Wisconsin Counties History Sketches

(Note: Information is as of 1876)


ADAMS COUNTY.

Adams is one of the interior counties of the state. It contains seventeen townships, with an area of 139,000 acres; of which about seventy per cent is heavy timbered land, principally pine, oak, ash, maple, basswood, etc.; ten per cent openings, covered with white, black and burr oak, and twenty per cent marsh. Much of this marsh is meadow land, and is valuable for the hay it yields. On much of it the cranberry grows wild, and, with proper cultivation, the raising of this fruit will become one of the most productive interests of the county. The soil in certain portions of the county is too light for farming purposes, but far the greater part is well adapted to the raising of the usual farm products. Clover and timothy do well. But a small portion of the land is improved as yet. There are about 46,000 acres now under cultivation. In 1875, 6,976 acres were sown to wheat; 2,780, to oats; nine, to barley; 5,720, to rye; 11,638 acres planted to corn; two, to tobacco, and 635, to hops, giving an area of 27,760 acres in these crops. Considerable attention is being paid to fruit raising, to the production of which the many varieties of native fruits growing wild show a natural adaptation. The county is bounded on the west by the Wisconsin River, which, when the contemplated improvements in its navigation are made, will furnish a ready outlet for its products. There are many springs and running streams which furnish an abundance of water for manufacturing and other purposes. There are many good water powers yet unimproved. Valuable quarries of stone are found in different parts of the county, and good clay for brick is abundant. The population of the county, by the census of 1875, is 6,502; of these, 5,271 are native born, and 1,231 born in foreign countries. The nationalities principally represented are Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Ireland, England and Germany. The county has sixty school houses, and 2,486 children of school age, between four and twenty years of age. There is still much valuable land in the county owned by the state and government, which can be bought at from fifty cents to $1.25 an acre.


ASHLAND COUNTY.
This county is situated in the extreme northern portion of the state, on the shore of Lake Superior. The town of Ashland, the present terminus of the Wisconsin Central Railroad, is located on Ashland bay, and has one of the finest harbors on the lake. There are 1,200,000 acres of land in the county, a very large proportion of which is heavy timber, mostly pine, hemlock and cedar, with occasional belts of hard timber, oak, maple, ash, etc., on the rivers. The county is well watered with lakes and streams, which furnish abundant water powers. But little attention has, as yet, been paid to farming, but the soil is well adapted to raising most of the farm products. Grass does well. Plums and many varieties of small fruit grow wild in abundance; apples and pears do well in gardens, and can, doubtless, be successfully raised within reach of the influence of the lake. The Penokie iron range traverses the county about twenty-three miles from the lake shore. Here is found an inexhaustible amount of iron ore of the best quality and easy of access. This interest will soon attract the attention of capitalists, and, when developed, will add much to the wealth of the county. Copper and silver ore are also found. At present fish and lumber are the main products of the industry of the settlers, but as railroads are built and the land is taken up and improved, many new branches of production will be found profitable. Much of the most valuable land is still owned by the state and government, and can be bought at low figures. The population in 1875 was 730; 575 native born and 155 foreigners, mostly from Ireland, Germany and British America.


BARRON COUNTY.
This county contains 516,000 acres of land, a large portion of which, about eighty per cent., is covered with heavy timber; about ten per cent is prairie, and ten per cent marsh. The surface is generally level or gently rolling throughout. In the southern .part of the county the soil is a rich, sandy loam; in the northwestern and western portion, clay predominates. Pine lands are usually regarded as poorly adapted for cultivation, but here the soil is strong and rich, and will produce good crops of wheat, rye, oats, barley, hay, corn, potatoes, etc. Owing to the large number of men and teams engaged in lumbering, there is always a ready market for all the products of the soil, at high prices. Nine-tenths of all the land in the county is susceptible of cultivation, and will return large profits for the labor bestowed. There are many small lakes from two to ten miles in length in the county, and it is traversed by the Menomonee, Vermillion and Hay rivers, and their tributaries, by which the county is well watered, and an inexhaustible amount of water power is secured. It has been estimated that the water power of the county is more than sufficient to drive the wheels of all the manufactories of Massachusetts. A large amount of land is yet held by government, and can be obtained at $1.25 per acre, or under the homestead law. In the eastern portion of the county there are large deposits of pipe stone or catlinite, which will be very valuable when railroads are built to convey it to market, for building and ornamental purposes. Good quarries of building stone are found in various parts of the county. Population, 3,737; native born, 1,709; foreigners, 2,028; of these 882 are from Canada; 681 from Sweden, Norway and Denmark; 285 from Germany. Number of schools, 38; children of school age, 1,201.


