalry arriving on the 30th, and the artillery and rifle companies on July 1. Commodore Barney arrived in the city on Thursday, June 30, his flotilla having moved up the river as far as Lower Marlborough.

The battle of St. Leonard's, at the mouth of St. Leonard's Creek,

June 26, 1814, was the occasion of a great deal of controversy among the officers of the American forces. Colonel Wadsworth, in his report to the Secretary of War, reflected rather severely on the conduct of Captain Miller, who commanded a portion of the artillery during the day, and Captain Miller even more severely animadverted upon the conduct of Colonel Wadsworth and his command. After moving from his position on the hill down to the lower ground, in which position he was disappointed, "finding that the barges which were firing round shot were not only out of sight of this position, but completely out of range of any grape or canister that could be thrown from my batteries," he therefore sought still another position, but before he had reached one-half way to the spot he "discovered the infantry retiring in good order along the low ground," and therefore from this unfortunate movement of the infantry, himself "became one of the number moving from the field," which he had held for upward of two hours in constant firing upon the enemy's frigates, employing his best exertions to annoy them, etc. He gave great credit to Commodore Barney's flotilla, and the detachment from the flotilla under Captain Cohagen.

July 14, 1814, the President of the United States made a requisition upon the governors of the several States for militia from those States, to be organized into regiments and held in readiness for immediate action, to the number of ninety-three thousand and Ave hundred men. He apportioned to Pennsylvania fourteen regiments, to Delaware one regiment, to Maryland six regiments, and to Virginia thirteen regiments.

July 17, the enemy had a force of soldiers at Leonardtown, in St. Mary's County, Maryland, about sixty-five miles from Washington. The volunteers from this city and vicinity were then encamped near the wood yard, about fifteen miles from Washington, from which position they could in two hours reach either the Patuxent or the Potomac. A battalion of volunteers, which had been enrolled for the defense of Washington, was discharged July 23, 1814. They were reviewed that day by General Winder, and by him highly complimented on their soldier-like appearance. August 1, 1814, there was a general review of the military of the District by General Winder, of the Army of the United States, and commander of the military department in which the District of Columbia was comprised. The First Brigade, under Brigadier-General Young, was reviewed at Alexandria at 10:00 a. M., and the Second Brigade, which was under the command of Brigadier-General Smith, was reviewed in front of the President's Square, in Washington, at 2:00 r. M.

A volunteer corps of between sixty and seventy dragoons from Frederick and Washington counties, Virginia, passed through Washington, August 12, for the rendezvous at Bladensburg. A detachment of about three hundred men, under Colonel Gettings, from Montgomery County, Maryland, also reached Bladensburg about the same time.

August 9, the entire British fleet in the Potomac lay just below the mouth of the St. Mary's River—one 74-gun ship, the Albion; one razee, three frigates, two ships, two brigs, several sloops of war, one large schooner, and twelve smaller ones. The force in the Patuxent consisted of two ships and one brig, the ships being the Severn and Prince William. By the 19th of August, the British fleet was strengthened so as to consist of forty-six sail at or near Point Lookout, and besides there were five frigates off St. George's Island. On Thursday, August 18, the enemy's forces entered the Patuxent, and indicated an intention of ascending the river. Upon the receipt of this intelligence in the city, General Winder made requisition upon the governors of Maryland and Pennsylvania and upon various militia officers; and the militia of the District of Columbia was ordered out en masse. Colonel Monroe, with Captain Thornton's troop of horse, made a reconnoissance of the position of the enemy on Friday the 19th, and the militia of Washington and Georgetown were mustered on the same day. On the 20th, about 1:00 p. M., these, together with some other forces, commenced marching toward Benedict, and encamped for the night on the road to Upper Marlborough, about four miles from the Eastern Branch bridge. The British arrived at Benedict in force on the same day, with twenty-seven square-rigged vessels and other craft. Colonel Tiglhman and Captain Caldwell were ordered, with their cavalry, to remove and destroy forage and provisions in front of the enemy, and to impede his march as much as possible. Those who reconnoitered the position of the enemy estimated the strength of his forces at from four thousand to six thousand men, and he soon advanced upon Nottingham. Early on Monday, the 22d, a detachment of the Thirty-sixth and Thirty-eighth Regiments, and three companies from the brigade of General Smith, under the command of Major Peter, marched on the road to Nottingham, and the remainder of the army took up an elevated position. Commodore Joshua Barney had joined the army with the flotilla men, besides the marines under Captain Miller. The cavalry which met the British in their march retired before them, and this led the advanced corps to attempt to impede the march of the enemy, who took the road to Upper Marlborough, after coming within a few miles of General Winder's army, which was drawn up in line of battle to receive him. General Winder then fell back with his entire force to the Battalion Old Fields, about eight miles from Marlborough, and about the same distance from Washington. The British army arrived at Upper Marlborough about two o'clock, and remained there until next day, waiting for the return of the detachment sent against the flotilla under Commodore Barney, which was destroyed by the Commodore under orders from the Secretary of War. Late on the 22d, President Madison, together with the Secretaries of War and the Navy, and the Attorney-General, joined General Winder at Battalion Old Fields, and remained with him until the evening of the next day. On the morning of the 23d, the troops were reviewed by the President. At that time it was not known, and it could not be ascertained, what the purpose of the enemy was, whether it was to march upon Annapolis, upon Fort Washington, or upon the city of Washington. His forces were variously estimated, but it was generally believed that he had from five thousand to seven thousand men. General Winder's force was about three thousand, with five pieces of heavy artillery, two eighteen-pounders, and three twelve-pounders, and other smaller pieces, enough to bring the aggregate number of pieces of artillery up to seventeen. General Winder, induced to believe that the enemy intended to remain stationary through the day, ordered the troops under General Stansbury at Bladensburg, and one other corps, to move to Upper Marlborough, himself going to meet them, and leaving orders that the enemy should be annoyed in every possible way, either in his march or in his position; and that if he moved upon Bladensburg, General Smith should fall upon his flank, or be governed by circumstances as to his movements.

However, the enemy left Upper Marlborough and had a skirmish with Captain Stull's company, which was compelled to retreat after firing four or five rounds. The entire army was thereupon placed in a position favorable for defense, but upon General Winder's return, late in the afternoon, he decided to march upon the city of Washington. The object of this retreat was, as stated by General Winder, to unite his entire force, fearing a night attack by a superior enemy upon his undisciplined troops, as in a night attack his superiority in artillery would be of no avail. The march of the army to Washington was extremely rapid and precipitate, and the men were greatly exhausted before the camping ground was reached.

This precipitate march, or rather retreat, was of course after the battle of Bladensburg had been fought. It is difficult to give a correct account of that battle, because it was not very creditable to the American arms, and it was perfectly natural for all concerned in it to desire, after it was over, to prevent the precise facts from coming to light, especially where those facts reflected adversely upon their conduct. But the following account is as nearly accurate as the circumstances will permit. General Stansbury arrived at Bladensburg on the 22d of the month, and the Fifth Baltimore Regiment, together with the rifle corps and artillery, in the evening of the 23d. At twelve o'clock that night Colonel Monroe advised General Stansbury to fall upon the rear of the enemy forthwith, as it was understood that he was in motion for the city of Washington. General Stansbury, having been ordered to post himself at Bladensburg, did not consider himself at liberty to leave the place, and besides the fatigue of the troops under Colonel Sterret rendered it impracticable.

On the morning of the 24th, General Winder's headquarters were near the Eastern Branch bridge, arrangements for the destruction of which had been made. Detachments of horse were out in several directions as videttes and reconnoitering parties. Colonel George Minor arrived in Washington on the 22d, with his regiment of Virginia militia — six hundred infantry and one hundred cavalry, and reported to the President and Secretary of War for orders and United States arms. Next morning, after several delays in counting out the arms, it became rumored around that the enemy was marching upon the city by way of Bladensburg, and Colonel Monroe left the city with the view of joining General Stansbury, to aid him in forming a line of battle to meet the enemy. General Stansbury then occupied the ground west of Bladensburg, on the banks of the Eastern Branch. Here the front line of battle was formed. Over the Eastern Branch there was a bridge, from which a turnpike led to Washington. After the various forces at this point had been stationed, Colonels Beall and Hood, with the Maryland militia from Annapolis under Colonel Beall, crossed the bridge and took up a position on the right of the turnpike and upon the most commanding height, about three hundred yards to the right of the road, for the purpose of securing the right flank. About eleven o'clock in the morning, intelligence was received that the enemy was in full march toward Bladensburg. General Winder thereupon put his entire command in motion, with the exception of a few men and a piece of artillery at the Eastern Branch bridge, to destroy it. Upon the arrival of General Winder at Bladensburg in advance of his troops, he approved of the disposition made by General Stansbury and Colonel Munroe; but even if he had not been able to do this, it would have been impracticable to make any change, as the enemy at that moment, 12:00 M., appeared on the opposite heights of Bladensburg, about a mile distant. General Winder's troops were arranged in line of battle as they arrived. The President, the Secretary of War, and the Attorney-General were all upon the ground. As the enemy advanced into Bladensburg, the second line of General Winder's troops was being formed. Commodore Barney's command came in at this time on the double-quick, and were formed in line on the right of the main road. The heavy artillery was placed in line under Captain Miller. Lieutenant-Colonel Kramer, with a battalion of Maryland militia, was posted in a wood in advance of Colonel Beall and Colonel Hood, and the other troops were properly arranged. About half past twelve, while the second line was yet forming, the enemy approached, and the battle commenced. The Baltimore artillery opened fire upon the enemy's light troops advancing along the streets of the village, dispersing them, and they protected themselves behind houses and trees as well as they could; but other portions of their troops began throwing rockets, and his light troops began to advance, concentrating near the bridge and pressing across it, and also crossing above, where the river was fordable. The enemy's column was thrown into some confusion while approaching the bridge, but having gained it they rapidly crossed, and forming into line moved steadily on, compelling General Winder's artillery and riflemen to give way. Soon afterward the rockets from the enemy's force assumed a more horizontal direction, and passing too near the heads of Colonel Shutz's and Colonel Ragan's regiments, the right gave way, and this, falling back, was followed in a few moments by a general flight of the two regiments, in defiance of all the efforts and exertions of General Winder and General Stansbury and the other officers. Burch's artillery and the Fifth Regiment remained with firmness; but notwithstanding that the enemy's light troops were driven back by the firmness of these two regiments, at length, the enemy having gained the right flank ot the Fifth, which exposed it, Burch's artillery and Colonel Sterret, in command of the Fifth, were ordered by General Winder to retreat, with a view of forming at a short distance to the rear; but instead of retiring in order, the Fifth, like the other two regiments, in a very few minutes was retreating in disorder and confusion. Attempts were then made to rally the troops, which were temporarily successful. They ultimately failed, however, and the troops were badly routed. They retreated on the road, which forked in three directions — one leading by Rock Creek to Tenley Town and Montgomery Courthouse, one leading to Georgetown, and the third to Washington.

After the retreat of the troops under Lieutenant-Colonel Kramer from his first position, the column of the enemy was exposed to a galling fire from Major Peter's artillery, which continued until they came in contact with Commodore Barney, and it was here that the enemy met with the greatest resistance and sustained the greatest loss. An eighteen-pounder was opened upon him by Commodore Barney, and this completely cleared the road for the time being, and several attempts were made to rally, He thereupon made a flank movement to the right, when Captain Miller opened upon him with three twelve-pounders with considerable effect; but they kept on with the flank movement and at length gained the rear of the right of the second line, and a retreat was ordered by Commodore Barney. After some further maneuvering and fighting, the troops, some of whom had remained firm in their positions, were ordered by General Winder to retreat, and after again forming were again ordered to retreat by the commanding general. And when General Smith's command came into the field and were in the act of forming in line, they were also ordered to retreat to Washington, expecting there to be united with the troops of the first line. Colonel Monroe covered the retreat. At the Capitol the troops were again halted while General Winder was in consultation with Colonel Monroe and General Armstrong.

However, the first line, which had been the first to break and retreat from Bladensburg, with the exception of Colonel Laval's, had most of them taken the road which led north of the District ot Columbia, and others had dispersed and gone to their homes. Taking all these things into consideration the commanding general believed it would be impossible to defend the city against the invading forces of the enemy; nor did he think it would be proper to attempt to defend the Capitol building, as that would leave every other part of the city to the mercy of the enemy. On receiving the order to rally on the heights of Georgetown and abandon Washington to its fate, the troops, according to General Smith, evinced an anguish beyond the power of language to express. They were held at Tenley Town, and an attempt to collect them together was only partially successful. Some returned home, some went in pursuit of refreshments, and others gave themselves up to the feelings which fatigue, privation, and chagrin naturally produce. The forces collected were marched about five miles from the Potomac, and early in the morning of the 25th ordered to assemble at Montgomery Courthouse. This position seems to have been taken by General Winder with the view of interposing to protect Baltimore in case that city should prove to be in danger. On the 23d, General Winder had sent orders to the commanding officer at Fort Washington to place patrols in every road leading to the garrison, and in the event of his being taken in the rear to blow up the fort and retire across the river.

From Benedict to Washington via Bladensburg is about fifty miles. The battle of Bladensburg ended at 4:00 p. M., and the British forces reached Washington about eight o'clock in the evening. The British army was under the joint command of General Ross and Admiral Cockburn. As the former was riding toward the Capitol, his horse was shot under him by some one firing from a house in the vicinity, the design being apparently to kill the General. This Bo enraged the troops that, after setting fire to the house containing the sharpshooter, they marched quickly to the Capitol, and fired several volleys into its windows; then marching inside the building, they collected all kinds of combustible materials, piled the books and papers in the Congressional Library on the floors, and set the whole mass on fire. When the clouds of smoke issued from the roofs of the wings of the building, it seemed doomed to destruction, and doubtless more damage would have been done to it than was done, had it not been for the fact that in about half an hour after the fire was kindled a heavy shower set in and continued all the rest of the evening, and was the means of saving the walls, at least. While the fire was raging in the Capitol building, the British soldiers marched up Pennsylvania Avenue to set on fire the other public buildings. They did set on fire the Treasury, State, War, and Navy departments, and the President's House, destroying Mr. Sewall's house on Capitol Hill, a hotel belonging to Mr. Carroll, General Washington's house, and Mr. Frost's house. The public property destroyed was valued as follows: The Capitol building to its foundation was worth $787,163.28; the President's House, $334,334; the other public buildings, $93,613.82; total value, $1,215,111.10.

It may be proper to add to this detail a statement of the forces engaged on either side in the engagement at Bladensburg. The strength of the several corps on the part of General Winder's army was as follows: Dragoons of the United States, 140; Maryland militia, 260; dragoons of the District of Columbia, 40; dragoons of Virginia, 100; total dragoons, 540. The Thirty-sixth Regiment of Infantry, one battalion of the Thirty-eighth, and one company of the Twelfth, 500; seamen and marines, 600; total, 1,100. Militia — Stansbury's brigade, 1,353; part of Strieker's, 956; Smith's brigade and Kramer's battalion, 1,800; Young's brigade, 450; Beall's regiment, 800; Minor's regiment, 600; sundry detachments of volunteers and militia, 450; total militia, 6,409. Total number, 8,049. There were in the battle twenty pieces of artillery of different caliber. The losses amounted to 10 killed and 30 wounded; total, 40.

The British forces numbered as follows: On Capitol Hill, 700; on Turnpike Hill, 2,000; wounded at Bladensburg, 300; attendants, 300; wounded and attendants at Washington, 60; killed at Bladensburg and Washington, 180; total, 3,540. The entire number in the British army was probably about 4,500.

On the evening of the 25th, after being in possession of the Capital of the Nation twenty-four hours, the British made the greatest exertions to leave the city. They had about forty horses, ten or twelve carts and wagons, and several gigs, which they sent to Bladensburg to move off the wounded; and these were preceded by a drove of sixty or seventy cattle. Arriving at Bladensburg, the surgeon was ordered to collect the wounded who could walk, and the forty horses were utilized to carry the wounded who could not walk, the carts and wagons being also used to carry the dead. About ninety of the wounded were left behind. At about midnight the British army passed through Bladensburg; parties continued to follow until morning, and stragglers until midday. The retreat was made in great haste, as if the enemy were conscious of the presence of the American army at Montgomery Courthouse, and were in dread of an attack by General Winder's forces.

The capture of the city of Washington by the British forces severely wounded the pride not only of the people of the District of Columbia, but also of the entire country. That the city should have been permitted to be captured, has ever since been looked upon as a disgrace to the country and a shame to those who were entrusted with its defense. Some writers, in their impartiality, have attempted to distribute the blame all round among the various officers of the Government, from President Madison down to the immediate commanding general; while others have sought to limit it to the commanding general. Those who have included the President in the list, do so mainly upon the ground that it was he who was responsible for the selection of such an incompetent general; but it is probable that one of the reasons for the ability of the British to march upon and capture the city with but little or no opposition, was this; that most of the troops upon which General Winder had to depend, were raw militia. Had they been disciplined veterans, as were the British soldiers, or had they possessed confidence in themselves and in their general, the sting and stigma of the disgrace of the capture would not have been experienced. At any rate the prowess and valor of American soldiers have since been most amply vindicated, on battlefields in Mexico, and on both sides in the war of the late Rebellion; so that so far as that particular feature of the case is concerned, there no longer remains any opportunity for criticism upon American soldiers, nor does there remain any reason to doubt the ability of the United States to produce competent commanding generals.

In reviewing the events preceding the battle of Bladensburg, and the battle itself, it may, in the first place, be well to introduce the testimony of General Winder himself, with reference to the conduct of the militia from the District of Columbia. In a letter published October 8, 1814, he said: "I have no knowledge of any instance of the conduct of the militia (from Washington and Georgetown) while under my command which is not honorable to their zeal, spirit, and subordination, and that they yielded a prompt and soldierly obedience to all my orders. My situation on the field, in the battle of Bladensburg, with the front line, and subsequent efforts to form them on the left of the Georgetown and other militias, prevented me from witnessing their conduct in the engagement. When I sent them orders to retreat, the enemy were turning both their right and left flanks. From the total flight of the front line and the troops posted on the right, and when I came up to them shortly after their retreat commenced, I found them retiring in order, and consequently inferred that they had not left their position before receiving my orders to retire. They were prepared and showed the utmost readiness to form again between the Capitol and the turnpike gate to renew the contest, until I found the total dispersion of the first line rendered it impossible to make another stand with a number sufficiently great to afford any hope of success. And they did, on my order, proceed through the city to Georgetown and form on the heights of Tenley Town."