BAYFIELD COUNTY.
Bayfield County is one of the northern tiers of counties. It is bounded on the northern and most of the eastern side by Lake Superior has an area of about 800,000 acres, much of which still belongs to the state, and is known as school, university and swamp Clands. The surface is somewhat "broken; the soil is of superior quality for winter and spring wheat and other cereals, vegetables and grass. There are but few acres under improvement yet, but as the county becomes settled and the Lake Superior system of railroads is completed, farming will be an important branch of industry. . The leading interests now are lumbering, and the fisheries located on the lake shore; these furnish employment for a large number of men and considerable capital and are a source of much wealth. Bayfield, the county seat, is a handsome village of 600 inhabitants, on the lake shore, and is becoming noted as a place of summer resort; it has an excellent harbor and will soon be connected with the southern portion of the state by railroad, and with the Northern Pacific at its eastern terminus. Government lands are abundant and homesteads can be found in any number within the county. All kinds of products of the soil find ready sale at good prices. Aside from its fisheries and immense amount of timber, the county has important resources, which will soon be developed. Valuable slate and brown stone quarries are found here; iron, silver and copper are known to exist, and the indications are that when a careful survey is made, they will be found in large quantities, and good clay, suitable for brick, is abundant. The timber is abundant and of the best quality, covering about ninety per cent of the county; varieties are oak, maple, pine, birch, hemlock and cedar. Population, 1,032; native born, 864; foreigners, 186, mostly from England and Canada.


BROWN COUNTY.
The first settlements in this state were made by the French in this county in 1672. The limits of the county originally embraced' the whole eastern portion of the state, but is now reduced to about 450 square miles. Situated at the head of Green Bay, where the Fox River empties into the bay, it possesses commercial advantages unequaled by any other county in the state. The completion of the water communication between the lakes and the Mississippi will still further increase these advantages and give a fresh impetus to its industry. The county is generally heavily timbered with hard wood and pine. Along the streams are found occasional patches of marsh, amounting to about twenty per cent of the land, the balance of the county being covered with timber. Nearly all of the land is susceptible of cultivation. There is a variety of soil, all very fertile, producing crops of all varieties of grain and vegetables common to our climate. Fruit is also raised in considerable quantities. The number of acres of wheat sown in 1875, was 9,990; of oats, 8,992; of barley, 830; of rye, 777; corn planted, 1,126 acres; tobacco, 2; amounting to 21,715 acres. The amount of improved land in the county is over 52,000 acres. The agricultural resources of the county are great, but its commercial facilities, furnish an unlimited amount of water power and an abundance of material for manufacturing purposes which early directed labor and capital to manufactures and the same influences will tend to make this the leading interest for years to come. The county is well watered; the principal rivers are the Fox, East and Little Suamico; beside these there are many small streams and living springs. The meadows on the banks of these streams yield large supplies of hay and feed, well adapted for stock and dairy purposes. The largest towns are Green Bay, with a population of 8,037; Fort Howard, 3,610; De Pere, 1,911; West De Pere, 1,923; all are situated at the mouth of the Fox River, and are largely engaged in manufactures. Population, 35,373; of which 20,701 are native born; 14,672 foreigners; of these, 3,841 are from Germany; 2,371 from Canada; 2,027 from Ireland; 1,614 from Switzerland, Holland and Bohemia; 1,155 from Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Schools, 96; number of children, 12,927.


BUFFALO COUNTY.
This county contains about 460,000 acres of land, of which nearly 100,000 acres are now improved. Government still owns about 200,000 acres, much of which, owing to its broken, bluffy character, cannot be successfully cultivated, but is well adapted to grazing. Between the hills which abound in the western and southern parts of the county, there are fine fertile valleys, well adapted to raising all kinds of agricultural products. These valleys are nearly all under cultivation. A short distance from the Mississippi river, on its western and southern boundary, the high bluffs become level table lands, having a rich and productive soil. This portion is nearly all owned by actual settlers. In the eastern and northern portion of the county, there is a large amount of land well adapted to cultivation, owned by government and railroad companies. Wheat and pork are the main articles of export. In 1875, 41,334 acres of wheat were raised, 10,532 of oats, 792 of barley, 54 of rye, 8,125 of corn, and 15 of hops; total, 61,152 acres. Much attention is given to fruit raising; apples and grapes do well. Cattle, horses and sheep are largely kept, and add much to the fertility of the soil and the wealth of their owners. The water power is good, but not much improved. About 15 per cent of the land is covered with pine and hard wood timber; 65 per cent are oak openings; 10 per cent prairie, and 10 per cent marsh. Population in 1875 was 14,219: native born, 8,762; foreigners, 5,457. Of these, 2,520 were Germans, 1,340 from Switzerland, Holland and Bohemia, 711 from Sweden and Norway, 309 from Ireland, 232 from England and Scotland, and 222 from Canada. Number of children, 5,573; of schools, 72.


BURNETT COUNTY.
Burnett County lies in the extreme northwestern part of the state, in the valley of the St. Croix. This river forms its western boundary, and separates it from the state of Minnesota. It has an area of nearly 1,000,000 acres. About 50 per cent of the surface is heavy timber land, mostly pine, oak, maple, basswood and elm; 30 per cent opening, 5 per cent rolling prairie, and 10 per cent marsh land. The soil is a light, sandy loam, generally with a clay subsoil, which produces the best of wheat, oats, barley and vegetables. The weather in this latitude is much cooler than in southern Wisconsin, but the air is very dry and pure, and the cold is not felt as severely as there. The spring is usually as early and the summer as warm as in the southern part of the state, and crops mature early. A failure in crops has not been known since the first settlement was made. Many tributary streams flow through the county into the St. Croix, and furnish ample water power. Climate is very healthy, resembling that of Minnesota. The contemplated railroad to Superior will pass through the center of the county and open up a large and valuable tract of agricultural, mineral and timbered lands. Much of the land can yet be bought at government price. The county is settled mostly by Norwegians, 1,136 out of a population of 1,456 being of that nationality, and only 298 native born. The census of 1875 gives 681 acres as sowed to wheat, 419 to oats, 18 to barley, 51 to rye, and 159 in corn.


CALUMET COUNTY.
Calumet is the smallest county in the state, having an area of about 200,000 acres. It is heavily timbered with oak, elm, ash, maple, basswood, and in some portions, pine. Nearly 80 per cent was originally covered with forests; the remaining 20 per cent is marsh or lowland prairie, which yields large quantities of hay. Not far from one-third of the land is under cultivation. The average price of improved land is about thirty dollars an acre; unimproved, from three to twelve dollars. The two leading agricultural products are wheat and butter. The commercial and market privileges of the county are excellent; lake Winnebago bounds it on the west, and furnishes direct water communication with lake Michigan, and there are a number of lines of railroads running through the county, by which the products of industry are readily taken to market. There are many excellent water powers. Marble, and good quarries of stone are found in the southern and western part of this county. Number of acres of wheat raised in 1875, 24,422; oats, 6,936; corn, 4,131; barley, 1,547; rye, 149; hops, 29; total, 37,214 acres. Population, 15,085; 9,368 being native born, 5,717 foreign; of these 3,995 were from Germany, 612 from Ireland, 481 from Switzerland, Holland and Bohemia, 220 from England and Scotland, 203 from Canada. Number of schools, 66; number of children, 5,824.


CHIPPEWA COUNTY.
Chippewa is one of the largest counties in the state, embracing 114 townships, or over 2,600,000 acres of land. About two-thirds of the land in the county has been entered by actual settlers or by speculators for the timber. Some good land still remains in the possession of the state and government, and can be bought at prices ranging from 75 cents to $1.25 an acre, land grant lands. Wild land is held at from three to ten dollars an acre; improved lands at $25 and upwards. About 15 per cent of the county is prairie, 65 per cent timber, and 20 per cent marsh. The soil of the prairie is a rich, black loam; that of the heavy, hard timber is what is termed a clay soil; that of the pine land is lighter, but is very productive when tilled. Wheat, oats, barley, rye, corn, and all kinds of vegetables can be raised here of as good quality, as large a quantity, and with as much certainty as in any other part of the state; and owing to the demand to furnish supplies for the lumbermen, better prices can be obtained than at the markets on the lake shore. Census returns give 9,290 acres of wheat raised in 1875,10,118 acres of oats, 3,435 of corn, 719 of barley, 60 of rye, 8 of hops, and 2 of tobacco; total, 23,632. Much of the marsh land is already started with cranberry vines, and by a small amount of labor could be made to yield a large profit. There is an abundance of wild hay, which, when cut, brings high prices in the pineries. Lumbering is the main industry of the county; many millions of feet are shipped each year, mostly pine. The hard wood timber is excellent and abundant. On the Chippewa river and its tributaries there are a large number of water powers, most of which, except near Chippewa Falls, are still unimproved. In the northern part of the county there are indications of copper, lead and silver, which further exploration may show to be valuable. Population, 13,995; native born, 7,954; foreign born, 6,041; from Canada, 2,420; from Germany, 1,614; Sweden and Norway, 773; Ireland, 702; England, 268; Switzerland and France, 223.


CLARK COUNTY.
This county joins Chippewa on the north and west, and has the same general features of soil, timber products and resources. It is a3 yet but thinly settled, but is rapidly filling up. Lumbering has been the principal business done in the county until quite recently; now considerable attention is paid to agriculture. The lumbermen consume all the products of the soil, and draw largely from other counties. This interest also furnishes employment, at good wages, for all settlers who are willing to work. Many farmers of small capital thus secure work for themselves and teams during the winter season. There is still good government land to be had, and much held by the Fox River Improvement Company and nonresidents can be bought on reasonable terms. The pine and hard wood timber covers about 65 per cent of the county; prairie, 10 per cent marsh, 25. Census reports for 1875 give number of acres of wheat, 800; oats, 1,429; corn, 634; barley, 8; rye, 9; hops, 11. Population, 7,282; native born, 5,807; of these 496 are Germans; 417 from Canada; 172 from Norway; 95 from Ireland. Schools, 55; children, 2,489.