Then, too, the story of the battle is perhaps best told in General Winder's own language:

"Our advanced riflemen, Pinkney's corps, now began to fire, and continued it for half a dozen rounds, when I observed them to run back to an orchard. They halted there, and seemed for a moment about returning to their original position, but in a few moments entirely broke, and retired to the left of Stausbury's line. The advance artillery immediately followed the riflemen, and retired on the left of the Fifth Baltimore Regiment, which had been pushed forward to sustain them.

"The first three or four rockets fired by the enemy being much above the heads of Stausbury's men, they stood them very manfully, but the rockets having taken a more horizontal direction, a universal flight of the center and left of Stausbury's brigade was the consequence. The Fifth Regiment and the artillery still remained, and I hoped would prevent the enemy's approach, but the enemy approached singly, and their fire annoyed the Fifth considerably, when I ordered it to retire, for the purpose of putting it out of reach of the enemy: This order was, however, immediately countermanded, from an aversion to retire before the enemy became stronger, and from a hope that the enemy would issue in a body and enable us to act upon him on terms of more equality.

"But his fire beginning to disturb this corps, and the Fifth Regiment still more by wounding some of them, and a strong column passing up the road and deploying on its left, I ordered them to retire. Their retreat became a flight of absolute and total disorder. Beall’s regiment was posted on a height to the right of the road, which commanded the whole ground occupied by Stausbury's brigade. It gave one or two ineffectual fires and fled." This retreat completes the account of the fortunes and fate of the front line, which could not be rallied, and which displayed all its activity in making its way home.

This, it will be seen, agrees with General Winder's letter given above with respect to the conduct of the militia from the District of Columbia, and hence it seems permissible to place the most of the blame for the defeat at Bladensburg on the front line. The second line was composed of Smith's militia brigade, the Thirty-sixth Regular Regiment, one battalion of the Thirty-eighth Regiment, a detachment of the Twelfth Regiment, and Commodore Barney's corps of seamen and marines and the whole of the cavalry. General Winder did not have this line under his immediate observation. It appears that Commodore Barney, in the pressure upon the front line, was entirely forgotten at the Eastern Branch bridge, and would have remained there, much against his inclination, had he not accidentally met the President and Secretary of War, who advised him to hasten his march to Bladensburg and join the army. The Commodore in his report said: "We came up in a trot and took our position on the rising ground between Smith's militia and Beall's, posted our marines and seamen, and waited the approach of the enemy. During this period, the engagement continued, the enemy advanced, and our army retreating apparently in much disorder. At length the enemy made his appearance before us and halted. After a few minutes I ordered an eighteen-pounder to fire upon him, which completely cleared the road. A second and third attempt were made to come forward, but all were destroyed. They then crossed over into an open field and attempted to flank us. There he was met by three twelve-pounders, the marines and seamen acting as infantry, and was again badly cut up. By this time not a vestige of the American army remained, except a body of five or six hundred on a height on my right, and from which I expected great support. The enemy now pushed up their sharpshooters and began to outflank us on the right. Our guns were that way when we pushed up the hill toward the American corps, stationed as above described, which, to my great mortification, made no resistance, giving a fire or two and retiring. Finding the enemy now in my rear, and no means of defense, I ordered my officers and men to retire."

General Smith said: "The dispersion of the front line caused a dangerous opening on our left, of which the enemy was availing himself, when I ordered Colonel Brent, with the Second Regiment, to take a position still more to our left, and he was preparing to execute this order when orders came from General Winder for the whole of the troops to retreat."

Upon receipt of orders of this kind from the commanding general, of course fighting was out of the question. The orders that followed were but little else than a repetition of orders to form and counter orders to retreat. When what was left of the army reached Washington, the Secretary of War suggested the occupation of the Capitol building, believing that the Thirty-sixth and Thirty-eighth regiments, together with those portions of Commodore Barney's corps that could be collected, would be sufficient to sustain their position therein, provided General Winder could assure them of such exterior support as would be necessary to supply them with food, water, and ammunition. The General replied that he could not give the assurance, and that he proposed to retire behind the heights at Georgetown. The Secretary of War then assented to the measure which appeared to have been previously discussed and determined upon by the commanding general and the Secretary of State, and perceiving that no order was given to apprise the Navy Department of the determination to cross Rock Creek and to prevent the capture of the Navy Yard, he dispatched Major Bell to announce the retreat of the army. The garrison at Fort Washington was not more fortunate than their fellow soldiers. The fort was destroyed and abandoned, though pressed by no enemy on either side.

It may not be improper to introduce testimony from the British side as to some of the features of this battle. An officer of the Eighty-fifth Royal Regiment, named Gleig, stated the facts in the following language: "This battle, by which the fate of the American Capital was decided, began about one o'clock in the afternoon, and lasted till about four o'clock. The loss on the part of the English was severe, since, out of two-thirds of the army which was engaged, upward of five hundred men were killed and wounded, and what rendered it doubly severe was that among these were numbered several officers of rank and distinction. Colonel Thornton, who commanded the Light Brigade, Lieutenant-Colonel Wood, commanding the Eighty-fifth Regiment, and Major Brown, who had led the advanced guard, were all severely wounded, and General Ross himself had a horse shot under him. On the side of the Americans the slaughter was not so great. Being in possession of a strong position, they were, of course, less exposed in defending than the others in storming it, and had they conducted themselves with coolness and resolution, it is not conceivable how the day could have been won. But the fact is, that with the exception of a part of the sailors from the gunboats, under the command of Commodore Barney, no troops could behave worse than they did. The skirmishers were driven in as .soon as attacked. The first line gave way without offering the slightest resistance, and the left of the main body was broken within half an hour after it was seriously engaged. Of the sailors, however, it would be injustice not to speak in terms which their conduct merits. They were employed as gunners, and not only did they serve their guns with a quickness and precision which astonished their assailants, but they stood till some of them were actually bayoneted, with fuses in their hands; nor was it till their leader was wounded and taken, and they saw themselves deserted on all sides by the soldiers, that they quit the field."

General Ross, in his dispatch of August 30, said that his loss at the battle of Bladensburg was sixty-four killed and one hundred and eighty-five wounded and missing. The numbers given by Gleig comprised the entire loss of the British in killed, wounded, missing, and deserters, from the morning of the battle until their re-embarkation, including the casualties at Washington.

"On the other hand, the citizen-militia escaped with their valuable lives, and, without forming again to impede the approach of the enemy or to defend the Capitol and public buildings, disappeared entirely from the District, leaving their wives and children to the mercy of the victor."

The destruction of the Navy Yard followed almost immediately after the defeat at Bladensburg. The Secretary of the Navy had given orders to Commodore Tingey, that in case of defeat the shipping and store at the Navy Yard should be destroyed, to prevent their falling into the enemy's hands. At four o'clock the Secretary of War sent a messenger to the Commodore informing him that no further protection could be given, and that officer forthwith proceeded to destroy the buildings and vessels, notwithstanding earnest appeals were made by the citizens to have the Navy Yard saved from destruction. At twenty minutes past eight o'clock the match was applied, and the sloop of war Argus, with ten guns mounted, five barges fully armed, two gunboats, the frigate Columbia on the stocks, and a large quantity of naval stores were consigned to the flames. The schooner and the arsenal escaped destruction. (See bio of Commodore Thomas Tingey)

After leaving the Capitol the British army marched up Pennsylvania Avenue, and taking possession of Mrs. Suter's lodging house, ordered supper. Meanwhile, they set fire to the Treasury building and the President's House. The President himself had retired from the city, with his cabinet, on horseback immediately after the close of the battle of Bladensburg, crossing the Potomac at Little Falls and re-crossing it at the Great Falls. The table at the President's House was found set for forty guests, in expectation of a welcome to the victorious defenders of the city. The wine was cooling on the sideboard, the plates warming at the grate, and the meats were on the spits in the kitchen. Ross and Cockburn, however, returned to Mrs. Suter's house, and, after extinguishing the lights, ate their repast by the light of the burning buildings. Later in the evening General Ross rejoined the main army, then on Capitol Hill, and Admiral Cockburn, with a few of his companions, passed the night in a brothel. During the night, in a fit of rashness, the sentries were attacked by a grandnephew of General Washington, a young sailor named John Lewis, who was shot down in the street and was found dead next morning where he fell. Had the militia at the battle of Bladensburg showed the spirit manifested by this young nephew of General Washington, the fortunes of the day would have been vastly different. On the morning of the 25th, the two commanders renewed the work of destruction by setting fire to the War and Navy departments. The Post Office, and the Patent Office were spared by the enemy on the appeal of Dr. Thornton to save private property stored in the building. General Washington's house, a dwelling owned by Robert Bewall, from behind which General Ross's horse was shot, that of Mr. Frost, and the hotel of Daniel Carroll were burned on Capitol Hill, when the British proceeded to the Navy Yard to complete the ruin commenced under the orders of the Secretary of War. There they burned the public works, the private ropewalks of Tench Ringgold, Heath & Company, and John Chalmers, and mutilated the monument erected by the officers of the navy to the valiant heroes who fell in the Tripolitan War.

After setting fire to the ropewalks they threw the torch into a dry well into which the Americans had previously cast a large quantity of gunpowder and other military stores. The immediate consequence was a tremendous explosion, which caused death and destruction to all around, nearly one hundred of the British soldiers being killed and wounded, and their mutilated remains scattered in all directions. In addition to the general consternation produced by this explosion, a frightful tornado swept over the city, throwing down buildings and dealing destruction to everything in its way. The inky blackness of the sky, the howling of the storm, the cataract of rain, the fierce gleaming of the lightning, the tremendous pealing of the thunder, and the crash of falling buildings, all conspired to render the scene terrific beyond description, and, as was natural, struck terror and dismay alike to the heart of friend and foe. Trees were torn up by the roots, roofs were hurled through the air like sheets of paper, and scores of the enemy, as well as of the inhabitants of the city, were buried beneath the ruins. The elements seemed to vie with the English in making the work of destruction as complete as possible. The British, taking a needless alarm, or pretending to be apprehensive of an attack from the brave militia that fought the battle of Bladensburg, stealthily withdrew from the city and took up their line of march for the point of embarkation.

President Madison, finally awaking to the seriousness of the situation, issued the following proclamation on September 1, 1814:

"whereas, the enemy by a sudden incursion have succeeded in invading the Capital of the Nation, defended at the moment by troops less numerous than their own, and almost entirely of militia; during their possession of which, though for a single day only, they wantonly destroyed the public edifices having no relations in their structure to operations of war, nor used at the time for military annoyance; some of these edifices being also costly monuments of taste and of the arts, and others depositories of the public archives, not only precious to the Nation as the memorials of its origin and its early transactions, but interesting to all nations, as contributions to the general stock of historical instruction and political science; and

"whereas, Advantage has been taken of the loss of the fort more immediately guarding the town of Alexandria, to place the town within the range of the naval force, too long and too much in the habit of abusing its superiority, wherever it can be applied, to require as the alternative of a general conflagration an undisturbed plunder of private property, which has been executed in a manner peculiarly distressing to the inhabitants, who had inconsiderately cast themselves upon the justice and generosity of the victor; and,

"Whereas, It now appears, by a direct communication with the British commander on the American Station, to be his avowed purpose to employ the force under his direction in destroying and laying waste such towns and districts upon the coast as may be found assailable, adding to his declaration the insulting pretext that it is in retaliation for a wanton destruction committed by the army of the United States in Upper Canada, when it is notorious that no destruction has been committed which, notwithstanding the multiplied outrages previously committed by the enemy, was not unauthorized, and promptly shown to be so; and that the United States have been as constant in their endeavors to reclaim the enemy from such outrages, by the contrast of their example, as they have been ready to terminate on reasonable conditions the war itself; and,

"whereas, These proceedings and declared purposes, which exhibit a deliberate disregard of the principles of humanity and the rules of civilized warfare, and which must give to the existing war a character of extended devastation and barbarism at the very moment of negotiations for peace invited by the enemy himself, leave no prospect of safety to anything within the reach of his predatory and incendiary operations but in manful and universal determination to chastise and expel the invader;

"Now, therefore, I, James Madison, President of the United States, do issue this, my proclamation, exhorting all the good people thereof to unite their hearts and hands, giving effect to the ample means possessed for that purpose. I enjoin it upon all officers, civil and military, to exert themselves in executing the duties with which they are respectively charged. And more especially I require the officers commanding the respective military departments to be vigilant and alert in providing for the defense thereof; for the more effectual accomplishment of which they are authorized to call to the defense of exposed and frontier places portions of the militia most convenient thereto, whether they be or be not parts of the quotas detached for the service of the United States under requisitions of the General Government.

"On an occasion which appeals so forcibly to the proud feelings and patriotic devotion of the American people, knowing what they owe to themselves, what they owe to their country and the high destinies which await it, what to the glory acquired by their fathers in establishing the independence which is now maintained by their sons with the augmented strength and resources with which time and heaven have blessed them. James Madison."

Major - General Winfield Scott arrived in Washington, October 13, 1814. On that day the following officers captured at Bladensburg were released on their parole: Joshua Barney, commander of the United States flotilla; John Reagan, lieutenant of militia; Samuel Miller, captain of marine corps; Dominick Bader, captain of militia; G. Von Harter, lieutenant of militia; Robert M. Hamilton, master in United States navy; Thomas Duketant, acting master; Jesse Huffington, sailing master; Davidson Robertson, acting midshipman; John M. Howland, Fifth Regiment Baltimore Volunteers; J. B. Martin, surgeon, besides forty-one privates captured at Bladensburg and twenty-six captured at Baltimore.

But little of interest occurred in Washington after the battle of Bladensburg and the capture of the city, until the famous victory of General Jackson at New Orleans, January 8, 1815. The news of this victory reached Washington February 4, and in the evening of that day, which was Saturday, a general illumination of the city occurred in honor of the event. Rumors of peace were abroad in the city on February 13, and on the 14th the treaty of Ghent, signed on the 24th of December preceding, fifteen days before the victory at New Orleans, was delivered by Mr. Henry Carroll to the Secretary of State, and laid before the Senate of the United States on the 15th; and on Saturday night, February 18, 1815, there was a general illumination of the city and a grand celebration in honor of the peace secured by that treaty, which had been ratified by the Senate that day.

The next war in which Washington was engaged, in common with the rest of the country, was that with Mexico, brought on by politicians favoring the extension of slavery in order that the balance of power between the Slave States and the Free States might be maintained as nearly equal as possible. The details connected with the origin of this war have been so well presented in numerous histories that it is not deemed necessary to attempt to present them here. It may not be amiss, however, to call attention to the fact that two methods of annexation of the State of Texas to the Union attracted widespread attention, and were of universal interest to the American people in connection with this movement, — the one by treaty, the other by joint resolution of Congress. President Tyler negotiated a treaty with Texas for her annexation, which was rejected by the Senate by a vote of 35 to 16. According to Hon. Thomas H. Benton, who, with great power and vehemence, opposed the purposes and methods of the war, the rejection of this treaty postponed the war two years, and if the wisdom and patriotism of the Senate had had any influence with the executive department of the Government, there would have been no war with Mexico, and Texas would at the same time have been annexed.

Besides annexation by treaty there was but one other method by which that end could be peacefully accomplished, and that was by joint resolution. So far as Mexico was concerned, it would make but little or no difference as to the method by which her territory was procured, provided it were a peaceful one; but to the United States the question of method was all-important. To annex Texas by treaty would be to treat with that republic as an independent power or nation; and after annexation was accomplished she would seem to be always in a position of observing the treaty or not, as she might choose; and of pretending that the provisions of the treaty had been violated by the United States, whether such violation had or had not occurred; and by such pretense she would at any future time be able to influence her people to favor the abrogation of the treaty on their part; or, in other words, to secede from the Union. While on the other hand, if the whole matter were referred to the law-making power of the Government, instead of to the treaty-making power, as would be the case if Texas were invited to assume the position of a Territory of the Union, and then be admitted as a State, as had been all the other States, by the consent of Congress, she would become a member of an indissoluble Union, and would thereby become powerless to peacefully secede.

In accordance with this view a joint resolution, introduced into the House of Representatives by Mr. Douglas, December 23, 1844, for the annexation of Texas to the United States, "in conformity with the treaty of 1803 for the purchase of Louisiana," after a stormy debate, was passed, January 25, 1845, by a vote of 120 to 98. In the Senate the resolution was so amended on motion of Mr. Benton as to gain his support and that of one other Senator, and then passed by a vote of 27 yeas to 25 nays. The next day, February 28, as amended, it passed in the House of Representatives by a vote of 132 to 76. The Congress somewhat marred its work by adding to the joint resolution what was and is known as the "Walker Amendment," by which the President was authorized to set it aside and to proceed to "agree on the terms of admission and cession, either by treaty to be submitted to the Senate, or by articles to be submitted to the two Houses of Congress," which part of the amendment was perhaps, however, offset by the provision in the amendment itself, that the Republic of Texas "shall be admitted into the Union by virtue of this act on an equal footing with the existing States," etc. But the President, notwithstanding his predilection for the method by treaty, having on the 2d of March approved the legislation embodied in the joint resolution, chose to set aside the Walker Amendment, and on the next day, the last of his term of office, knowing that Congress did not intend to entrust him with the discretionary power, sent one of his relatives, a Mr. Waggaman, as an express to hasten to communicate to the Republic of Texas that he, as President of the United States, had made his election as to the alternative contained in the Walker Amendment looking to the admission of Texas into the Union, and that he had chosen the alternative by joint resolution. The proposition as thus submitted by President Tyler was accepted by Texas through her Congress and a convention, so that Texas was finally admitted into the Union under the authority of the joint resolution, and thus assumed a position as a part of the United States precisely similar to that maintained by each of the other States, and without any right to secede.