COLUMBIA COUNTY.
The general surface of Columbia County is gently rolling prairie and openings, with some level marsh. There is about 40 per cent. , of the land that is styled openings, where the timber is mainly white, burr and black oak, and the balance is nearly equally divided into prairie, timber and marsh land. The timber is principally oak, maple, basswood and elm. The county contains 492,500 acres; 485,580 acres of these are owned by actual settlers, which are assessed at an average value of $12.83 per acre. Nearly two-thirds of the land is now cultivated. There are sufficient water powers to meet home wants. Numerous quarries of lime and sandstone, and beds of clay furnish first class material for building purposes. The railroad communications are excellent; there is no point in the county more than twelve miles from a line of road, and it will also have, at no distant day, water communication with the Mississippi and Lake Michigan. The point where the Fox and Wisconsin rivers approach and commingle in high water lies in this county. On the Wisconsin River, as it passes through the county, some of the grandest scenery in the west is seen. The Delles of the Wisconsin, near Kilbourn City, have become celebrated, and are much visited by tourists. Agriculture is the leading interest; the soil is fertile and easily tilled. There were 74,948 acres of wheat raised in 1875; 20,041 acres of oats; 35,056 of corn; 4,231 of barley; 5,069 of rye, and 690 of hops; total, 140,035 acres. Hay and some other important crops are not included in these census returns. Fruit is raised, more than sufficient to supply home wants. Good roads have been built, and the farm buildings, both houses and barns, are generally first class, showing good taste and prosperity on the part of the owners. Much interest is taken in the schools, the buildings are neat and attractive. Number of school houses, 149; children,. 9,540; population, 28,803; of these, 19,653 are natives of the states,, and 9,150 are foreigners, including 2,774 from Germany; 2,681 from England and Scotland; 1,564 from Sweden and Norway; 1,332from Ireland, and 511 from Canada. Lead and iron ore have been found in different parts of the county, but not as yet in paying quantities.


CRAWFORD COUNTY.
Crawford County is near the southwestern corner of the state. The Wisconsin River forms its southern boundary, and the Mississippi its western. Along these -streams high bluffs rise from 400 to 600 feet above their level. These bluffs gradually diminish in height as they recede from the river, and soon form high table lands,, and these in turn give place to a gently rolling surface or openings. Along the rivers and streams are low bottom lands, which are very fertile. Much of the soil of the county is of the best character for agricultural purposes. That of the high land is composed of a light clay mixed with sand, and covered with vegetable mold; that on: the bottom lands is a light sandy loam, which is especially valuable for the early maturity of fruits and vegetables. These bottom lands and the upland prairies cover at least 10 per cent of the county. The openings 55 per cent. There is very little marsh land. Only about 10 per cent of the surface is heavy timber, but it is so distributed that each of the fifteen townships which comprise the county, has a good supply of the usual varieties of hard timber. Lead and copper ore have been found under conditions that indicate the existence of heavy bodies of these minerals, but they have not yet been found in paying quantities. Extensive quarries of excellent building stone are found in every town in the county, and large quantities are shipped every year from the bluffs along the Wisconsin River. Owing to good commercial facilities, much has been done in the furtherance of trade and commerce. The annual shipments of grain and produce are not very large, but farming is the great pursuit. Number of acres of wheat raised in 1875, 25,517; of oats, 9,137; of corn, 13,908; of barley, 832; of rye, 209; of hops, 24; total, 49,627 acres. Improved farming lands are held at fifteen to thirty dollars an acre; unimproved at from five to ten dollars. The public schools are good, and well attended. Number of school houses, 93; number of children, 3,442. Population, 15,035; of these, 11,053 are natives of the states; 3,982 foreigners, including 1,042 Irish; 892 Swedes and Norwegians; 736 Germans; 558 Swiss, Bohemians and French; 456 Canadians; 273 English and Scotch.

DANE COUNTY.
Dane county is situated equidistant between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi river, in the southern portion of the state. The character of the surface is somewhat varied, combining the level of the upland and lowland, prairie, the undulating openings and hilly land. The Blue Mounds, the highest point of land in the state, are in the western part of this county. There is comparatively but little of the surface too broken for farming purposes. It has also nearly all varieties of soil;* the stiff clay soil, the deep black loam of the prairies, the vegetable loam, with clay subsoil, and also with sand and gravel subsoil, and the light sandy loam. The area of cultivated land is larger than that of any other county (395,703 acres), and it usually produces the largest crops of wheat and other farm products, except, perhaps, corn. There are thirty-five townships, or 790,400 acres of land in its limits. There is no vacant land in the county. The amounts of the different varieties of land are 15 per cent prairie, 35 per cent timber, 35 per cent openings and 15 per cent marsh. The leading interest is agriculture. The number of acres of wheat raised in 1875 was 112,431; of oats, 63,431; of corn, 71,592; of barley, 13,507; of rye, 2,997; of hops, 274; of tobacco, 1,929; total, 266,161 acres. The county is throughout well watered by lakes and streams. Madison, the county seat, and the capital of the state, is beautifully situated on a ridge between lakes Mendota and Monona. The charm of its location has made it a noted place of summer resort. The capitol building, with the surrounding park, the United States court house and post office, the fine hotels, the State University buildings and many handsome private residences, add much to the attractions of the place. There are thirty-five towns and fourteen villages in the county. Six of the towns are largely settled by Norwegians, six by Germans, and the different nationalities are more or less represented in all. Population, 52,798; natives of this and other states, 33,268; foreigners, 19,530, including 6,694 Swedes and Norwegians; 6,241 Germans; 2,939 Irish; 2,086 English and Scotch; 680 Canadians; 594 Swiss and French. Number of school houses, 250; number of children of school age, 20,755. There are many locations where valuable building stone can be easily obtained. Iron ore is also found under such conditions as make it reasonable to hope that it will yet be discovered in paying quantities. For many years lead was dug in considerable quantities in the western part of the county, and further explorations will doubtless lead to new discoveries.


DODGE COUNTY.
Dodge County is situated in the southeastern part of the state. It contains twenty-five townships, or 5.76,000 acres of land. Nearly 400,000 acres are under cultivation. The average price of improved land is about $40 an acre. Nearly all the land is owned by actual settlers. The eastern part of the county is heavily timbered and is somewhat hilly. The northern part is prairie and openings, with a rich black loam soil and a gently rolling surface. The southern part is mostly what is called ridge land and marsh, and the quality of the soil is not so good. The county is well supplied with streams, which afford an abundance of water and good mill privileges. The largest of these is Rock River, which flows through the center of the county, furnishing several water powers of great value. The railroad privileges are unsurpassed. There are four roads running through the county, and thirteen of the twenty-two towns are on the line of a railroad. On the east side of Rock River there is an iron ore mine of great richness. The ore is of excellent quality and immense in quantity. It is owned and worked by the Milwaukee Iron Company. A number of very thriving and prosperous manufactories are located in the county; two woolen mills, agricultural implement and machine factories, cheese factories, etc. In population the county ranks the third in the state; in assessed valuation the fifth. Beaver Dam, a city of over 5,000 inhabitants, a portion of the cities of Watertown and Waupun lie in this county. Wheat raised in 1875, 126,230; of oats, 24,713; of corn, 25,447; of barley, 5,652; of rye, 991; of hops, 155; of tobacco, 17; total, 183,195 acres. Proportion of timber, 10 per cent; of prairie 35 per cent; of openings, 35 per cent; of marsh, 20 per cent Population, 48,394, including 29,537 natives of the states and 18,857 foreigners. Of these, 13,022 are from Germany; 2,368 from England and Scotland; 1,564 from Ireland; 581 from Canada; 543 from Switzerland and France. Number of school houses, 195; number of children of school age, 17,789.


DOOR COUNTY.
Door County is situated in the northeastern part of the state, on a peninsula formed by Lake Michigan on the east and Green Bay on the west. The county is seventy miles in length, with an average width of ten miles. Amount of land in the county is about 300,000; of this, 230,000 acres are held by actual settlers. Average price of land is $15 per acre. Nearly 30,000 acres are yet owned by the state. The soil is a rich clay loam, occasionally mixed with portions of sand. Scattered through the county are large patches of rich bottom lands, where the soil is composed of alluvial deposits to the depth of six feet. On the uplands the depth of the soil is about ten feet, with a limestone base. The soil is very productive, and where tilled yields large crops of all the products common to this section. But a small portion of the land is yet improved. In 1875, 2,534 acres of wheat were raised; 1,563 of oats; 273 of corn; 149 of barley and 228 of rye; total, 4,747. Fruit is raised in abundance. The proximity of the lake is peculiarly favorable, as its influence modifies the asperities of the atmosphere and greatly lessens the extremes of the climate. Seventy per cent of the county is heavily timbered with maple, oak, beech, basswood, pine, hemlock, spruce, tamarack, cedar, etc. A large number of the settlers are engaged in shipping cord wood, ties, logs, telegraph poles to the southern markets, and in the fisheries. The balance of the land is marsh or low bottom lands. There are a number of valuable marble and building stone quarries, from which building material can be easily obtained to export. Sturgeon Bay, an arm of Green Bay, extends far into the county, nearly dividing it. Government has commenced a canal across the neck of the land separating the bay from Lake Michigan, which, when complete, will greatly shorten the route from the interior of the state to eastern ports, by way of the Fox and Wisconsin River Improvement. Population, 8,020; native born, 4,575; foreigners, 3,445; comprising 696 Swedes and Norwegians; 693 Germans; 473 Canadians; 372 Irish; 183 English and Scotch; 145 Swiss and French. There are 42 school houses in the county and 2,954 children of school age.