The assumption by President Tyler of the right to choose the alternative method of procedure effectually committed President Polk to the method thus chosen, especially as the Senate, on March 10, laid on the table by a vote of 23 to 20 a resolution introduced by Mr. Berrien, of Georgia, to the effect that the President would best conform to the provisions of the Constitution by resorting to the treaty-making power, for the purpose of accomplishing the objects of the joint resolution. But had President Polk attempted to secure the consent of Mexico to the annexation of Texas, and had he been satisfied with the proper boundaries of that republic, it is altogether probable that peaceful annexation would have been the result; but it appears perfectly clear to the student of the history of the entire movement that it was continuously the purpose of President Polk's administration to add very largely, if not as largely as possible, to the area of the United States. In pursuance of this policy President Polk, while carrying on a quasi negotiation with the President of Mexico for the settlement of the whole subject in dispute, gave orders on January 13, 1846, to General Taylor to proceed to the Rio Grande. General Taylor received these orders on February 4, left Corpus Christi on the 8th, and arrived at Matamoras on the 28th of that month. Inasmuch as at that time the Neuces, and not the Rio Grande, was the recognized boundary of Texas, the march of General Taylor's army to the Rio Grande was an invasion of Mexican territory, and was so considered by that country. As an act of invasion it was the real cause of the war, and drew from Mexico a declaration of war. On April 4, 1846, the Government of Mexico sent an order to General Arista to attack the forces of General Taylor with all the force at his command. The war thus having been brought on by the invasion of Mexican territory and by the consequent declaration of war by Mexico, the Congress of the United States, on May 12 following, declared that "by the act of the Republic of Mexico a state of war exists between that Government and the United States,'' and on the next day President Polk issued his proclamation to the American people, informing them of the fact of war, and of its declaration by Congress, and exhorting them, "as they love their country, as they feel the wrongs which have forced on them the last resort of injured nations, and as they consult as to the best means under Divine Providence of abridging its calamities, to exert themselves in observing order, in promoting concord, in maintaining the authority and the efficacy of the laws, and in supporting all the measures which might be adopted by the constituted authorities for obtaining a speedy, just, and honorable peace."

Thus, after the war had been in existence for more than two months by the action of the army under the orders of the President, without any necessity and -without any justification, was the Congress brought to its sanction, and to the giving of a false reason for the part it took, by the declaration that war existed "by the act of the Republic of Mexico."

In pursuance of a call issued a few days before, a large and respectable meeting was held at the City Hall, May 15, 1846, which, on motion, was temporarily organized by the election as chairman of Major Malay. Major Malay, after a speech explanatory of the object of the meeting, suggested the name of E. Brook for permanent chairman and Thomas M. Gleason as secretary, both of whom were unanimously elected. Mr. O'Brien then moved that a committee of five be appointed to wait upon Ex-President Houston, of Texas, and Senator Jarnagin, of Tennessee, to request their attendance at an adjourned meeting to be held at the same place Saturday evening, May 16. William O'Brien, E. Brook, Thomas M. Gleason, John W. Mount, and Major Malay were appointed. This adjourned meeting was organized by the election of Dr. Bronaugh, of Missouri, as chairman. Lieutenant W. D. Porter delivered an address, alluding to the many depredations committed on the people of the United States by Mexico, and trusting that the young men of the city of Washington would come boldly to the rescue. Hon. Barclay Martin, of the Sixth Congressional District of Tennessee, followed in a very eloquent speech, telling the young men the necessity of buckling on their armor and going to the war. Colonel R. M. Johnson then spoke "in his usual style of oratory," saying he was not in favor of stopping at the Rio Grande, but would march into the interior of Mexico, and cut their departments right and left. He spoke of cutting off California from Mexico and annexing that country to the United States. Hon. F. G. McConnell then entertained the meeting, as did also Hon. F. P. Stanton and Mr. St. John, of New York. The latter urged the young men to enroll themselves for the war, and at the close of his speech forty-five of them presented themselves as volunteers.

On May 18, a meeting was held at the Franklin Engine House, of which J. Cooper was made chairman. J. E. Norris addressed the meeting, and a company of volunteers, called "Washington Volunteers, No. 1," was organized by the election of John Waters captain, William Parham first lieutenant, and Eugene Boyle second lieutenant. No men were to be. taken in this company who were under eighteen years of age.

At a meeting at the City Hall, addresses were delivered by Robert Ratcliffe, Robert Bronaugh, and Hon. John Wentworth of Chicago. Thirty-five young men enrolled- themselves, which ran the number in this company up to eighty-six. The name adopted for this company was the "Washington City Riflemen," and its officers elected as follows: Robert Bronaugh, captain; Phineas B. Bell, first lieutenant; William O'Brien, second lieutenant, and four sergeants and four corporals. Dr. W. L. Frazier was chosen surgeon. The sergeants were as follows: John W. Mount, Josephus Dawes, Lewis F. Beeler, and William A. Woodward; the corporals, Andrew Kemp, John Kelly, Jacob C. Hemmrick, and John P. White. These companies went into the United States barracks to drill, preparatory to going to the front. Three companies from Baltimore, namely, the first and second companies of the Baltimore Volunteers, and the Chesapeake Riflemen, were also in the barracks at the same time. These several companies were removed to Fort Washington June 10, 1846, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Watson, to await embarkation for the southern army, the steamship Massachusetts having been chartered by the Government of the United States to take the entire battalion to the Rio Grande. A company of volunteers was formed in Alexandria June 12, which elected officers as follows: Captain, M. D. Corse; first lieutenant, C. S. Price; second lieutenant, T. W. Ashly, and first sergeant, Benjamin Waters, Jr. The Secretary of War was, however, obliged to decline their services at that time, as the battalion from this city and Baltimore was already filled. June 16, the battalion from Baltimore and Washington sailed from Alexandria in the ship Massachusetts for the Rio Grande. The officers of this battalion were as follows: Lieutenant-colonel, William H. Watson; adjutant, F. B. Shaffer; surgeon, G. M. Dove. Company A — Captain, J. E. Stewart; first lieutenant, B. F. Owen; second lieutenant, Samuel Wilt. Company B — Captain, James Piper; first lieutenant, M. K. Taylor; second lieutenant, I. Dolan. Company C — Captain, Robert Bronaugh, etc., as already given. Company D — Captain, John Waters, etc., as given above. Company E — Captain, J. R. Kenly; first lieutenant, F. B. Shaffer; second lieutenant, Odon Bowie. Company of light infantry—Captain, James Boyd; first lieutenant, Joseph H. Rudduch; second lieutenant, R. E. Hustel.

The battle of Monterey was fought September 21, 1846, the battalion from Baltimore and Washington being engaged in the storming of the place, and Lieutenant-Colonel Watson was killed. James E. Stewart, who succeeded to the command, wrote from the camp, near Monterey, September 26, as follows:

"The battalion of Maryland and the District of Columbia volunteers, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Watson, connected with the First Regiment of Infantry, the whole under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson, were ordered to march at about eight o'clock in the morning of the 21st inst., for an attack on Monterey. The battalion were out in their full strength, save Company C, Captain Bronaugh, which was ordered to remain on guard duty at the camp, and Lieutenant Owen, of Company A, with a detachment of twelve men, were ordered on picket duty by General Twiggs. The battalion marched toward the city, and charged in a most gallant manner on a battery, under a galling fire, in which it sustained some loss. The point of attack was then changed by order of Colonel Garland, and we entered the city exposed to a destructive fire from several batteries, supported by a large number of infantry, which raked the streets. We remained in the city for nearly half an hour, when we were ordered to retire. In doing so the battalion became separated. Colonel Watson fell by a musket shot whilst gallantly leading on to a second assault on the city. A portion of the battalion was then formed under Captain Kenly, and remained on the field of battle until it was ordered back to camp by General Twiggs, having been under a heavy fire for nearly nine hours, losing in the action six killed and eighteen wounded. I take pleasure in noticing the gallant conduct of the battalion throughout."

On Sunday, November 22, 1846, Captain Samuel H. Walker arrived in Washington from the battlefields in Mexico, and was given a most hearty reception in Odd Fellows' Hall. Speeches appropriate to the occasion were made by Messrs. Ratcliffe, C. S. Wallach, E. H. Harriman, Joseph H. Bradley, D. Wallach, Lewis F. Thomas, and Mayor W. W. Seaton. Captain Walker responded, expressing his gratification at receiving such a flattering testimonial of respect, and the entire number present — about one thousand — took him by the hand. Captain Walker, in January, 1847, raised a company of mounted riflemen for the regiment to which he belonged, in Washington and its vicinity, and on February 6 his company left Washington for Baltimore in a special train tn route for the seat of war. Twenty of the young men in this company were from Prince George's County, Maryland.

A meeting was held at the city Council chamber Friday evening, January 22, 1847, for the purpose of raising a company of soldiers for the Mexican War, the Mayor of the city making the address. The company was organized by the election of officers as follows: Captain, John M. Thornton; first lieutenant, Edmund Barry; second lieutenant, Hume Young; orderly sergeant, David Westerfield, Jr. The name adopted for this company was "Washington's Own." About April 25, 1847, the Secretary of War called upon the major-general of the District to furnish three companies of volunteers, to form, with two companies from Maryland, a battalion for immediate active service, to be under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Lee Jones. This was the last recruiting done in Washington for the war.

On February 21, 1848, a treaty of peace signed by Mr. N". P. Trist on the part of the United States, and by the Mexican authorities, was received in Washington, and on March 10, after two weeks' debate on the part of the Senate, was ratified by that body by a vote of 38 to 14. On May 25, it was ratified by the Mexican Senate by a vote of 33 to 4. July 4, President Polk issued a proclamation declaring peace established, and on the 6th of the same month sent a message to Congress announcing the end of the war.

Article V. of this treaty was as follows: "The boundary line between the two republics shall commence in the Gulf of Mexico three leagues from land, opposite the mouth of the Rio Grande, otherwise called Rio Bravo del Norte, opposite the mouth of its deepest branch, if it should have more than one branch emptying directly into the sea; thence up the middle of that river, following the deepest channel, where it has more than one, to the point where it strikes the southern boundary of New Mexico; thence westwardly along the whole southern boundary of New Mexico [which runs north of the town called Paso] to its western termination; thence northward along the western line of New Mexico until it intersects the first branch of the river Gila, or if it should not intersect any branch of that river, then to the point on said line nearest to such branch, and thence in a direct line to the same; thence down the middle of the said branch and of the said river until it empties into the Rio Colorado; thence across the Rio Colorado, following the division line between Upper and Lower California, to the Pacific Ocean."

By Article XII of this treaty, the United States agreed to pay to Mexico for the territory acquired from her, Texas and Upper California, fifteen millions of dollars, — three millions immediately on the ratification of the treaty by the Mexican authorities, and thereafter three millions per year until the whole should be paid, and also interest on what remained unpaid at the rate of six per cent. per annum.

Hon. A. H. Sevier, United States Senator from Arkansas, and the Attorney-General, Nathan Clifford, were appointed commissioners to exchange ratifications, and the latter was ordered to remain in Mexico as the resident minister from the United States.

The War of the Rebellion really began many years before actual hostilities commenced in 1861. That the existence of slavery was the cause thereof, no one can now seriously doubt who is tolerably well informed. Slavery came near preventing the formation of the Union in the first place, and was, so long as it existed, a constant menace to the existence of the Union. At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the entire country was a slaveholding country; but while that war was going on, the New England and some of the Middle States, perceiving the inconsistency of striving for their own liberty and at the same time striving to perpetuate the subjection of another race, passed acts of immediate or gradual emancipation of the slaves within their boundaries. Massachusetts passed an act of immediate emancipation in 1780, and Pennsylvania in the same year passed an act of gradual emancipation. Indeed, there were many individuals in the South as well as in the North who were deeply impressed with the inconsistency of fighting to establish freedom for themselves while they were denying freedom to others, who, under the laws of nature, had the same right to it as they. Rhode Island and Connecticut gradually emancipated their slaves. In 1799, New York passed a gradual emancipation act, and in 1817 another act declaring all slaves free July 4, 1827. New Jersey passed a gradual emancipation act in 1804, and thus slavery was abolished in all of the New England and Middle States long prior to the breaking out of the Rebellion.

But the States south of Pennsylvania adhered to the institution, and indeed some of them, notably South Carolina and Georgia, made its perpetuation by constitutional provision a condition of the ratification by them of the Constitution itself. This condition is thus expressed: "Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons." Thus was the Constitution of the country made the bulwark of the institution, and the country divided into two hostile sections, which continually became more hostile to each other as time rolled on. The joy and gratitude felt by the people of both sections for the success of their arms in the struggle with Great Britain, and for the successful establishment of a national government of their own, were such that for years but little attention was given to the institution of slavery. It was known to all that under the Constitution the importation of slaves must cease in 1808, and also that in the States Congress by that Constitution had been rendered powerless to interfere with the institution. Little could therefore be done in a practical way, except to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia, for which consummation petition after petition was presented to Congress, causing more and more acrimonious debate as the years rolled by. The Missouri Compromise came, and then its repeal. Afterward came the Nebraska Bill, designed to give two more States to the Union, but which in reality gave two more Free States, Kansas and Nebraska, to the Union, and this effect proving to be the practical working of the Squatter Sovereignty doctrine, demonstrated to the South that the ultimate result of the struggle, of the irrepressible conflict, that was not only irrepressible but certain to continue until either freedom or slavery should win a final victory if the South should remain in the Union, determined for her course with reference to the Union.

It is not proper to attempt to relate in this volume with any degree of minuteness the steps in either section of the country which led to the secession of the Southern States, for in the first place, that is not the object for which the work is written, and in the second place, that work has been done by others much better than it "could be done herein; yet, while this is the case, it is proper to refer briefly to a few of the facts and incidents which preceded and produced that secession. While, during many years previous to 1850, there had been heard here and there in both the East and the South a few voices demanding the dissolution of the Union, yet no great alarm was felt for the safety of the Union previous to that year. But the question had been raised in the First Congress by the introduction of a memorial to the House of Representatives from the "Annual Meeting of Friends," of New York and Philadelphia, in October, 1789, in obedience to a sense of duty they felt incumbent upon them as religious bodies, etc. It was not long after this that a memorial was presented from "The Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery," signed by Benjamin Franklin, president, praying for the abolition of slavery. In this way, as has been said, by the presentation of petitions to Congress upon the subject, a subject upon which Congress was powerless under the Constitution as it then stood, was the question persistently kept under discussion, with but little fear of danger until the debate upon the admission ot California into the Union as a Free State, in the session of 1849-50, when the subject assumed alarming proportions to all those, both North and South, who desired that the Union should be preserved, and even to those who desired its preservation merely as secondary to the preservation of the institution of slavery. For a long time the specter of the Nashville Convention, which convened in Nashville in 1850, was a dreaded thing to lovers of the Union in both sections; but when it was discovered that the Southern States were slow to elect delegates thereto, and when it had been held and had resulted in failure, there not being then sufficient disunion sentiment to give it sustenance, that

specter melted away, leaving scarcely a wreck behind. "What it might have accomplished, however, was shown on May 28, 1851, by Hon. H. S. Foote, United States Senator from Mississippi, in a speech in Attala County, that Stat*, in which he said: "The idea of demanding amendments to the Constitution, and in case of failing to obtain them, resorting to secession, was first broached by Mr. Calhoun after our October convention in 1849"; that Mr. Calhoun told him that he had no expectation of obtaining these amendments; but Mr. Calhoun thought that if they should be refused, then the South would unite in favor of a Southern convention, and that Mr. Calhoun had prepared a constitution for the new republic which was to have been formed out of one of the fragments of the Union as it then existed. All of this revelation by Hon. Mr. Foote as to Mr. Calhoun's plans and purposes was in perfect accord with Mr. Calhoun's prediction, made in 1846, that within a generation there would be formed a Southern Confederacy, and that Atlanta, Georgia, would be its capital.

The insurrection at Harper's Ferry occurred October 16, 1859. The particulars of this insurrection are so well known that it is not necessary to more than refer to them in this connection, and no attempt is made in this work to do more than to narrate the events transpiring in Washington immediately connected with that foolhardy affair, which in itself was equally unnecessary and unjustifiable with the later and much greater insurrection which had for its object the breaking up of the Government of the United States, except that the motive actuating the insurrectionists at Harper's Ferry was the liberation of the slave. The outbreak came without premonition, and was caused by no special provocation. Of course great excitement was caused in this city, as elsewhere, and during the day following the announcement of the outbreak there was manifested the greatest eagerness to learn of its progress and success. At three o'clock of the morning of October 18, Governor Wise, of Virginia, arrived in Washington, accompanied by the Greys of Richmond, about sixty in number, and the Alexandria Rifles. Governor Wise found Mayor James G. Berrett at the City Hall, surrounded by the police, and remained there most of the time until six o'clock, when he took the train for Harper's Ferry. At three o'clock in the afternoon the mail boat from Acquia Creek, and other boats on the Potomac River, brought up five companies of the Virginia troops, numbering about three hundred men, two or three of which companies marched immediately to the railroad depot, but receiving there a dispatch from Governor Wise, they returned, the Young Guard of Richmond taking the opportunity to parade along Pennsylvania Avenue. The order and quiet in Washington for the next succeeding two or three days were painful in the extreme, no one knowing what to expect, and hence fearing the worst. On Sunday, November 20, 1859, Governor Wise, with a regiment of Virginia volunteers from Richmond, four hundred and four strong in rank and file, arrived in Washington, leaving for Harper's Ferry at 10:00 A. M. that day. In the afternoon three companies from Petersburg arrived, and as they could not get out of town they remained until next morning.

November 27, 1859, a company of troops arrived in Washington for Charlestown, Virginia, and on the 28th three other companies arrived for the same destination, notwithstanding there were then stationed at that point six hundred and fifty men, and in the entire county there were under arms not less than one thousand men; thus showing the supposed necessity for a strong force to prevent the spreading of the John Brown heresy into Virginia. The execution of John Brown followed in a few days afterward, on December 2, with a promptness and certainty which were commendable.

The excitement caused by this episode in American history did not subside before other causes of excitement arose. The Republican Association of Washington, on May 28, 1860, held a meeting to ratify the nomination of Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin to the positions of Presidency and Vice-Presidency, respectively. B. B. French, president of the association, addressed the assemblage, which was in front of the southwest portico of the City Hall, and read a series of resolutions expressive of the sentiments of the Republican Party. Hon. J. R. Doolittle, Senator from Wisconsin, presented very briefly the positions of the two great parties. Hon. Israel Washburn, of Maine, said that while he had favored Mr. Seward, yet he would do all he could to secure the election of Mr. Lincoln. Hon. B. F. Wade, Hon. G. A. Grow, Hon. Henry Wilson, Hon. Ely Spaulding, Hon. John A. Bingham, and Mr. McKean of New York, each made short addresses.

On July 3, 1860, another ratification meeting was held at the same place, to ratify the nomination of Stephen A. Douglas and Herschel V. Johnson to the same offices. A large banner was thrown to the breeze, bearing the inscription, "No Secession," in large letters. The meeting was addressed by George W. Brent of Alexandria, Ellis B. Schnabel of Philadelphia, and Dr. Culver of Washington.