DOUGLAS COUNTY.
This county lies in the extreme northwest corner of the state, at the head of Lake Superior. It is forty miles square, and contains within its limits every variety of soil, timber and minerals to be found in the Lake Superior region. It is well watered by the St. Croix and numerous other streams flowing into the lake, and on these streams ample facilities for water power are found, which can be improved at a moderate cost. Along all the rivers are rich alluvial bottom lands, of the best quality for farming purposes. All kinds of grain, grass and vegetables thrive here. Lumbering and fishing are the principal departments of industry as yet. Ninety per cent of the county is covered with heavy timber; the remaining ten per cent is marsh or alluvial bottom land. Only about 1,200 acres are under cultivation. Nearly 300,000 acres are still owned by government and over 90,000 by the state. Copper ore abounds in the mineral ranges which extend through a considerable portion of the county. The specimens found are of the richest quality. The appearance of the country and of the surface veins resembles that of the copper regions of Ontonagon. There are also large deposits of iron ore here which are not yet available, for want of railroads. Large quantities of building stone, both granite and red sandstone, are found in different parts of the county. Superior, the county seat, is situated at the head of Lake Superior. It has an excellent harbor, the largest on the lake, and many natural advantages for a commercial city. The Northern Pacific and Wisconsin Central roads will meet here. Population, 741; native born, 470; foreigners, 271, mostly Norwegians, Germans and Irish. The climate is very healthy; the air is dry and pure, malarias diseases are unknown.


DUNN COUNTY.
Dunn County is located in the northwestern part of the state. It has twenty-four townships, or a total area of 554,960 acres. The eastern portion is mostly prairie, with a light, open soil, and some marsh suitable for meadow land. It is generally level and the soil productive. The western portion is more rolling and covered with extensive forests of maple, oak, ash, pine, butternut, basswood, etc. The soil here is a rich clay loam which yields hay and the usual farm products in abundance. About 80,000 acres are cultivated at present, and 280,000 are owned by actual settlers. The average price of such land is about eight dollars per acre. Many mill sites are located on the Chippewa and other rivers which flow through the county. Lumbering is the leading manufacturing interest. About 75,000,000 feet are got out annually. Quarries of limestone and of a beautiful sandstone supply all wants for building material. The amount of timber land is estimated at fifty per cent of the whole; prairie forty per cent, and ten per cent marsh. Wheat in 1875, 20,087 acres; oats, 11,899; corn, 8,617; barley, 545; rye, 354; hops, 63; total, 41,564. Population, 13,427; of these 4,557 were from foreign countries, and 8,870 from our own. There are 1,963 from Sweden and Norway; from Germany, 1,192; from Canada, 618; Ireland, 321; England, 280; Swiss and French, 91. Number of school houses, 84; number of children, 4,686.


EAU CLAIRE COUNTY.
Nearly fifty per cent of the land in this county is covered with heavy timber, mostly pine. From 75,000,000 to 85,000,000 feet of pine lumber are annually manufactured here. The remainder of the county is about equally divided into prairie, openings and marsh. The surface is undulating the soil is a mixture of all kinds, from the rich, clay loam to the worthless sand. The main interest, as in all the northern counties is lumbering, but an increased attention is being paid to farming; good crops of all the leading agricultural products have been obtained where the soil has been cultivated, and these, bringing high prices in the pineries, has made farming quite profitable. There are some 415,000 acres comprised in this county about 60,000 acres are owned and cultivated by settlers. In the year 1875, 20,023 acres of wheat were raised; 11,058, of oats; 6,881, of corn; 571, of barley; 347, of rye, and 11, of hops; total, 38,891. The Wisconsin Central and West Wisconsin railroads and the Fox River Improvement Company own large tracts of land, which can be bought at reasonable prices. The county is generally well watered with clear streams of pure water, in many of which brook trout abound. The Chippewa and Eau Claire rivers pass through the western and central parts of the county and furnish an outlet for immense quantities of lumber. Eau Claire, the county seat, located at the junction of these rivers, is a thriving city of about 8,000 inhabitants. Number of schools in the county, 54; children of school age, 4,782. Population, 15,991, of which 10,979 are native born, and 5,012 foreigners; 1,325 representing Sweden and Norway; 1,138, Canada; 1,239, Germany; 724, Ireland; 441, England and Scotland.


FOND DU LAC COUNTY.
The county of Fond du Lac contains nearly half a million acres of land. The character of the surface is gently rolling, with a few bluffs or steep ascents near the limestone ledge which passes through the eastern and southern portion of the county. Many quarries of valuable building stone are found in this ledge. About 40 per cent of the land is prairie, located for the greater part in the central and western portion; 25 per cent heavy timber, mostly in the eastern part; 20 per cent openings, and 15 per cent marsh. These varieties of land are, to a great extent, intermixed, so that nearly every portion of the county has each near at hand. These sections have each their peculiar soil, the alluvial, clayey and the loam; but all are strongly impregnated with lime, which adds much to their productiveness. The land is nearly all owned by actual settlers, divided up into farms and fenced. Good improved farms can be bought for from $40 to $75 per acre. There are five lines of railroad traversing the county in different directions. Lake Winnebago enters its limits on the north, by which it has water connection with Lake Michigan through the Fox River Improvement, thus possessing excellent commercial facilities. The county is remarkably well watered, having springs or running streams on nearly every quarter section. Over a large portion of the county, flowing wells of cool, pure water can be obtained by boring from 25 to 120 feet. The census reports 90,302 acres of wheat raised in 1875; 21,966 acres of oats; 16,755 of corn; 4,494 of barley; 234 of rye, and 50 of hops; total, 134,301 acres. Much attention is given to the dairy and stock, for which the county is especially adapted. It ranks as the first county in the state for hay production. The manufacturing interests of the county are well developed and constant^ increasing. In value of manufactured products, it ranks fourth in the state. A bed of iron ore has been discovered in the northern part of the county, and also indications of lead. Both may yet be found in paying quantities. Population, 50,241, including 34,177 natives of this country, and 16,064 foreigners, of whom 8,004 are from Germany; 2,792 from Ireland; 1,904 from Canada; 1,748 from England and Scotland; 1,034 from Switzerland and France, and 276 from Sweden and Norway. Schools, 192; children of school age, 19,750.


GRANT COUNTY.
This county lies in the southwestern corner of the state, and is bounded by the Wisconsin River on the north and the Mississippi on the west. The surface is undulating and in some sections hilly. Although usually regarded as a prairie and opening country, there are large bodies of hard wood timber in the southern and northwestern portions. The amount covered with timber is about 40 per cent of the area of the county; the amount of prairie land, 15 per cent.; the remaining 45 per cent openings. The country is well watered by numerous small streams, emptying into the Wisconsin and Mississippi rivers. The soil is fertile and well adapted to the various crops common to this latitude. Number of acres sowed to wheat in 1875, 66,292; to oats, 52,002; to corn, 76,889; to barley, 3,743; to rye, 739; to flax, 3,094; to hops, 201; total, 202,970. Fruit is cultivated with good success. The raising of stock, and especially sheep husbandry, is an important part of the industry. A number of woolen factories are engaged in making up the home clip of wool. The business of mining in the early history of the county was the leading interest, but there has been a decline in the attention given to it; there are immense deposits of lead and zinc still undeveloped, which will contribute greatly to the future prosperity of this section. The want of railroad communications has done much to retard the development of its various interests, but it has steadily increased in wealth and population. The annual value of its farm products is estimated at $3,500,000; that of its manufactures at $1,000,000. It has a population of 39,086, including 29,398 natives of the United States, and 9,688 foreigners of the following nationalities: Germans, 3,690; English, Welsh and Scotch, 2,800; Irish, 1,318; Swiss and French, 843; Swedes and Norwegians, 572; Canadians, 397. Number of schools, 215; number of children of school age, 15,918. The first normal school in the state was established at Platteville, in this county.


GREEN COUNTY.
One of the most noticeable and attractive features of this county is the extent and distribution of its forests. Nearly every town has belts or groves of heavy timber, in which are found oaks in variety, maple, bass wood, black walnut and hickory, butternut and ash and elm. The largest tracts of timber are found in the southern part of the county. In the eastern part prairie or bottom lands predominate, in many instances these lands are enclosed and sheltered by sharp narrow ridges of stratified rocks. In the southern and eastern part of the county the land is generally quite level, but it rises gradually and becomes high bluffy hills in the northern and western sections of the county. These bluffs give rise to numberless springs, rivulets and small streams which flow through every part of the county, and add to the fertility of the soil. There is an abundance of water power, which is sufficiently improved to meet the wants of the people. The county contains 367,723 acres in area, of which fully a third i3 now cultivated. The land is mainly held by settlers, and divided up into farms. Its assessed valuation averages $15 per acre. Crops of 1875 are, 14,317 acres of wheat; 32,848 of oats; 63,171 of corn; 932 of barley; 2,856 of rye; 62 of hops; 131 of tobacco; total, 114,317 acres. Stock raising, dairy farming and wool growing are largely engaged in. Three woolen mills in the county are engaged in the manufacture of cloth. Agriculture is the leading interest, but manufactures are not overlooked. In certain sections lead and zinc are found in large deposits. Total population in 1875, 22,027, including 17,289 natives of the United States, and 4,738 foreigners, as follows: Swiss and French, 1,207; Swedes and Norwegians, 960; Irish, 879; Germans, 832; English and Scotch 604; Canadians, 254. Number of schools, 133. Number of children, 8,594.