On July 9, a similar meeting was held by those favoring the election of Hon. John C. Breckinridge and Hon. Joseph Lane. Their motto was, "The Constitution, and the Equality of the States." Mayor Berrett, of Washington, presided, and James M. Carlisle, A. B. Meek of Alabama, Isaac I. Stevens of Washington Territory, A. G. Brown of Mississippi, and Jefferson Davis made addresses.

Still another ratification meeting, and the largest of all, was held in front of the City Hall August 8, 1860, to ratify the nomination of Hon. John Bell and Hon. Edward Everett to the same positions. The central portion of the City Hall was used on this occasion, and a large platform erected between the two wings. Mr. B. O. Taylor called upon Philip R. Fendall to preside, who claimed that Mr. Bell, like Themistocles, on a former occasion, was the second choice of all the parties that had candidates in the field, and argued hence that he was at least fit to be the first choice of all. Robert E. Scott of Fauquier County, Virginia, Hon. J. Morrison Harris of Baltimore, Robert J. Bowie of Maryland, B. L. Hodge of Louisiana, Hon. Alexander R. Boteler of Virginia, and Joseph H. Bradley of Washington, addressed the meeting.

Mr. Lincoln was elected November 6, 1860, and on the next day occurred what may perhaps be called the first battle of the subsequent civil war. Late at night on the day of election, it became known what the result was, and toward midnight it was proposed and agreed to, at the Breckinridge headquarters, on Pennsylvania Avenue between Four and a Half and Sixth streets, that the fifty or sixty members of the National Volunteers should repair in a body to the Republican headquarters at the corner of Indiana Avenue and Second Street, and "wreck the shanty." There was then a large party of Breckinridge men at Brown's Hotel, which united with the National Volunteers, making the combined strength of the two parties about three hundred men. Proceeding to the Republican building, they began, when in front of it, to fire pistols and throw stones at the windows, soon demolishing all in the second story of the building. Going around to the Second Street side, they broke open the door, which was locked, went up stairs, and began the destruction of the paraphernalia and furniture of the rooms. They also entered the room above the wigwam and destroyed the stands of type, and scattered type all around the room. Some half dozen scared Republicans retreated to the roof of the building. Soon several policemen, headed by Lieutenant McHenry, entered and took possession of the rooms, and made arrests of those in the building, including three Republicans and five of the Volunteers. An investigation was had at the office of Justice Donn, but no very severe punishment was inflicted.

That it was the full determination of the Southern leaders to take their States out of the Union, in case of the election of Mr. Lincoln, — toward which they lent their powerful and essential assistance by breaking up the Democratic Party at Charleston, South Carolina, in the summer of 1860, — though then not so widely known as now, was yet well known to those who had opportunities of finding out the truth. Notwithstanding the well-known fact that many patriotic citizens were preparing to meet in convention in Washington, at the call of the State of Virginia, to agree upon measures which they intended to propose to the people of the United States as a basis of compromise for all serious difference between the sections, yet on the 5th of January, 1861, there was held a caucus in this city by Southern secession Senators from Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas, at which these gentlemen in effect resolved to assume to themselves the political and military power of the South, to control all political and military movements for the immediate future, and telegraphed to their followers in the South to complete the plan by seizing forts, arsenals, customhouses, and other property belonging to the United States; and advised the conventions then in session and soon to be in session, to pass ordinances of secession; but themselves, in order to thwart any operations of the General Government, were to retain their places in the Senate. These Senators at this caucus also advised, ordered, or directed the assembling of a convention of delegates from the seceding States to be held at Montgomery, Alabama, about February 13, 1861, which could be done only by the seceding conventions usurping the powers of the people and sending delegates over whom they would lose control in the establishment of a provisional government, which was the plan of the caucus members. This same caucus also resolved to take the most efficient measures to influence the legislatures of the States of Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia, into following in the wake of the seceding cotton States; nor was Maryland to be forgotten or overlooked.

This was a most remarkable and startling exposition: Senators of the United States, representing sovereign States and sworn to support the Constitution of the United States, looked to by at least a portion of their constituents to effect some method of adjustment by which civil war might be avoided, deliberately considering and concocting a conspiracy by means of which the Government might be the more easily, and thus the more surely, overthrown — that Government which they were at the time under the most solemn of oaths to maintain and support, the contemplated overthrow to be accomplished through such military organizations as the Knights of the Golden Circle, Committees of Safety, Southern Leagues, and other similar agencies, all at their command, thus dividing the South from the North, and then dividing the South among themselves.

Only a day or two afterward, the Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Sun corroborated the statement, as given in substance above, by saying that the leaders of the Southern movement were consulting together as to the best method of consolidating their interests into a Southern Confederacy, under a provisional government, etc.

Not only in corroboration of, but in full demonstration of, the accuracy of this remarkable exposition, was the letter of Hon. D. L. Yulee, United States Senator from the State of Florida, which is here introduced.

“Washington, D. C, January 7, 1861.

"My Dear Sir: On the other side is a copy of resolutions adopted at a consultation of the Senators from the seceding States in which Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Arkansas, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida were present.

"The idea of the meeting was that the States should go out at once, and provide for the organization of a Confederate Government not later than the 15th of February. This time is allowed to enable Louisiana and Texas to participate.

"It seemed to be the opinion that if we left here, force, loan, and volunteer bills might be passed, which would put Mr. Lincoln in immediate condition for hostilities; whereas, by remaining in our places until the 4th of March, it is thought we can keep the hands of Mr. Buchanan tied, and disable the Republicans from effecting any legislation which will strengthen the hands of the incoming administration.

[Another paragraph followed, which is of no historic interest in this connection.] "D. L. Yulee.

"To Joseph Finegan, Esq.,

"Sovereignty Convention,

"Tallahassee, Florida."

 

The resolutions referred to in this letter as having been adopted at the caucus of January 5, were as follows:

"1. That in our opinion each of the Southern States should, as soon as may be, secede from the Union.

"2. That provision should be made for a convention to organize a confederacy of the seceding States, the convention to meet not later than the 15th of February, at the city of Montgomery, in the State of Alabama.

"3. That in view of the hostile legislation that is threatened against the seceding States, and which may be consummated by the 4th of March, we ask instructions whether the delegates are to remain in Congress until that date tor the defeating of such legislation.

"4. That a committee be and are hereby appointed, consisting of Messrs. Davis, Slidell, and Mallory, to carry out the objects of this meeting."

Soon afterward, upon the solicitation of the State of Virginia, speaking through her legislature, a peace convention, above referred to, assembled in Washington, meeting in Willard's Hall, on F Street, between Fourteenth and Fifteenth streets. This convention was organized February 4, 1861, with Ex-President John Tyler as its chairman, and S. C. Wright as secretary. Much was hoped from this convention by the Northern and border Slave States, but nothing by the more southern Slave States, because, as has been intimated before, they were determined to secede irrespective of what might be done by any portion of the people, or by the Government itself. On the same day that this Peace Convention met in Washington, the delegates to the Confederate Congress met in Montgomery, the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Florida being represented. President Tyler addressed the convention, saying that the members thereof had as grand a task before them as had been performed by their "godlike fathers" in the founding of the glorious Constitution and Government which was then imperiled by the secession movement. On the 23d of February, the convention, having completed its labors by formulating an amendment to the Constitution, closely resembling the Crittenden compromise, which it proposed to the country for adoption, and by passing a resolution advising the Government of the United States not to make war on the seceded and seceding States, adjourned.

About the middle of January, there were rumors afloat of combinations being formed to interfere with the inauguration of Mr. Lincoln. Of course the city of Washington was interested in knowing the truth or falsity of these rumors, and in order to learn something definite, if possible, as to their truth, Mayor James G. Berrett wrote to Marshal George P. Kane, of Baltimore, receiving a reply dated January 16, to the effect that so far as Baltimore was concerned, nothing could be further from the truth. Such rumors, however, continued to circulate. One form these rumors took was that the President-elect had contemplated coming to Washington over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, but that on account of apprehended dangers had changed his purpose. Mayor Berrett therefore, on February 1, wrote to John W. Garrett, president of that company, asking information as to the truth of alleged threats against Mr. Lincoln's safety. February 4, Mr. Garrett replied that there was not, nor had there been, the slightest foundation for any of the rumors to which the Mayor referred. On the same day that Mr. Garrett wrote this letter to Mayor Berrett, Major-General R. C, Weightman, in command of the militia of the District of Columbia, requested of the Mayor of Washington the names and residences of the police for both day and night service, because, as he said, if the assistance of the police should be required it would be of importance to have the means of reaching them as early as practicable. To this request the Mayor replied that he was not ignorant of the fact that secret organizations were alleged to have been set on foot in Washington and in the adjoining States of Virginia and Maryland for the purpose of seizing upon the District of Columbia by force of arms with the view of effecting a revolution in the Federal Government by preventing the inauguration of the President-elect; nor was he ignorant of the fact that in order to oppose and thwart the supposed conspiracy in the execution of its unhallowed designs, orders had been issued, and were in process of execution, for enrolling, arming, and disciplining the militia of the District, while for the same purpose unusual numbers of Federal troops were concentrating at this point. And more than that, notwithstanding he had used every possible effort to ferret out the conspiracy, yet he had been unable to find one tittle of evidence that any such conspiracy existed. The Mayor closed by declining to furnish the desired information.

It was generally expected that Mr. Lincoln would arrive in Washington on Saturday, February 23, 1861, and thousands of the citizens of both sexes determined to witness his entrance into the city. This determination was, however, defeated by the arrival of Mr. Lincoln some time during the preceding night, having come directly through from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, instead of stopping at Baltimore on Saturday and reaching Washington in the afternoon or evening of Saturday, according to the original arrangement. This was not merely surprising, it was actually amazing, to the people of the entire country, as it was flashed over the wires on the morning of the 23d. Several theories were immediately in circulation to account for this sudden and secret change of plan on Mr. Lincoln's part. One explanation was that he had been telegraphed to be present during the meeting of the Peace Convention. Another was that he had been advised to come direct to Washington, to prevent possible disturbances that might grow out of conflicting purposes of political clubs in Baltimore — of the Republican clubs to honor him, and of Democratic clubs to prevent any such demonstration. Of course there was great disappointment in Baltimore. On the 26th of February, it was given out, on the authority of Marshal Kane, of that city, that Mr. Lincoln had passed quietly through Baltimore, to avoid any demonstration that might be made by his political friends; for, while there was no doubt that Mr. Lincoln would be treated with all the respect due to him personally, yet there was no assurance that his political friends, in giving him a welcome, would be treated in the same manner. The Baltimore American said that Mr. Lincoln's incognito entrance into Washington was in accordance with his wish to escape from his pretended friends, and thus to prevent a breach of the peace, which would be disgraceful to the city and derogatory to the American character.

Upon arriving in the city, Mr. Lincoln went to Willard's Hotel, where he was met by Mr. Seward, and they together called upon President Buchanan. On the following Wednesday, the Mayor and Council of Washington waited upon him and tendered him a welcome. The next evening he was serenaded by the Republican Association, accompanied by the Marine Band. At his inauguration there was a greater display of military force than had ever been seen on a similar occasion. Nearly twenty of the well-drilled companies of the militia of the District of Columbia were out, comprising a force of more than two thousand men. In addition, Georgetown contributed companies of cavalry, infantry, and artillery of fine accomplishments. Collected at two or three points, as at the City Hall and at Willard's Hotel, they were centers of attraction for the citizens. After attending at the Capitol in the morning, President Buchanan, accompanied by the Senate committee, left the Executive Mansion, went to Willard's Hotel to receive the President-elect, and the party thus composed, attended by distinguished citizens in carriages, on horseback, and on foot, proceeded along Pennsylvania Avenue, with military in front and rear, and at a quarter past one in the afternoon the President and President-elect entered the Senate chamber, and soon afterward proceeded to the east front of the Capitol, where Mr. Lincoln read his inaugural address, listened to by at least ten thousand of his fellow-citizens, at the close of which the oath of office was administered to him by the venerable Chief Justice of the United States. The military preparations were so thorough and complete that it would have been practically impossible for anyone to have successfully attempted violence to the President on this occasion; but when all was over, apprehensions were allayed and all breathed with their accustomed freedom, so far as the question of the safe inauguration of the President was concerned.

On April 10, there was a hurried gathering of all the members of the various military companies in the city, the order having been issued late on Tuesday night, the 9th inst. Inspections took place at different places; of four companies at Temperance Hall by Colonel Stone, and in front of the War Department all the companies were inspected by A. A. G. McDowell in the presence of Adjutant-General Thomas and several other officers of the army. Ten companies in all were inspected, eight from Washington and two from Georgetown. The object of the inspection was to muster them into the service of the United States. Several of the men, however, refused to take the oath, though this refusal it was said was based upon the supposition that the Government wanted to send them outside of the District. The names of the companies, together with the numbers composing them, were as follows: Washington Light Infantry Battalion, Colonel Davis, 125 men; Company A, Captain E. C. Carrington, 100 men; Companies A, B, C of the National Guard, each company about 100 men; the Washington Rifles, Captain Balbach, 50 men; Company B of the Union Regiment, Captain Kelly, 60 men; the National Rifles, Captain Smead, 27 men; the Carrington Home Guard, Captain Goddard, 60 men; Potomac Light Infantry, of Georgetown, Captain McKenny, 61 men.

The demand for the surrender of Fort Sumter was made April 11, and the batteries on Sullivan's Island and at other points opened upon the fort at four o'clock the next morning. Then came the call for troops from all over the South. Fort Sumter was surrendered April 13, and on Monday, the 15th, came the proclamation from the President calling for seventy-five thousand men to suppress combinations of men too powerful for the ordinary means of the Government, and to cause the laws to be duly executed, and also convening Congress in extra session on July 4, 1861. The law under which the militia was thus called out by President Lincoln was the act of 1795, enacted by Congress for the purpose of providing means to suppress the Whisky Insurrection in Pennsylvania, when several thousands of insurgents were in arms against the Federal Government.

On the Saturday previous to the issuance of the proclamation, about 40 men were mustered into Captain Carrington's company, and 20 into Captain Kelly's. The Anderson Rifles, from Georgetown, to the number of 52, all were mustered in, which made the tenth company mustered. On the 15th, the enlistment of men into the United States service went forward as rapidly as practicable, the greater part of the day being thus occupied. Captain Gerhardt, of the Turner Rifles, added 30 men to his company, making 120 in all; the Metropolitan Rifles, Captain Nalley, added 17 men, making the number up to 100; Captain Thistleton, of the Putnam Rifles, added 30 men to his company; the howitzer corps at the Navy Yard numbered 100 men; the Henderson Guards, consisting almost exclusively of residents of the First Ward, under Captain Foxwell, numbered 80 men; Captain Kelly's company added 22 men; Captain Patrick 11. King, Company A, National Guard Battalion, had 70 men; and the National Rifles, to the number of 42, came forward and were mustered in. On April 16, the Henderson Guards increased their number to 100; the Carrington Home Guard, of Georgetown, was increased to the number of 52; the President's Mounted Guard, Captain S. W. Owen, numbering about 80 men, tendered their services, which were not accepted, as cavalry was not then needed. The troops were placed at different points in the vicinity of the city, the artillery ou the heights and roads leading out of the city, and twenty-five cart loads of cartridges, grape shot, and other missives taken up the avenue to be placed near the cannoneers and other soldiers. On this same day, Colonel E. E. Ellsworth left Washington for New York for the purpose of raising a regiment of Zouaves for the war. A call was made on the 18th of the month upon the members of the Association of the Soldiers of the War of 1812 of the District of Columbia to meet at the City Hall on the next Monday for the purpose of adopting a military organization and of offering their services to the Government for the defense of the city. On this same day, about five hundred men, consisting of infantry, artillery, and cavalry, were stationed at the Long Bridge, to repel any attempt of the rebels to cross the Potomac at that point. On the evening of the 18th, seventeen car loads of soldiers arrived in Washington from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and were quartered in rooms in the Capitol building, having passed through Baltimore about five o'clock the same day without molestation. These troops were the Washington Artillery Company and the National Light Infantry of Pottsville, the Ringgold Light Artillery of Reading, the Logan Guards of Lewiston, and the Allen Light Infantry of Allentown, in all five hundred and thirty men. During the entire day of the 18th, all avenues to the city were closely watched, cannon were placed on commanding heights so as to sweep the entire range of river front, and the cannon were supported by infantry. Mayor Berrett on this day issued a proclamation exhorting all good citizens and sojourners to he careful to so conduct themselves as neither by word nor deed to give occasion for any breach of the peace.

On April 9, a military department had been created consisting of Maryland and the District of Columbia, as originally bounded, called the Department of Washington, and placed under the command of Brevet-Colonel C. F. Smith. On the 19th, this department was increased so as to include Delaware and Pennsylvania, and placed in command of Major-General Patterson, and Major-General Scott placed volunteer soldiers along the railroad from Wilmington, Delaware, to Washington, to guard the railroad and telegraph between the two points. April 22, a proposition was made by several citizens of Washington to form a light artillery company, the services of which were to be tendered to the Government. The office of this proposed organization was at 355 Pennsylvania Avenue, where books were open for signatures. Notice of the proposed movement was signed by L. Oppenheimer, Henry Meling, Johann Walter, Joseph A. Schell, Louis Landrock, August Bruehl, H. Diebeitsch, E. C. Randolph, William Geriske, Charles Werner, and Alexander McRee. This was afterward changed into a rifle company. By April 24, this company had over forty members, and was organized with the following officers: Captain, Thomas J. Williams; first lieutenant, E. C. Randolph; second lieutenant, W. H. Standiford; third lieutenant, E. Hunt; orderly sergeant, Henry Kaluzowski; quartermaster sergeant, Charles Werner. The name chosen was "The Turner Rifles." On April 20, a meeting was held on Capitol Hill for the purpose of organizing a company of men who, from their age, were exempt from military duty. They were to aid in the defense of the National Capital. Martin King was chairman of the meeting, and Stephen G. Dodge secretary. The name selected was "The Silver Greys." By vote of those present Robert Brown was chosen captain. On the 22d, a number of French and Italian citizens held a meeting at the European Hotel, and resolved to form a company to be called "The Garibaldi Guards," and twenty-two members immediately enrolled. On the same day, a meeting of the old soldiers of 1812 was held, Colonel John S. Williams taking the chair, and Richard Burgess acting as secretary. A committee was appointed to prepare a program and report the next day at 4:00 p. M., consisting of Dr. William Jones, William A. Bradley, and Richard Burgess. At the adjourned meeting the hope was expressed that the time was not remote when the country would be again united; but in the meantime they held themselves in readiness to perform any duty to which they might be assigned by the Government of the United States for the protection of the city of Washington. They invited all persons exempt by law from military service to unite with them in offering their services to the Government. The next day they tendered their services to the Secretary of War, which were accepted, and a written response promised in a few days. On the 25th, another meeting was held and an organization was effected as follows: Captain, John S. Williams; first lieutenant, Edward Semmes; second lieutenant, A. W. Worthington; third lieutenant, F. R. Dorsett; surgeon, Dr. William Jones; orderly sergeant, A. Baldwin.

One of the incidents of the times was the arrest on the 25th of April of five young men, who were captured in the act of carrying arms away from the city. The arrest was made by two members of the Metropolitan Rifles, named Bigley and Frazier. These two young men had watched the five enter the tavern of Christopher Boyle, and were suspicious that all was not right. At length the suspected characters rode away, in a wagon driven by a negro, toward Bladensburg. The two young men followed them, and though they were armed with nothing more effective than brickbats, challenged them, took them prisoners, and brought back to the city the entire outfit. By order of the Mayor they were taken to the guardhouse, and upon examination a bundle in the wagon was found to contain effective firearms. The names of the five men thus arrested were William Stanton, William Harding, Augustus Hand, William Eugerman, and Thomas Davis. Three of the five were quite heavily armed.

Enlistments still went on, and by the 25th of April there were about ten thousand troops in the city. The wounded of the Massachusetts Sixth, which had reached Washington on the evening of the 19th, who were being taken care of at the infirmary, passed resolutions of thanks to the officers thereof, to the surgeons, and the Sisters of Mercy for their kindness and sympathy. On this day, the Seventh New York Regiment came into Washington and marched up Pennsylvania Avenue, making a magnificent appearance. They were received with the wildest demonstrations of delight by the citizens. On the 26th, ii large body of troops arrived from Annapolis, consisting of one-half of the Rhode Island regiment, commanded by Governor Sprague, and the Butler Brigade of Massachusetts, numbering one thousand and four hundred men, and commanded by Colonel Benjamin F. Butler. Troops now daily arrived, and at this time there were fully seventeen thousand soldiers in the city.

On April 27, the Seventy-first New York and the Fifth Pennsylvania regiments reached Washington. April 29, the Eighth Massachusetts came in, and in the afternoon of the same day the steamers Anacostia, Baltic, and Pocahontas arrived. The Baltic brought about six hundred Pennsylvania and Ohio troops. About this time treachery in the Navy Yard was discovered, a large quantity of bombshells being found filled with sawdust and sand. On April 30, the Twelfth New York Regiment came in, and the other half of the Rhode Island regiment arrived in the steamer Bienville from New York, bringing with them an unusual quantity of supplies, and on their march through the streets displaying the infrequent features of four vicandieres appropriately uniformed. It was said of this regiment, "For completeness of appointment in all respects, nothing can excel the Rhode Island regiment."

The Twenty-fifth New York came in on the 30th of April, and the Sixty-ninth New York, the afterward famous Irish regiment, under Colonel Michael Corcoran. A notable event took place on the 2d of May, in the raising of a flag over the United States Patent Office in the presence of a large concourse of citizens. The Rhode Island regiment, which was quartered in that building and in command of Governor Sprague, formed in line on Seventh Street. The Metropolitan Rifles, Captain Nalley, were on the roof of the portico, formed in line just behind the entablature, facing to the front. At the appointed time President Lincoln appeared on the roof, and hoisted the flag to the top of the staff, a stout hickory pole fifty feet high. On this day the Rhode Island artillery arrived in the city, having a battery of six pieces, and the Seventh New York took up its quarters at Camp Cameron on Meridian Hill. The Sixty-ninth New York were quartered near the Georgetown college buildings. At this time the Government had six steamships running up and down the Potomac to protect merchant vessels plying upon it. On May 5, Sunday, the Twelfth New York Regiment was on parade on Pennsylvania Avenue, and afterward was drawn up in the form of a hollow square in front of the City Hall. In this position they listened to their chaplain read a chapter from St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, after which the whole regiment joined in the singing of "Old Hundred," accompanied by the band. The Twenty-eighth New York arrived on the 6th, and the First and a portion of the Second New Jersey. May 8, James A. Tait, Charles Everett, and Lemuel Towers were mustered into the United States service as lieutenant-colonels; P. H. King, A. Balbach, and J. McH. Hollingsworth, as majors. Colonel Ellsworth's Zouaves were sworn into service on the 7th, one thousand strong. The Fourth Pennsylvania, Colonel John F. Hartrauft, arrived on the 9th.

The officers of the militia of the District of Columbia, commissioned by the President about this time, were as follows: Of the Cameron Guards — James Elder, captain; Thomas Mushaw, Oliver Birkhead, and John W. Glover, lieutenants. Company D, Union Regiment, — J. M. McClelland, captain; Alexander Tait, J. H. Dubant, and J. H. Posey, lieutenants. Potomac Light Guards — Robert Boyd, captain; C. A. Oftut, W. H. Burch, and B. McGraw, lieutenants. Company E, National Guard Battalion, — William McCormey, third lieutenant. Arthur W. Fletcher, brigade quartermaster. John R. Dale, captain of the District of Columbia Rifles. National Guard, Company F — W. P. Ferguson, captain; J. T. Carroll, first lieutenant; W. Nottingham, second lieutenant, and J. B. Davis, third lieutenant. Union Volunteers, Company F — James Fletcher, captain; Henry P. Duncan, first lieutenant; Isaac E. Owen, second lieutenant, and J. Clement Reynolds, third lieutenant. Washington Light Infantry — Colonel, Thomas A. Scott: Company A — Lemuel D. Williams, captain; C. H. Uttermehle, first lieutenant; Marvin P. Fisher, second lieutenant, and James Coleman, third lieutenant. Sherman's celebrated light artillery arrived May 9, commanded by Major T. W. Sherman. The District brigade of volunteers, numbering about three thousand and five hundred, were out on parade May 13, under command of Colonel Stone. This brigade was composed of eight battalions, commanded as follows: First Battalion, Major J. McH. Hollingsworth; Second Battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel Everett; Third Battalion, Major J. R. Smead; Fourth Battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel Towers; Fifth Battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel Tait; Sixth Battalion, Major J. Grey Jewell; Seventh Battalion, Major P. If. King; Eighth Battalion, Captain Gerhardt. At their head in the parade was the President's Mounted Guard, Captain Owen.

May 17, the volunteers of the District were mustered with the militia of the District, and field officers appointed to each. The complete organization was as follows:

First Battalion, from Georgetown,— Major J. McH. Hollingsworth; Company A, Anderson Rifles, Captain Rodier; Home Guards, Captain Goddard; Potomac Light Guard, Captain Boyd; Andrew Johnson Guards, Captain McBlair.

Second Battalion — Major J. Gray Jewell; Henderson Guards, Captain Foxwell; Company A, Union Regiment, Captain Carrington; Company B, Captain Kelly; Company D, Captain McClelland; Company E, Captain Callan.

Third Battalion — Major J. R. Smead; National Rifles, Lieutenant Davis; Company F, Union Regiment, Captain Fletcher; Slemmer Guards, Captain Knight; Cameron Guards, Captain Elder.

Fourth Battalion — Lieutenant-Colonel Lemuel Towers; Company A, Washington Light Infantry, Captain Williams; Company E, Zouaves, Captain Powell; Washington Light Guard, Captain Marks; District Union Rifles, Captain Dale.

Fifth Battalion—Lieutenant-Colonel Everett; Constitutional Guards, Captain Degges; Company A, Putnam Rifles, Captain Thistleton; Metropolitan Rifles, Captain Nalley; Jackson Guards, Captain McDermott; Company B, Putnam Rifles, Captain Grinuell.

Sixth Battalion — Lieutenant-Colonel Tait; Company A, National Guard, Captain Lloyd; Company C, Captain McKim; Company E, Captain Morgan; Company F, Captain .

Seventh Battalion — Major P. H. King; City Guards, Captain Clarke; Mechanics Union Rifles, Captain Rutherford; Company D, Washington Light Infantry, Captain Cross; Company C, Union Regiment, Captain Miller.

Eighth Battalion—Major A. Balbach; Washington Rifles, Captain Loeffler; Company A, Turner Rifles, Captain Gerhardt; Company B, Captain Kryzanowski.

The Washington Zouaves, on Wednesday, May 15, displayed a handsome flag at their headquarters, in Thorn's building. They had then been on duty several weeks at the arsenal, at Long Bridge, and about the several departments.

About that time, an incident occurred which attracted considerable attention in connection with the First New Jersey Regiment, encamped near Meridian Hill. A party of its soldiers called upon a Mrs. Baker, a widow, who kept a market garden near their camp, and asked her for some onions and other vegetables for one of their number who was sick. She freely complied with the request, and would take no pay. Next day the party returned, and made Mrs. Baker a present of a handsome Bible, which she accepted as of more value than money, thus bringing to memory the measure of meal of the widow of Zarephath, which, in consequence of her kindness to the wayfaring prophet, was never again allowed to be empty.

General Benjamin F. Butler arrived in Washington May 16, and was waited upon at the National Hotel by numerous friends, and at night was serenaded by Withers's Band. The Eighth New York was encamped at Camp Mansfield, on Kalorama Heights. A flag was raised over the General Post Office May 22, in presence of a large assemblage of citizens. General St. John B. L. Skinner was chairman of the committee of arrangements, and made an address, stating that the flag about to be raised was the contribution of the clerks of the Post Office Department. President Lincoln then, upon request, raised the flag. The Hartford Cornet Band played the "Star Spangled Banner," and addresses were made by Postmaster-General Blair, Secretary Seward, and Secretary Smith.

The night of May 23 was a beautiful one on the Potomac. The moon shone brightly and peacefully down, and perfect quiet prevailed all over the valleys and hills in the neighborhood of Washington. But a most important movement was begun that night. The troops in the city were ordered to occupy the heights in Virginia opposite Washington. At eleven o'clock on the night of the 23d the Washington Light Infantry, Company A, was posted some distance up Maryland Avenue from the Long Bridge. A squad of infantry was posted near the Washington Monument, to keep an eye on boats going out of the canal. Near the Long Bridge and on it were the infantry, a company of Rhode Island soldiers, a company of United States cavalry, a company of United States artillery, the Putnam Rifles, the Turner Rifles, Metropolitan Rifles, Company F Union Volunteers, Company E Washington Light Infantry, and the Constitutional Guards, occupying the Virginia end of the bridge. A short time after midnight Captain Powell's Zouaves and Captain Smead's company of National Rifles advanced across the bridge to the vicinity of Roach's Spring, and soon the Virginia pickets set spurs to their horses and made off for Alexandria. The Constitutional Guards, to the number of about eighty, were on duty on the bridge. Upon being asked by Colonel Stone, of the District Volunteers, if they would go beyond the District of Columbia, they replied that they would go anywhere in defense of the Union. They were therefore sent forward as far as Four Mile Run. The Virginia picket guard, stationed near Roach's Spring, ran away, and about an hour later the alarm bells were rung in Alexandria.

On Friday morning, the 24th, a large body of troops crossed the Potomac into Virginia. Ellsworth's Zouaves in two steamers left their camp on the Eastern Branch, making directly for Alexandria. The Michigan regiment, accompanied by a detachment of United States troops and two pieces of Sherman's battery, proceeded by the Long Bridge to Alexandria. The Seventh New York was held under orders at Hughes's Tavern. The Second New Jersey was at Roach's Spring, one-half mile from the bridge. The New York Twenty-fifth, the Twelfth New York, and the Third and Fourth New Jersey proceeded to occupy Arlington Heights, joined by other troops which crossed over the Georgetown aqueduct.

At 4:00 A. M., Ellsworth's Zouaves landed at Alexandria, and, though fired upon in landing by the few Virginia sentries posted in the town, which fire was returned by the Zouaves on the decks of the steamers, immediately on landing marched directly into the center of the town, meeting with no resistance. Reaching the city flagstaff they hoisted an American flag, and then perceiving a rebel flag floating from the Marshall House, Colonel Ellsworth proceeded there with a squad of men and requested the proprietor, James Jackson, to take it down. This request not being complied with, Colonel Ellsworth went to the top of the house and hauled it down, and wrapping it round his body started down the stairs. As he was descending, the proprietor, who had concealed himself in a dark passage, discharged the contents of one barrel of a double-barreled gun into his body, killing him instantly. Private Francis E. Brownell, of Colonel Ellsworth's Zouaves, instantly discharged the contents of his own musket into Jackson's brain and pierced his body with his bayonet as he fell, the other barrel of Jackson's gun going off" as he fell. The news of the assassination of Colonel Ellsworth reached the city at an early hour in the morning, and when it was confirmed all the flags in the city were displayed at half-mast. The remains of the patriotic and brave Colonel were escorted to the Navy Yard by the steamer Mount Vernon, and the funeral occurred from the Executive Mansion at eleven o'clock the same morning, whence the body was taken to the railroad depot for conveyance to New York.

Intrenching tools were conveyed over the river, and on Saturday, the 25th, the work of fortifying the city began in earnest on the Virginia side. One of the New Jersey regiments threw up fortifications at the Junction of the Washington, Alexandria, and Columbia Turnpike, and another work of the same kind was commenced by another New Jersey regiment on the next height above, on the road toward Alexandria. The Sixty-ninth Regiment was engaged in destroying communications between Alexandria and Leesburg, by the destruction of bridges, etc., on the Loudoun and Hampshire Railroad. The fortifications thus commenced on the 25th of May, 1861, subsequently became of immense extent, and together with those on other sides of Washington, consisted of forty-eight works, mounting three hundred guns. The entire circumscribing perimeter of these fortifications was about thirty-five miles in length.

To the National Rifles of Captain J. R. Smead is due the honor of first entering upon the sacred soil of the Old Dominion, crossing the Long Bridge at an early hour on the night of May 23, driving in the advance pickets of the rebels, and with other District troops holding the roads to Alexandria. Captain Powell's Zouaves were among the first, as were also the Metropolitan Rifles, under command, at the time, of Lieutenant Chauncey, and all were prompt and meritorious in the discharge of their duty.

At Fort Washington, on the Potomac, a few miles below Alexandria, on the Maryland side of the river, Major Haskins was in command. The Ninth New York Regiment, which was the first regiment to offer its services to the Government for three years, arrived in Washington May 28. J. \V. Stiles was the colonel of this regiment. The Fifth Regiment, District of Columbia Militia, was mustered into the service May 29, Colonel W. H. Philip commanding. The several companies were commanded by Captains S. B. Elliott, W. B. Webb, Hilton, Clark, French, Emory, Jillard, Burchell, and Robinson. The regiment was four hundred strong, and was made up of citizens residing between Seventh and Seventeenth streets and H and Boundary streets.

May 30, the Sixty-ninth New York Regiment raised their flag at Fort Corcoran, their new camp at Arlington Heights. Colonel Hunter, of the Third United States Cavalry, who was assigned as commander of the Aqueduct Brigade, composed of the Fifth, Twenty-eighth, and Sixty-ninth New York regiments, made a speech on this occasion, as also did Captain Thomas F. Meagher. Mr. Savage's new national song was then sung by the author, the entire body of troops present joining in the chorus. The New Jersey troops threw up intrenchments at the Columbia Springs early in June, placing some thirty-two pound cannon in position, as well as other artillery. The volunteer battalion near the chain bridge, two miles above Georgetown, was well fortified, and had guns so mounted as to sweep the bridge and the Virginia shore in case of necessity.

On the 9th of June, an important movement was made up the Potomac from Washington. The Rhode Island battery, under Colonel Burnside, was sent to join General Patterson at Chambersburg, and on the 10th Colonel Stone's command, consisting of the National Rifles under Major Smead, the Slemmer Guards under Captain Knight, the Cameron Guards under Captain , Captain Magruder's battery of United States artillery, the First Pennsylvania, and the Ninth New York, and the First New Hampshire, moved up the Rockville road toward Edward's Ferry, about midway between Washington and Harper's Ferry. It was the only crossing for teams between the District of Columbia and the Point of Rocks, and was at that time a general thoroughfare for the transit of secessionists and military stores from Maryland into Virginia. The quota of the District in this movement was one thousand, and was promptly furnished to the Government by Washington and Georgetown.

June 18, 1861, Professor T. S. C. Lowe made a number of ascensions in his balloon, taking along a telegraph instrument connected by a wire with the White House. When the balloon was at its greatest elevation, about one-half mile, the following telegram was sent down:

"Balloon Enterprise, Washington, D. C, June 18, 1861.

"To the President of the United States:

"This point of elevation commands an area of near fifty miles in diameter. The city, with its encampments, presents a superb scene. I have pleasure in sending you this first dispatch from an aerial station, and in acknowledging indebtedness to your encouragement for the opportunity of demonstrating the availability of the science of aeronautics to the military service of the country.

"T. S. C. Lowe."

June 24, the Councils of Washington passed a bill appropriating $5,000 for the support of the families of the District of Columbia volunteers, payable out of the general fund. The first grand review of the Army of the Potomac occurred July 4, 1861. Major Jewell's battalion of District volunteers, after an arduous campaign of some weeks on the line of the Potomac, returned to Washington on the morning of July 4. The same day, the Third Battalion of District Volunteers returned to Washington from Edward's Ferry, having rendered effective service to the Government. Regiments of troops continued to arrive in Washington in such numbers that any attempt to enumerate them would not be of interest. After the 4th of July, they passed over into Virginia in considerable numbers. On the morning of the 9th, two soldiers who had been killed in a skirmish at Great Falls, named Riggs and Uhl, were buried from the armory in the new German cemetery near Glenwood. This appears to have been the first burial of soldiers of the District of Columbia killed in defense of the Union. The term of service of the District volunteers having expired, several of the companies were mustered out, July 10, the companies thus mustered out being Company A, Union Regiment, Captain E. C. Carrington; Company A, Washington Light Infantry; the Washington Zouaves; Company E, Washington Light Infantry; the Anderson Rifles, the Potomac Light Guard, the National Rifles, the Home Guards, and the Andrew Johnson Guards.

July 16, 1861, Edward Thompson, a private soldier in the Watson Guards, died at the age of sixty-four years. The Watson Guards were, at the time, under command of Captain Callan. In 1814, he was at the battle of Bladensburg; in 1836-37, he was in the Florida war; in 184647, he served with the District of Columbia volunteers under Colonel Watson in the war with Mexico; and in April, 1861, he volunteered to defend the National Capital against the rebels, in the Watson Guards.

Several regiments went over into Virginia, July 20, 1861. The battle of Manassas Junction, or the first battle of Bull Run, was fought on Sunday, July 21, commencing about 10:30 A. M., and lasting until 4:00 P. M. The history of this battle is sufficiently well known not to need recital in this work, though it may not be out of place to note that for several days after it was fought, it was continuously asserted to have been the fault of non-combatants that there was a rout and a stampede of the Union forces. General McDowell's official report, however, set the matter before the public in its true light. After the rout, many of the soldiers made their way to Washington as fast as possible, and were picked up and made comfortable by members of the National Rifles, of the District volunteers, in their fine armory in Temperance Hall. There were others that wandered about the streets, seeking shelter from the driving rain which fell on the day after the battle, which fact — that is, the fact of the shower of rain — was seized upon by certain meteorologists to direct attention to their theory that rain always follows heavy cannonading.

July 27, there was a fearful explosion at the Navy Yard, in the rocket house, which killed two men and wounded two others. The killed were Francis C. Brown and John P. Ferguson, and the wounded William Martin and Nicholas Ray. (See the bio of Francis Brown's wife, Almira Virginia Brown)

A. Porter, colonel of the Sixteenth United States Infantry, was appointed provost-marshal of the .District of Columbia, August 1, 1861. His General Order No. 1 was issued August 2, ordering all officers and enlisted men to remain in camp unless absent by permission; and all officers and soldiers were forbidden to be in the streets, at hotels, or at other places, after 9:00 p. M.

Following are names of Washingtonians killed at the battles of Stone Bridge and Bull Run, July 18 and 21, in the First Regiment Virginia Volunteers: Captain C. K. Sherman and Isidore Morris.

August 6, the first company of Colonel Everett's new regiment of District of Columbia volunteers was mustered into the service, with Captain Knight in command. Captain Geary's company of cavalry was mustered in for three years, as were also the Everett's Guards about the same time, with Maurice Tucker captain, James R. Harrover first lieutenant, Jeremiah O'Leary second lieutenant, and George Angerton orderly sergeant.

One of the important institutions of Washington pertaining to the war was the army bakery, located in the Capitol, in the exterior vaults. It was in control of Lieutenant Thomas J. Cate, of the Twelfth United States Artillery, who, upon the necessity for such an institution arising, offered his services to build the ovens. This work being performed he employed one hundred and seventy hands, dividing them into day and night squads. By this bakery the soldiers were supplied with fresh and wholesome bread. In the employ of the bakery were twelve wagons, which were kept constantly going, loaded with bread, carrying out nearly sixty thousand loaves per day. Each loaf weighed twenty two ounces. In October, 1861, this bakery was consuming one hundred and fifty barrels of flour per day. A yeast room was attached to the bakery, employing eight men. The ovens were large and well built, and each was capable of baking about four thousand three hundred loaves in twenty-four hours.

November 5, 1861, the mansions of Senator Douglas, Senator Rice, and Mr. Corbin, known as Minnesota Row, were engaged for a military hospital, at an annual rental of $7,000.

The Navy Yard was kept busy all the time during the war. December 1, 1861, Captain Dahlgren, in charge, had at work under him eighteen hundred men. A number of very large anchors, weighing from eight thousand pounds downward, were made there, as also many chain cables.

The Second District Volunteer Regiment was mustered into the service of the United States for three years in February, 1862, and by the 20th of this month all of its companies but three were full. The regimental officers were as follows: Colonel, Isaac K. Peck; major, Charles Alexander; adjutant, C. M. Lienbcck; quartermaster, James P. Sanderson; surgeon, Dr. J. B. Keasby; assistant surgeon, Dr. L. C. Hoole, and chaplain, Rev. Mr. Lockwood. The captains of the several companies were as follows: Company A, Captain Garrett; Company B, Captain Dubant; Company C, Captain Drew; Company D, Captain Ditmarris; Company E, Captain Callan; Company F, Captain Steele; Company G, Captain Stockbridge; Company H, Captain Blything; Company I, Captain Duncan; Company K, Captain Krouse. On May 21, this regiment was presented with a handsome flag, having in gold letters the following inscription: "President's Guard, Second Regiment District of Columbia Volunteers." The flag was mounted on a staff bearing this inscription: "Presented to the President's Guard by the Ladies of Washington, May 21, 1862." The presentation speech was made by Major B. B. French, and the response by Colonel Peck.

At the beginning of the year 1862, there were the following numbers of soldiers in and around Washington, including the various armies as noted: At Fortress Monroe, under General Wool, 15,000 men; south of Washington and partly on the Maryland side of the Potomac, General Hooker's division, including General Sickles's brigade, about 10,000; southwest of the city was the mass of General McClellan's army, consisting of eight divisions, nearly 160,000 men, and other troops on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad toward Baltimore, making the grand aggregate nearly 200,000 men.

The force designed for the special defense of Washington, while General McClellan was engaged on the Peninsula in front of Richmond, was described as follows, the forces being placed in command of Brigadier-General James Wadsworth, according to General McClellan's orders, dated April 1, 1862: "The garrisons in the forts around Washington amount to 10,000 men, other disposable troops now with General Wadsworth being 11,400 men. The troops employed in guarding the various railroads in Maryland amounted to some 3,350 men. These it was designed to relieve, they being old regiments, with dismounted cavalry, and send them forward to Manassas. General Abererombie occupied Warrenton with a force which, including General Geary's at White Plains and the cavalry to be at their disposal, amounted to 7,780 men, with twelve pieces of artillery. Besides these General McClellan requested that troops be sent to Manassas so as to make the command of General Abercrombie equal to 18,000 men. Thus, to summarize, the troops designed for the defense of Washington were as follows: At Warrenton, 7,780 men; at Manassas, 10,860 men; in the Shenandoah, 35,470 men; on the Lower Potomac, 1,350; in all, 55,460 men. In front of Washington there were to be left 18,000 men, exclusive of the batteries of artillery, which were as follows: Battery C, First New York Artillery, 2 guns; Battery K, First New York Artillery, 6 guns; Battery L, Second New York Artillery, 6 guns; Ninth New York Independent Battery, 6 guns; Sixteenth New York Independent Battery, 6 guns; Battery A, Second Battalion, New York Artillery, 6 guns; Battery B, Second New York Artillery, 6 guns; total number of guns, 32.

On August 6, a great war meeting was held in front of the Capitol building. At 5:00 p. M., a salute of thirty-four guns was fired and the bells of the city were rung. The Marine Band played at this place instead of its accustomed place. The President and his cabinet were in attendance. The Mayor of Washington presided, and Samuel E. Douglass was secretary of the committee of arrangements. The speakers were the Hon. George S. Boutwell, Commissioner of Internal Revenue; Hon. Leonard Swett of Chicago, Hon. R. W." Thompson of Indiana, L. E. Chittenden, Register of the Treasury; President Lincoln, General Shepley, Military Governor of Louisiana; Senator Harlan of Iowa, and General E. C. Carrington, United States District Attorney for the District of Columbia. The meeting lasted until 10:15 p. M. A series of resolutions was adopted, expressive of the sentiments of the meeting, regarding the dismemberment of the Union as an event not to be contemplated in any possible contingency; that the hesitation then manifested by loyal citizens was owing solely to their misgivings as to the prosecution of the war; urging the President to adopt effectual means of assuring the people that he was resolved to prosecute the war on a scale limited only by the resources of the country; that the measures adopted should be such as would bear with the most crushing weight upon those in rebellion, whether in arms or not; that the leaders of the Rebellion should be regarded as irreclaimable traitors, and either deprived of life or expelled from the country; that the National Capital was eminently the place where treason should he instantly denounced and punished, and that the most stringent measures should he adopted by the proper authorities without delay to arrest the disloyal men and women within the District of Columbia; approving the act of Congress subjecting to confiscation the property of rebels, and declaring free such of their slaves as should take refuge within our lines; that the Federal Government should be sustained, no matter what administration was in power, and pledging to the President and his cabinet the most earnest, cordial, and determined support; and lastly, pledging themselves to make ample pecuniary provision for the support of the families of such of the citizens of the District of Columbia as were in the military service of their country.

The speech of the President was a noteworthy one, being uttered at a time when much criticism was being indulged in by friends of himself and those of General McClellan, for opposite reasons, and when there was dissatisfaction with the results of the campaign on the Peninsula. Omitting the mere introductory portion of the speech, the President said:

"There has been a very widespread attempt to have a quarrel between General McClellan and the Secretary of War. Now, I occupy a position that enables me to believe, at least, that these two gentlemen are not nearly so deep in the quarrel as some presuming to be their friends. General McClellan's attitude is such that in the very selfishness of nature he cannot but wish to succeed, and I hope he will be successful. The Secretary of War is precisely in the same situation. If the military commander in the field cannot be successful, not only the Secretary of War, but myself, for the time being the master of them both, cannot but be failures. Sometimes we hear a dispute about how many men McClellan has had. Those who would disparage him say that he has had a very large number, and those who would disparage the Secretary of War insist that General McClellan has had but a very small number. The basis for this is that there is always a wide difference between the grand total on McClellan's rolls and the men actually fit for duty; those who would disparage him talk of the grand total on paper, and those who would disparage the Secretary of War talk of those present and fit for duty.

"General McClellan has sometimes asked for things that the Secretary of War could not give him. General McClellan is not to blame for asking for what he wanted and needed, and the Secretary of War is not to blame for not giving what he had not to give. And I say here, that so far as I know, the Secretary of War has withheld nothing from McClellan without my approval, and I have withheld nothing at any time in my power to give. I have no accusation against him. I believe he is a brave and able man, and I stand here, as justice requires me to do, to take upon myself what has been charged upon the Secretary of War as withheld from him."

The second battle of Bull Run was fought on the 29th, 30th, and 31st of August, 1862, resulting, as is well known, in the serious defeat of the Union forces under General Pope. In consequence of the great losses to the Union army in wounded, there was great demand for surgeons and nurses to care for them, and a corresponding activity in the departments and among the people at Washington in response to the demand. Fully one thousand persons, employees of the Government and others, assembled at the corner of Maryland Avenue and Eighth Street South at four o'clock in the afternoon of Saturday, the 30th, expecting speedy transportation to the battlefield; but owing to the failure to notify the engineer of the train that civilians were to go on it, there was a delay of four hours in getting started. At length, however, at eight o'clock, the train got under way with its load of humanitarians, to carry succor to the sick and wounded. After a ride of ten hours, they reached Fairfax Station, and then could proceed no further, except on foot, and on their own responsibility, the bridge over Bull Run having been destroyed by the rebels the night before; and then there was a march of fifteen miles before them if they went on. The few that did make the attempt to reach the battlefield were peremptorily ordered back; so all gave up and returned to Washington. The next day, the medical director of the District, John Campbell, published a request that all who were willing to receive into their houses convalescent soldiers, in order to make room for wounded soldiers, would send their names to him, together with the number they could accommodate. The movement thus begun at Washington, to send surgeons and other assistance to the battlefields, instantly spread to all the larger cities of the Northern States, and packages of all kinds of clothing, etc., were forwarded therefrom in great abundance.

On September 1, a consultation was held by the President, General Halleck, and General McClellan, as to the defenses of the city, and a number of gunboats came up the Potomac, anchoring at different points off the city, so as to be ready in case of an attack upon the city, which was then with good reason apprehended. Quite a number of clerks from the departments went down to the boat-landing at Sixth Street, to assist in transferring the wounded, about fifteen hundred of whom reached the city that day. Carriages, wagons, omnibuses, and ambulances were all pressed into the service. The influx of wounded after this battle made it necessary to convert every place capable of use in this way into hospitals for the sick and wounded, the upper story of the Patent Office, the Capitol, and numerous other buildings being converted into hospitals.

On September 2, General McClellan was placed in command of the fortifications of Washington and of all of the troops for its defense, and the patrolmen were all busy closing all retail liquor establishments. September 3, the remains of Colonel Fletcher Webster, son of Hon. Daniel Webster, having been embalmed at Alexandria, were brought to Washington, as were also those of General Kearney. The entire army of General Pope, which commenced falling back from Centerville on Monday morning, September 1, reached its position in front of the fortifications on the south side of the Potomac on Tuesday night, General McClellan assuming command of this army, as also of General Burnside's. In consequence of the threatened danger to the city, the clerks in the several departments of the Government were organized into military companies for the defense of the Capital. In the Interior Department a company was formed containing 120 men, under Captain J. M. Edmonds. The Census clerks formed a company of 85 men; the Patent Office, one of 100 men. The Post Office employees made a company containing 87 active men, and 30 reserves, with captain, R. K. Scott; first lieutenant, C. F. McDonald; second lieutenant, William H. Frazer. The Treasury Department also organized a company, but the War Department was too busy with its regular duties to give any attention to local military organizations. The employees of the Government Printing Office organized a company containing about 170 men. The total number of employees of the Government thus organized into companies for the defense of the city was about 1,800 men. The National Rifles, about 80 strong, tendered their services. Including this latter company there were, by September 4, 18 companies organized, the Interior Department furnishing 8, the Treasury Department 5, the Printing Office 2, the Coast Survey 1, the Post Office Department 1, and the National Rifles. On the same day, the One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Pennsylvania Regiment arrived in the city, and the One Hundred and Twenty-second New York and the Twentieth Michigan. The German Relief Association, organized to relieve and comfort the sick and wounded soldiers, performed unusually acceptable service at this time. The clerks of the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Auditors' divisions were organized on Wednesday evening, September 3, with captain, D. H. Lusk, first lieutenant, A. J. Bentley, second lieutenant, J. Hackett. The stonecutters and laborers at work on the Capitol on the same day organized two companies, oue company being officered as follows: Captain, Richard Morgan, first lieutenant, H. Ellis, and second lieutenant, P. Fritz; the other as follows: Captain, A. Johnson, first lieutenant, A. Carroll, and second lieutenant, Joseph Sullivan. Other employees at work on the building organized another company, with captain, C. F. Thomas, first lieutenant, C. Magruder, and second lieutenant, G. Miller.

In consequence of the invasion of Maryland by the successful rebels, and the capture of Fredericksburg, a force of troops left Washington on Sunday, September 7, General McClellan following at 6:40 P. M., General Banks being left in charge of the defense of Washington. On Saturday night, the troops had been placed under marching orders, and the new levies made the night air resound with their shouting and their cheers, while the old troops, having had considerable severe experience in actual warfare, were much more quiet. The great battle of August 17, at South Mountain, was one of the severest of the war, resulting in a victory for the Army of the Potomac. During the 18th, the firing was not renewed, General McClellau having agreed to an armistice, proposed by the enemy, to bury the dead. After this great battle, the Sanitary Commission was very active in sending supplies to the army. At this time there were the following hospitals in Washington for the care of the sick and wounded soldiers:

Ascension Hospital, at the corner of H and Ninth streets, Armory Hospital, on Seventh Street, south of the canal; Baptist Hospital, Dr. Samson's, on Thirteenth Street, near G; Baptist Hospital, Rev. Mr. Kennard's, on E Street, near Sixth; Caspion's House, near the Capitol; Carver's House, near Boundary, between Seventh and Fourteenth; Capitol Hospital; Columbian Hospital, Columbian College, on Fourteenth Street; Cliffburne Hospital, near Columbian College; Douglas Hospital, at the corner of I and First streets; Ebenezer Hospital, on Fourth Street, near G; Eckington Hospital, near the Gales mansion; Emory Hospital, at the Sixth Cavalry Barracks, east of the Capitol; Epiphany Hospital, on G Street, between Thirteenth and Fourteenth streets; Finley Hospital, near the Eckington Hospital; Harewood Hospital, Corcoran's Place, near the tollgate; Judiciary Square Hospital; Kalorama Hospital, Twenty-first Street and Kalorama Heights; Methodist Hospital (Southern), Eighth and I streets; Mount Pleasant Hospital, Fourteenth Street, near Columbian College; Ninth Street Hospital, between G and H streets; Odd Fellows Hospital, Eighth Street East, near the Navy Yard; Patent Office Hospital; Ryland Chapel Hospital, Tenth and D streets; Seminary Hospital, Gay and Washington streets, Georgetown; St. Elizabeth Hospital, Government Insane Asylum; Stone's Hospital, Fourteenth Street, east of the college; Trinity Church Hospital, Third and C streets; Union Chapel Hospital, Twentieth Street, near H; Union Hotel Hospital, Georgetown; Unitarian or Cranch Hospital, Sixth and D streets; St. Aloysius Hospital, near St. Aloysius Catholic Church. Besides these there were ten hospitals in Alexandria.

It would be impossible to do more than justice to those who attended the sick, wounded, and dying soldiers in these hospitals. Ladies of every class in society, including the most refined, and members of families of foreign diplomats, all moved by a sympathy for suffering humanity common to all hearts, and as honorable as common, were constantly at work at the bedsides of those needing aid. The amount of good done in this way is inestimable.

After the issuance of the Proclamation of September 22, 1862, a serenade was given the President on Wednesday evening, the 24th. In response, the President said: "I have not been distinctly informed why it is that on this occasion you appear to do me this honor. I suppose—["It is because of the proclamation!"]—I was about to say I suppose I understand it. What I did I did after very full deliberation, and under a very heavy and solemn sense of responsibility. I can only trust in God that I made no mistake." Secretary Chase, Cassius M. Clay, and Attorney-General Bates were also visited and serenaded, and all made speeches approving of the proclamation.

The First Regiment, District of Columbia Volunteers, in October, 1862 were sent to Alexandria to act as provost guard, Colonel Tait relieving General Slough as military governor of the city of Alexandria. This regiment had been in the severe campaigns of Banks and Pope, but notwithstanding this fact had at this time nearly five hundred men in ranks fit for duty, and only twenty-five absent without leave. The Second District of Columbia Regiment was for some time previous to October 31 engaged in duty on the Upper Potomac, but was relieved about this time, and came to the city.

Island Hall Hospital was established at the corner of Sixth Street and Virginia Avenue about November 1, and was under the care of Surgeons Hayes and Schenck. Up to January 1, 1863, bounties were given to such persons as should enlist in the District of Columbia regiments, but at that time this practice was abandoned, because very few of the inhabitants availed themselves of the bounty, and because most of the enlistments were by parties from abroad, who in some instances were deserters from other regiments. At the close of the year 1862, there were about fourteen thousand sick and wounded soldiers in the hospitals in Washington, Georgetown, and Alexandria. But notwithstanding there were so many, there was sufficient room for all in the regular hospitals, and the Fourth Presbyterian Church, the Church of the Ascension, and the Methodist Episcopal Church South were vacated, when all the churches were vacated which had been in use by the Government for this purpose. On February 18, 1863, Lieutenant-Colonel W. E. Doster was relieved at his own request as provost-marshal of the District of Columbia, and Captain Henry B. Todd, of the First New York Cavalry, appointed in his stead.

March 31, 1863, a great war meeting was held in both halls of Congress, under the auspices of the two boards of the city Council. Mayor Richard Wallach presided in the hall of the House of Representatives, and Lewis Clephane and Alexander R. Shepherd in the hall of the Senate, the former during the first part of the meeting, and the latter during the latter part. In the House of Representatives, Ex-Governor Bebb, of Ohio, submitted a series of resolutions strongly in favor of fighting the war to a successful termination, and quoting John Bright, as to the destiny of the Republic, as follows:

"We cannot believe that civilization, in its journey with the sun, will sink into endless night, to gratify the ambition of the leaders of this revolt, who seek to 'wade through slaughter to a throne,' and 'shut the gates of mercy on mankind.' We have another and far brighter vision before our eyes. Through the thick gloom of the present we see the brightness of the future as the sun in the heavens. We see one vast confederation, stretching from the frozen North in one unbroken line to the glowing South, and from the wild billows of the stormy Atlantic to the calmer waters of the Pacific main; and we see one people, one law, one language, and one religion, and over all this wide continent the home of freedom and a refuge for the oppressed of every race."

Alderman Sargent then offered a resolution to the effect that there were two classes of people in this city, the loyal and the disloyal; and "that we owe it to ourselves to ferret out the disloyal and send them to their friends in Richmond." All the resolutions were unanimously adopted. Hon. Green Adams then addressed the meeting, as did also Admiral Foote, Chief Justice D. K. Cartter, Hon. Horace Maynard, Hon. Andrew Johnson, and General E. C. Carrington. In the Senate chamber Ex-Governor Bebb offered the same series of resolutions offered in the House of Representatives, and speeches were made by General Martindale, then Military Governor of the District of Columbia, Admiral Foote, Rev. Mr. Phillips of New York, L. E. Chittenden, Register of the Treasury, L. A. Whitely of Maryland, Horace Maynard, Governor Bashford of Wisconsin, and Dr. Daily of Indiana.

In June, 1863, in consequence of reduction in the size of its companies, the First District Regiment was consolidated into a battalion of four companies. Upon this consolidation the officers mustered out were: Colonel James A. Tait; Captains H. M. Knight, James Coleman, James Fisher, P. E. Rodier, and Joseph Mundell; First Lieutenants C. P. Wroe, R. W. Barnaclo, C. T. Barrett, and Joseph Venable; Second Lieutenants Jerome Callahan, P. McChesney, W. E. Morgan, and Edward Carroll. Those retained were: Lieutenant-Colonel Lemuel Towers, and staff officers; Captains E. S. Allen, Robert Boyd, Robert Clark, and M. P. Fisher; First Lieutenants John Donn, B. F. McGrew, C. W. Sherwood, and W. W. Winship; Second Lieutenants William Young, Walter Dobson, J. W. Atwell, and D. F. Stiles.

Toward the latter part of this month, when it was learned that the rebel General Lee was marching northward into Pennsylvania, orders were issued by Provost-Marshal-General James B. Fry to Major-General George C. Thomas, then in command of the District of Columbia militia, that eight regiments of the militia infantry of the District be called into immediate service for sixty days, and providing that if the volunteer cavalry and infantry of the District should tender their services they would be accepted. Major-General Thomas thereupon issued the orders necessary for calling out and enrolling the eight regiments. On the morning of July 6, the various regiments composing the District militia assembled on their parade grounds, and were informed that as General Lee had been defeated at the great battle of Gettysburg, and was compelled to retreat back into Virginia, their services would not be needed. On Tuesday, July 7, there was great rejoicing in Washington over the victories of General Meade in Pennsylvania, of General Grant at Vicksburg, and of General Rosecrans in Tennessee. A large number of citizens of Washington, headed by the band of the Thirty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment, marched to the Executive Mansion and serenaded the President, who made to them a speed), paying glowing tribute to the brave men in the armies, but declining to mention any soldier by name, for fear of omitting some who were equally meritorious with those whom he might name, should he name any of them. Secretary Stanton and General Halleck, and also Senators Wilson, Wilkinson, and Lane, and Hons. E. B. Washburn, Isaac Arnold, and General Martindale, made speeches.

Under the President's call for 500,000 men, July 18, 1864, there was a draft in the District of Columbia for her quota. The District was divided into twelve districts, of which each of the seven wards of the city of Washington was one; that part of Georgetown east of High Street was the eighth; that part west of High Street the ninth; that part of the county west of Rock Creek the tenth; that part between Rock Creek and the Eastern Branch the eleventh, and that part south and east of the Eastern Branch the twelfth. Captain Sheetz, who was provost-marshal under the Conscription Act, made a return of the names enrolled for the first class toward the latter part of July, as follows: First Ward of Washington, 4,000; Second Ward, 2,500; Third Ward, 2,000; Fourth Ward, 3,000; Fifth Ward, 1,700; Sixth Ward, 1,200; Seventh Ward, 2,400; eighth district, 800; ninth district, 700; tenth district, 400; eleventh district, 500; twelfth district, 300; total, nearly 20,000; or, to be exact, 19,327; of which number there were 14,242 whites, and 5,085 blacks. The apportionment of the District was 3,865, to which was added fifty per cent. to allow a margin for exemptions; or, in all, 5,798. The draft commenced on Monday, August 3, with the First Ward. The number to be drawn from each sub-district was as follows: First Ward, 1,180; Second Ward, 741; Third Ward, 607; Fourth Ward, 896; Fifth Ward, 513; Sixth Ward, 337; Seventh Ward, 719; eighth district, 239; ninth district, 216; tenth district, 116; eleventh district, 155, and twelfth district, 79; total, 5,798. The drawing commenced at 9:00 a. M., a blind man named Thomas C. Burns drawing the names from the box. The drawing for the First Ward closed at 2:00 P. M. Of the persons drawn, 874 were white and 306 black. The drawing for the Second Ward was completed the same day, and of the number drawn 494 were white and 247 black. The drawing for the Third Ward came off on the 4th, resulting in 502 whites being drawn, and 105 blacks. There were drawn in the Fourth Ward 736 whites and 160 blacks; in the Fifth Ward, 344 whites and 169 blacks; in the Sixth Ward, 286 whites and 51 blacks; in the Seventh Ward, 684 whites and 235 blacks; in the eighth and ninth districts, 390 whites and 65 blacks, and in the rest of the county 350 persons in all. The board of enrollment met on August 10, to hear applications for exemptions.

The result of the draft in the District of Columbia was reached September 30, the work of the board of enrollment closing on that evening. This result was as follows: Total number drawn, 5,784; quota, 3,863; number of drafted men who reported, 4,115; number failing to report, 1,679; number accepted, 285; number of substitutes, 675; number paying commutation, 212; number exempted, 2,943. Of the number of soldiers obtained by means of the draft (960), there were 336 negroes.

In October, the President called for another 300,000 men. Under this call the District of Columbia, with the rest of the country, was called on for its quota. On November 6, there was a meeting at the City Hall, preliminary to a large mass meeting which was held August 6, for the purpose of aiding enlistments, so that if possible there might be no necessity for another draft. The quota of the District under this call was 2,730—from Washington and the county, 2,516, and from Georgetown, 214. At this meeting a committee was appointed to solicit funds with which to assist the families of soldiers of the District serving in any of the armies of the Union. The committee consisted of B. B. French, Henry Addison, Richard Wallach, Samuel E. Douglass, George H. Plant, Hudson Taylor, Frank Taylor, John M. Brodhead, George R. Wilson, John H. Semmes, E. J. Middleton, William B. Todd, William J. Murtagh, Joseph F. Brown, Judson Mitchell, William H. Tenney, John Marbury, Jr., George W. Beall, and Henry D. Cooke. The subscriptions very quickly amounted to $20,745, $18,726 of which was distributed among the families of the soldiers, the rest, $2,019, being retained to commence operations for the winter.

On July 24, 1863, Judge Wylie, of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, made a decision under the Confiscation Act with reference to the property of Dr. A. Y. P. Garnett, which was before the Court for condemnation, and which was the first case argued before the Court. The Judge, in making his decision, said that it was a most important case. The confiscation did not, as was generally supposed, treat the inhabitants of the so-called Confederate States as traitors, but as alien enemies, and in that point of view their property of every description was liable to absolute forfeiture and alienation to the use of the Government. There was no distinction between real estate and personal property. Nor did the Constitution forbid this absolute forfeiture of real estate. But the joint resolution of Congress, passed on the same day as the Confiscation Act, under the provisions of which the property in question was sought to be confiscated, was a declaration by them that, in a spirit of kindness, they would confiscate the real estate of rebel owners only during their lifetime. The Judge was, he said, bound by the joint resolution, and therefore he condemned the real estate only during the lifetime of the owner, and the personal estate absolutely. Judge Wylie referred to a number of authorities, among them the legislatures of Maryland and Pennsylvania, confiscating absolutely the property of Americans who remained loyal to England during the Revolutionary War.

The decree of condemnation was then ordered against the property of Thomas D. Allen, Francis Hanna, E. A. Pollard, Charles S. Wallach, Cornelius Boyle, French Forrest, J. N. Maffit, C. W. C. Dunnington, Martin L. Smith, Daniel and Mary F. Radeliffe, E. M. Clark, Samuel Lee, Henry B. Tyler, William F. Phillips, C. W. Havenner, Lavinia Boyle, and Samuel L. Lewis.

In August, 1863, the marshal of the District of Columbia, Indirection of the attorney for the District, made seizure of the following property:

Two two-story frame houses of Craven Ashford, formerly a justice of the peace in Washington, but then in the South; lots 1 to 12, inclusive, of George S. Houston, formerly a member of Congress from Alabama, and of Governor Letcher, of Virginia, on Capitol Hill; lot improved by a four-story dwelling, on E Street, between Second and Third streets, northwest, in the name of W. H. Thomas, then in the Confederate Army; lot at the corner of Vermont Avenue and K Street, improved by a two-story house, in the name of H. H. Lewis, of Virginia; lot near the corner of the canal and South Capitol Street, in the name of Oscar R. Hough, formerly of the National Rifles, but then connected with the provost-marshal's office at Richmond; subdivision of lots near the Baltimore and Ohio Depot, and several lots on South Capitol Street, near N Street, used as a brick yard, in the name of David A. Windsor. While there was considerable other property confiscated, yet it is probable that enough detail has been here given.

The Ladies' Relief Association, for the relief of the soldiers of the District of Columbia, held a meeting December 21, 1863, at the residence of Hon. Sayles J. Bowen, to elect officers. Major B. B. French was chosen president, Henry D. Cooke vice-president, Selah Squires secretary, and Mrs. L. E. Chittenden treasurer. A committee of arrangements for a fair, which was then in contemplation, was appointed, consisting of four gentlemen and seven ladies; also, an executive committee, a finance committee, a committee for each ward, as well as a committee for Georgetown, a committee at large, and a committee for each of the twenty-three of the loyal States. The great hall of the north front of the Patent Office was offered by Hon. J. P. Usher, and accepted by the association, for the purposes of the fair. The ladies of the association made application to the proprietor of Canterbury Hall for assistance in this work, and in response to this appeal Mr. William E. Sinn offered either $25 in money or a benefit at his establishment, the ladies choosing the latter, to be given January 8, 1864. Jay Cooke & Company, bankers in Washington, donated $1,000 toward the objects of the fair. January 18, a committee, on behalf of the association, requested Mr. Leonard Grover, proprietor of the New National Theater, to give a benefit, with which request Mr. Grover complied, fixing upon January 23 as the date for the benefit, which netted to the association $437.15. On the 22d of the same month, a benefit performance was given at the Variety Theater, on Pennsylvania Avenue and Ninth Street, of which Messrs. Hamblin & Company were the proprietors. The fair opened in the Patent Office building February 22, 1864, upward of one thousand tickets being disposed of at the door that evening, a large number having been sold throughout the District during the preceding three weeks. Contributions to the fair came from many of the loyal States, as well as from the District of Columbia. This fair yielded a net sum of $12,721.35, and from individual subscriptions and from other sources there was received the sum of $2,588.69, making $15,310.04. To this sum there was added the $2,027.25 mentioned above as being left over from other subscriptions, making a fund of $17,337,29, available for the relief of the families of soldiers of the District.

There was another fund, of which John H. Semmes was the treasurer, named the Volunteer Fund. By December 31, 1863, this fund amounted to $3,597.50, and Mr. Semmes had paid out for bounties the sum of $4,800; for premiums, $480; for recruiting expenses, $130.72; in all, $5,410.72, and was creditor to the fund to the amount of $1,813.22. By February 17, 1864, Mr. Semmes reported that there had been obtained 404. recruits, exclusive of the 300 obtained by Captain Sheetz. All that was needed, he said, to enable the District to avoid the draft, was money. On March 7, Mr. Semmes reported that the amount of money received into this fund was $53,938; the amount expended — $47,000 for bounties; for premiums, $5,865; for printing, $516; total amount expended, $53,381. The whole number of recruits up to March 5 was 598, costing on the average $89.16 each. By the 16th of that month 99 more recruits had been obtained, and at the same time about 150 soldiers of the First District Regiment had reenlisted, and about 600 of the Second District Regiment. The quota of the District under the call that was then being complied with was 820, and by May 1, 1864, Mr. Semmcs reported that 893 had been obtained, 73 more than enough.

In July, 1864, when General Grant was besieging Petersburg, a diversion was made by General Lee, in the hope of directing Grant's attention to the safety of the city of Washington, by sending General Early on a raid into Maryland with about twenty thousand men, and menacing Washington from the north. On July 7, there was a battle at Frederick, Maryland, and on the 10th there was a great battle at the Monocacy, lasting from nine o'clock in the morning until 5:00 p. M. In the evening of this same day, a body of rebels made a dash through Rockville, and on Monday morning there was a skirmish between them and Colonel Lowell's cavalry force in the vicinity of Rabbitt's Creek Post Office, between Rock Creek and Tennallytown. About noon on Monday, the rebels were in the vicinity of the Claggett farm, on the Seventh Street turnpike, and the residence of Francis P. Blair. In consequence of what appeared to be, on the part of the rebels, a determination to make an attack upon Washington, the District militia was called out on the 11th for sixty days by Major General George C. Thomas, the details of their organization being placed in the hands of Brigadier-General Peter F. Bacon. On the 12th, the rebels destroyed communication by both rail and telegraph between Washington and Baltimore. In the vicinity of Fort Stevens, formerly Fort Massachusetts, out on Seventh Street, there was a skirmish between the rebel and Union forces, and some houses which the former had used for protection in firing upon the fort were destroyed by the latter. The houses thus burnt belonged to Richard Butts, W. Bell, J. H. McChesney, Abner Shoemaker, and W. M. Morrison. On Tuesday, the 12th, there was some skirmishing between Fort Stevens and Fort De Russy, in the Widow Carberry's woods, but on the 13th the Michigan infantry threw a few shells into the woods, when the rebels worked around to the right, making an attempt to get in between Fort Stevens and Fort Slocum. The Confederate forces in front were those of General Rhoad, General Ramser, and General Gordon, all under the command of General John C. Breckinridge. Laurel Bridge was destroyed by the rebels. On account of the near approach to Washington of the rebel forces, and its apparent danger, the Union Leagues of the city tendered their services to General Halleck for its defense, and these were accepted, Major-General Doubleday being assigned to the command. The National Rifles also offered their services. On Tuesday evening, General McCook determined to dislodge the rebel sharpshooters at the Carberry place, and especially from the house of Mr. Lay, on Rock Creek, to the left of Fort Stevens. A shell was sent out from the fort which exploded in the house, throwing the brick and woodwork in all directions, and setting fire to the house, causing the rebels to retreat. A charge was then made by the Sixth Corps, and the rebels retired a mile or more, the Union line advancing beyond the house of Francis P. Blair. The loss of the Union forces in this charge was about three hundred in killed and wounded, and the rebels left one hundred wounded at the house of Mr. Blair.

While the volunteers and militia of the District in considerable numbers were mustered into the service on Wednesday, the 13th, yet there were not enough of them to warrant the Government in accepting their services; but the clerks in the various departments appeared in such strength that they were taken into the service, and the National Rifles were mustered in as an independent company. The Union Leagues were represented by several well-filled companies, and were mustered in. The Navy Yard employees formed a regiment about eight hundred strong. But notwithstanding the readiness of these forces to defend the city, they were all mustered out on Wednesday evening, after serving one day, the enemy having retired from the vicinity of the city. On their way out, however, they burned the country seat of Postmaster-General Blair and rifled that of his father, Francis P. Blair. After the danger had passed and there was time to reflect upon the conduct of the citizens and of the volunteers and militia of the District, Major-General George C. Thomas published a card, thanking Colonel W. W. Daniels, of Louisiana, and James C. Welling, S. A. Peugh, J. H. Leavenworth, 0. S. Noyes, Tyler Southall, Charles H. Armes, Captain John B. Tanner, Charles W. Morris, H. A. Goldsborough, Colonel Lemuel Towers, Lieutenant S. S. Bach, Charles W. Boteler, Jr., B. B. French, Jr., Selden Hetzel, Alpheus N. Brown, and several officers of the Seventy-first New York Volunteers.

Under the call of the President, of July 18, 1864, for 500,000 men, the quota of the District of Columbia was 2,910. For the purpose of raising the quota Mayor Wallach appointed as recruiting agents, Arthur Shepherd for Eastern Virginia, George T. Finnegan for North Carolina, William Finley for Mississippi, C. E. Green for Georgia and Alabama, and George H. Mitchell for South Carolina and Florida. Applicants for substitutes were required to leave their names and $300 at the Bank of Washington. The provost-marshal at the time was Captain J. C. Putnam. From advance enlistments the quota of 2,910 was reduced to 2,225, and this latter number was divided among the several districts as follows:

Enrollment

Whites

Blacks

Quota

First Ward

3,890

2,950

940

415

Second Ward

2,800

1,920

970

232

Third Ward

2,100

1,760

340

200

Fourth Ward

4,000

3,180

880

355

Fifth Ward

1,880

1,290

590

170

Sixth Ward

1,420

1,160

260

135

Seventh Ward

2,700

1,800

900

246

Georgetown 8th & 9th Districts

1,631

1,068

562

142

Giesboro Tenth District

275

166

109

25

Eleventh District

1,260

620

640

136

Twelfth District

1,500

990

510

169

Total

23,606

16,904

6,702

2,225

 

At the time the draft commenced, to fill this quota, the District had received a credit of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four, leaving a deficiency of one thousand one hundred and twenty-six to be made good by the draft, which began on September 19. On the 26th of the month, the Councils of the city passed an act authorizing the Mayor to anticipate the revenue of the corporation to an amount not exceeding $50,000, to enable the corporation to pay bounties to volunteers, and to purchase substitutes for those who had been or might be drafted, the money to be paid out only to such bona fide residents of Washington as were registered as voters on the 31st of December, 1863. The draft was closed in Washington September 30, and in Georgetown, October 1, 1864; but as many of the men drafted did not report, the number required was not forthcoming. An effort was then made by many of the prominent citizens to have the quota reduced because of the alleged fact that a large number of persons in the employ of the General Government had been enrolled as citizens of the District who were but temporarily resident therein, and that by this means the enrollment of the District was greatly increased beyond what it should be. Provost-Marshal-General Fry, however, declined to make the desired reduction.

Under the call of the President for 300,000 men, December 19, 1864, the quota of the District was 3,019, apportioned among the several districts as follows: First Ward, 575; Second Ward, 348; Third Ward, 111; Fourth Ward, 490; Fifth Ward, 213; Sixth Ward, 224; Seventh Ward, 355; eighth district, 71; ninth district, 105; tenth district, 24; eleventh district, 219; twelfth district, 284. While there was a general conviction that this quota was excessive, strengthened when taking into account the fact that under the former call for 500,000 the quota was only 2,910, yet there was manifested on the part of the people a determination to see that the quota was filled, while at the same time there was a determination to secure, if possible, a correction of the list. Meetings were held in all the districts for both purposes, and at length a reduction was secured in the quota, so that the number required was only 2,222. Lieutenant Knox was, at that time, commissioner of the board of enrollment, but on February 13 he was succeeded by the appointment of H. A. Jones, in order that there might be a permanent officer in this position. The draft for the filling of the quota of the District under the call for 300,000 began February 21, 1865. But this draft was not completed, as, before sufficient time had elapsed for this, it became so clearly evident that the Rebellion could not last, that efforts were relaxed.

On Monday, April 3, 1865, the joyful news reached the Capital that both Petersburg and Richmond had been evacuated by General Lee, who was in full retreat. It would be impossible to adequately describe the feelings of the people of this city when this news flashed over the telegraphic wires. No such attempt will therefore be made. All were fully conscious that the war which had devastated the country for four years was at last near its close. The religiously inclined gave "Thanks to God, who giveth us the victory," and that victory which had been long hoped for and impatiently waited for was to emancipate not only those to whom the Proclamation of Emancipation applied, but also all the rest of the black race, and many loyal and Union loving people of the Southern States, from a military despotism such as the world had never seen, as well as from the despotism of political errors as powerful and cruel in its influence on the public mind as the military despotism had been on the persons of the Southern people, many of whom, if not the majority, never wanted war. In the streets of Washington all men, young and old, greeted each other most ardently; ladies flung to the winds their miniature flags, and the judges of the courts deserted the hall of justice, satisfied that for a time at least the blind goddess would not note their absence. The public schools dismissed their scholars, business was deserted on all hands, and all repaired to the vicinity of the public buildings to acquire a fuller knowledge of the incidents of the three days' terrible fighting which immediately preceded the fall of the two cities, the fate of which had so long been linked together. A scene of wild excitement was presented at the Patent Office when the news of the fall of Petersburg was received, and a few hours later, when the news of the fall of Richmond came, it was evident everywhere that a great weight of anxiety had been lifted from the public mind. Patriotic exercises were immediately extemporized in the open air in front of the Patent Office building. A gentleman named Thompson began to sing "Rally Round the Flag," the crowd joining in the chorus. Mr. Holloway, Commissioner of Patents, then addressed the assemblage, and was followed by Hon. J. P. Usher, who alluded to the evacuation, when some one in the crowd suggested that the Interior Department be evacuated, and at once the entire crowd took up its line of march for the Department of State, where they were felicitously addressed by the Secretary of State, who still predicted, as he had continued to do from the beginning, that the war would end in ninety days. The Hon. Preston King, Hon. J. W. Nye, and others spoke after the Secretary, and at length came the turn of the Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, whose remarks were characterized by a deep feeling of patriotism and religion. At the close of his remarks he presented to the assemblage the boy Willie Kettles, fourteen years old, an operator in the military telegraph office, who had received the dispatch announcing the fall of Richmond at 8:15 A. M. that morning, April 3. From the residence of Francis P. Blair, Vice-President Andrew Johnson made an eloquent speech, and from, the balconies of all the hotels poured forth a chorus of patriotic music and oratory, Hon. Richard Yates spoke from the steps of the National Hotel and Major-General Butler from in front of Willard's. General Butler said that the God of Justice works by means, and perhaps there could he found in history no more striking and suggestive instance of retribution than that of the corps of colored troops under General Weitzel being the first to enter Richmond after its fall, and the planting of the flag of freedom by them over the rebel capital. Four regiments of the Veteran Reserve Corps and two squadrons of cavalry, accompanied by a fine band of music, paraded the principal streets of the city. The northern portico of the War Department building was tastefully decorated with flags, and the Veteran Regiment band played patriotic airs at the Circle. A salute of eight hundred guns was fired near Franklin Square—five hundred for Richmond and three hundred for Petersburg, and the city in all directions was decorated with the Union banner. None rejoiced more sincerely than the sick and wounded soldiers in the hospitals. Work was generally suspended in the departments, the clerks rushing into the streets to unite with their fellow-citizens in the general rejoicing. At the Navy Yard and the Arsenal the suspension of work was also universal, and the vessels all around the city were gaily decked with bunting. The colored population had perhaps a double reason for the demonstration of their joy, for not only had peace dawned upon the land, but the day of their deliverance had also dawned at the same time.

But the illumination of the city and the display of fireworks on the evening of April 4 surpassed in magnificence anything that had ever been seen in the Capital of the Nation. The Capitol building shone resplendent, the whole massive dome being most brilliantly illuminated with innumerable lights, possessing a most beautiful and imposing appearance. The National Conservatory exhibited one of the most beautiful features of the display. All the public buildings, the National Bank, the residences of the heads of departments, the Executive Mansion, the offices of all the subordinate officers of the Government, and most of the business houses and private residences in all parts of the city were illuminated, in expression of the general rejoicing. In Georgetown the illumination was equally universal; the custombouse, the post office, the Bank of Commerce, the police station, the Seminary Hospital, the Vigilant Engine House, the Union Hotel, the Ellis Hotel, and business houses and private residences generally exhibited the joyful emotions of the people at the prospective close of the war.

On Friday, April 7, it was rumored that General Lee and his entire army had surrendered. A salute of one hundred guns was fired, and a general jubilee prevailed. On the 10th of the month, however, official news of the surrender of Lee was received, and a salute of two hundred guns was ordered to be fired at the headquarters of every department, and at every post and arsenal of the United States, in commemoration of the surrender. On this day the rejoicing and excitement in Washington were renewed with all the intensity of the former day. The President was visited, but declined to make more than a few remarks, in the course of which he said that the tunc of "Dixie" was one of the best he had ever heard, and that he had insisted, the day before, that with the fall of Richmond the tune of "Dixie" likewise fell into our "hands; that he had submitted the question to the Attorney-General, who had decided that the tune of "Dixie" was a lawful prize. At his request the tune of "Dixie" was then played by the band, as was also that of "Yankee Doodle,'' both of which tunes, therefore, should henceforth be considered national airs. Other demonstrations were made, and continued through the day and evening. But the formal celebration occurred on the evening of the 11th, on which occasion the President made a prepared speech, dealing with the question of reconstruction as it was then exhibited in the State of Louisiana. This address is invaluable to any and all who would be pleased to speculate upon what would have been, or at least what might have been, the President's plan of reconstructing the rebellious States, had he been permitted to live and attempt to reinstate those States in their proper relations to the Government of the United States. In accordance with resolutions adopted by both the city Councils, the city was brilliantly illuminated on the evening of April 13, the Capitol being illuminated even more fully and brilliantly than on the evening of the 4th. Probably no building in the world ever presented so gorgeous and beautiful a spectacle as did the Capitol on the evening of April 13. The entire city on the same occasion was "literally ablaze," which terms cover the ground better, perhaps, than any detailed description could.

But in the midst of this rejoicing came the terrible announcement of the brutal, cowardly, and extremely foolish assassination of President Lincoln, as he sat in a box of Ford's Theater in the evening of April 14. During the third act of the play, when there was a temporary pause, a sharp report of a pistol shot was heard, but which at first was supposed to be a part of the play. Immediately afterward, however, the assassin jumped upon the stage with a long dagger in his hand, and crying, "Sic semper tyrannis!" made his escape. The details of the assassination have so often been published that no more is done in this work than merely to refer to it, in passing, as to its effect upon the public mind at the time. The principal emotion in connection with it was that a great and good man had fallen, one who had the power and the disposition to a greater degree than any other man living, to heal the wounds of the war, to bring order out of chaos, and to reestablish the Union in the affections of the entire people, North and South. Considerations like these illustrate better, perhaps, than anything else, the enormity of the crime by which the President's life was brought to an untimely end.

The depression of spirits caused by this national calamity was, at least, equal to the elevation caused a few days before by the great victories of the armies in the field. The day after the death of the President was Sunday, and upon that day in all the churches the crime of the 14th gave tone to all the sermons, in which appropriate allusions were made to the distinguished and honored dead, and these allusions found ready appreciation, and were heartily responded to by the hearts of the people in the various congregations. The services in the churches were made none the less impressive by the fact that they were held on Easter Sunday.

The city Councils adopted a resolution appropriating $20,000 as a reward for the arrest of the assassin; the various corporation offices were closed until after the funeral, as well as the public schools. Ward H. Lamon, United States Marshal of the District of Columbia, had charge of the funeral arrangements and ceremonies, which were held on Wednesday, April 19, and were the most imposing pageant that had ever been witnessed in the Capital of the Nation. The remains of the President lay in state in the east room of the Executive Mansion, eight hours being allowed for visitors to pass and view the familiar features, but even then thousands were disappointed. The funeral address was delivered by Rev. Dr. Gurley, and a song was sung, composed for the occasion by Rev. T. N. Haskell, of Boston, Massachusetts. The citizens of every State, resident at the Capital, held meetings at which suitable resolutions were adopted.

On May 5, a notice was published to the citizens of the District of Columbia, signed by a large number of persons, one hundred and three of whose names were published with the notice, calling a mass meeting at the City Hall for the 9th of the month, for the purpose of consultation as to the best means of preventing such of those who, having been at the outbreak of the Rebellion citizens of the District, had entered the military service of the Confederate States, from returning to their former homes and enjoying the privileges enjoyed by loyal citizens. At this meeting, held in accordance with the call, there were but few present, not more than enough to cover the central portico and steps of the City Hall. Hon. John Wilson was elected president of the meeting, and there were chosen twenty-three vice-presidents and six clerks. After a brief address by President Wilson, a committee on resolutions was appointed, consisting of W. A. Cook, J. W. Deeble, Z. D. Gilman, It. B. Clark, Lewis Clephane, Asbury Lloyd, D. S. M. McKim, W. H. Terry, J. R. Elvans, and Z. Richards. Mr. Joseph F. Brown, one of the vice-presidents, made an address, in which he said that those who had sought to make their homes among rebels and traitors should be made to understand, at least, that their room was better than their company. The committee on resolutions then made a report of a series of resolutions, stating that those who organized the Rebellion had sought to accomplish their designs not only by the ordinary means of warfare, but also by the commission of every crime that distinguished the ferocity and degradation of barbarism, and that, approving of its purpose, a considerable number of the citizens of the District of Columbia, at its inception and during its progress, voluntarily abandoned their homes and entered the military service of the Confederacy, and that some of these same persons had already returned to the District, and others proposed to return, and therefore it was resolved that it was the duty of citizens to protect themselves from physical aud moral evil; that the citizens of the District earnestly resisted the settlement here of those who during the past four years had been directly connected with the Rebellion, and especially those who had formerly been residents of the District should not be allowed to return; that they approved of the opinion of the Attorney-General that the rebel officers included under the surrender to General Grant had no homes within the loyal States, aud had no right to come to homes which were theirs before going into the Rebellion; that the same rule should apply to those who had entered the civil service of the Rebellion, and recalled to mind the fact that the President of the United States had not been murdered by the open and avowed enemies of the Government, but by secret and resident miscreants. The president of the meeting was requested to appoint a committee, composed of two members from each ward in Washington and Georgetown, to present the proceedings of the meeting to the proper authorities, and the resolutions quoted the words of President Johnson, that "mercy without justice was a crime." W. H. Terry, of Georgetown, then made a speech very strongly against permitting rebels and traitors to return to the District of Columbia. He said: "After loafing around this District last summer, ready to come in and point out the homes of loyal men and have their dwellings burned and the owners hung — that you should be permitted to come here now and be received with honor, we say it shall not be." The city Councils expressed similar sentiments in the form of resolutions adopted in regular meeting, and called upon President Johnson to issue an order which would carry into effect the opinion of Attorney-General Speed.

May 23 and 24 were days ever to be remembered in the history of Washington. On those days occurred the grand review of the Union armies, the Army of the Potomac on the 23d, the armies of Georgia and Tennessee on the 24th. Thousands of interested and glad spectators crowded the streets, sidewalks, and roofs of houses on both days to witness the grandest spectacle that every occurred in the United States. The different corps, brigades, and other organizations of the Army of the Potomac crossed the Potomac River during the early morning of the 23d, and arranged themselves on the various streets and avenues, ready to fall into line at the appointed time. These streets and avenues had been thoroughly sprinkled during the preceding night by the fire department, and barrels of water were placed along the sides thereof for the soldiers to drink as they passed along in the procession. The cavalry formed north of the Capitol, the line extending far beyond the city limits. The children of the public schools were tastefully arrayed, and arranged on the high ground north of the Capitol. Thousands of banners bore thousands of mottoes, expressive of joy and welcome to the victorious veterans of the army, one of which in particular may be repeated here: "The Only Debt We Can Never Pay is the Debt We Owe to the Victorious Union Soldiers." At the head of the victorious Army of the Potomac rode Major-General George G. Meade, accompanied by his staff. Then came the cavalry, immediately after the headquarters escort, in command of Major-General Merritt. The Third Cavalry Division was in command of Major-General George A. Custer, and the entire cavalry force followed in brigades and divisions. Then came the Ninth Army Corps, in command of Major-General John G. Parke; the Fifth Corps, in command of Major-General Charles Griffin; and the Second Corps, in command of Major-General A. A. Humphreys. The procession began to move at 9:00 A. M.. and the passage of troops continued until three o'clock in the afternoon.

On the 24th, the grand Army of Georgia and that of Tennessee were reviewed, the crowd upon the sidewalks, the streets, and the housetops being greater even than the day before. General Sherman and his command were received with unbounded enthusiasm all along the route. The head of the column formed on A Street Northwest, and at the firing of the signal gun at nine o'clock the column began to move. General O. O. Howard rode with Sherman, and they were followed by Major-General W. B. Hazen at the head of the Army of the Tennessee, of which Major-General John A. Logan was in command. The Seventh Army Corps came next, commanded by Major-General Francis P. Blair, and then, leading the Army of Georgia, came Major-General H. W. Slocum. This army was composed of the Twentieth and Fourteenth corps, the former commanded by Major-General J. A. Mower, the latter by Major-General Jeff. C. Davis. The review of the 24th was in every way as grand a spectacle and as great a success as was that of the day before. From this time the thousands of veterans dispersed to their homes to enter again the peaceful pursuits from which duty had called them four years before, and the War of the Rebellion was at an end.

The principal results accruing to the District of Columbia from the final and complete suppression of the Rebellion were, first, the abolition of slavery therein; and second, the improvement of the cities of Washington and Georgetown. The latter subject has already been discussed; while the former is briefly presented here, as it is more immediately connected with the war than either of the others. The act for the emancipation of the slaves in the District of Columbia was passed by Congress April 16, 1862, and provided that all persons loyal to the United States having claims to the service or labor of persons discharged therefrom by the act itself, might within ninety days from its passage, but not afterward, present to the commissioners to be appointed petitions for compensation not to exceed $300 for each slave; but no person who had borne arnis against the Government should receive any pay for any slave. One million dollars was the maximum amount appropriated under the act for the purpose of paying for the slaves. (See bio of Margaret Adlum)

The commissioners appointed were Daniel R. Goodloe, Horatio King, and John M. Broadhcad. These commissioners met at the City Hall, April 28, 1862, and chose William R. Woodward secretary, and by January 15, 1863, had reported favorably upon 999 entire petitions, and upon 21 petitions in part. They had rejected 36 petitions entirely. The whole number of slaves for whom compensation had been allowed was 2,989, and the whole number for whom compensation had been withheld was 111, making a total of 3,100 included in 1,056 petitions. As regards loyalty there were but few instances

in which the evidence was of such a nature as to warrant the commissioners in withholding compensation. Afterward, because of the impossibility of submitting proof of their loyalty by some of the residents of the District in time to claim compensation under this law, the time was extended, and 28 more slaves were paid for, making the total number paid for 3,017.

After the close of the war and the consequent disbandment of the armies, there were still kept up, or organized, in the District of Columbia military organizations of various kinds; but to trace minutely the history of each would only add to the length and tediousness of this chapter. However, the present military establishment it is proper to give. A law was passed by Congress March 1, 1889, providing for the enrollment of the militia of the District of Columbia, every able-bodied male citizen resident in the District, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, being required to be enrolled. Under the law the President of the United States is commander-in-chief of the militia, and was required to appoint a commander of this militia, which consists of the National Guard of the District of Columbia, in part. This National Guard is composed of a brigade of two regiments, each having three four-company battalions, and one independent battalion of infantry, one battery of light artillery, one troop of cavalry, one engineer corps, and one ambulance corps, armed, uniformed, and equipped in conformity with the regulations of the United States army. Brigadier-General Albert Ordway was appointed commander of this militia, and under his assiduous and skillful training has attained a high state of discipline.

 

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