GREEN LAKE COUNTY.
Green Lake, one of the smallest counties in Wisconsin, is located in the central portion of the state. It embraces ten townships, or nearly 240,000 acres of land. The area of improved lands is about 100,000 acres. The surface is gently undulating, no part can be called broken or hilly, and but a small portion level. Brooks, creeks and small lakes are scattered over every portion of the county. Green Lake, from which the county took its name, is a beautiful sheet of water 12 miles in length, and from two to three in width. The water is very deep and pure, and of a light green color. About one-fourth of the county is prairie, with a soil of unsurpassed fertility. The other three-fourths are openings and marsh, about 10 per cent of the latter. The openings were originally covered with different kinds of oak, with an occasional grove of hard wood, maple, butternut, etc. The soil of the openings is generally rich and productive, a mixture of sand, clay and vegetable mold. The marshes in the northern part, near Berlin, are the home of the cranberry. The cultivation of this fruit has been very profitable to those engaged in it, and promises to be yet more remunerative in the future. The farm crops of 1875 were: 31,572 acres of wheats 7,541 of oats: 14,391 of corn; 997 of barley; 2,776 of rye, and 95 of hops; total, 57,372 acres. The Fox River passes diagonally through the county, affording transportation facilities in a greater or less degree to the entire county. Railroad communications are good. Water power is found in nearly every town. Manufactures are confined generally to flour, lumber, agricultural implements and cloth. The census of 1875 gives a population of 15,274, including; 10,531 natives of the United States; 3,049 Germans; English and Scotch, 764; Irish, 477; Canadians, 336, and a few French, Swiss, and Norwegians. Total foreign population, 4,743; number of" schools, 74; number of children, 5,541.


IOWA COUNTY.
The county of Iowa is located in the southwestern portion of the state, in what is commonly known as the lead region. In the early history of the county, almost exclusive attention was given to the mining interests which greatly retarded the development of its agricultural resources and its system of general industry, but within a few years great advancement has been made in this respect, and the county now ranks as the thirteenth in the aggregate value of its agricultural products. The best agricultural lands lie in the central and western portions of the county. There is some rough, broken land in the northern and southern portions, but the general character of the surface is moderately rolling. There is a divide running east and west through the central portion, from which the streams on the north flow into the Wisconsin, and on the south through Illinois into the Mississippi. On these streams there are many good water powers, which are generally improved enough to meet the wants of its inhabitants. The county contains some over 475,000 acres of land, of which about 65 per cent is prairie, 10 per cent timber, 20 per cent openings, and 5 per cent marsh. Nearly 175,000 acres are under cultivation. Crops of 1875 were: wheat, 38,187 acres; oats, 33,019; corn, 40,773; barley, 2,969; rye, 633; hops, 191; tobacco, 3 acres; total, 115,775 acres. Much attention is given to dairy farming. There are many beds of good brick clay, and an abundance of excellent sand and limestone. There are a number of lead furnaces in the county, where large quantities of lead ore are smelted. The annual shipments of lead from the county averages about 10,000 tons. There is an inexhaustible amount of zinc ore in this region, and large quantities are shipped to La Salle, Illinois, and St. Louis, and other places. The population in 1875 was 24,133, including 15,109 natives of this country; 3,922 English, Welsh and Scotch; 1,622 Swedes and Norwegians; 1,423 Germans; 1,218 Irish; 401 Swiss and French, and 340 Canadians. Total foreign population, 9,024. Number of schools, 125; number of children of school age, 10,084.


JACKSON COUNTY.
Jackson County embraces twenty-eight townships, containing 645,000 acres of land. Until the last few years, lumbering has been the main business of the county, and agriculture has been neglected. Some 80,000 acres are now used for farming purposes. Considerable quantities of land are yet owned by the state and government, but much of it is not suitable for cultivation. In the northern and western parts of the county the land is high and rolling, with oak timber on the ridges. About 35 per cent of the land is timbered, 40 per cent prairie, 10 per cent openings, and 15 per cent marsh. A large portion of the marsh is naturally adapted to the cranberry; many persons have commenced to cultivate this fruit; many kinds of wild fruit grow wild. The soil of the east half is quite sandy, but is quick and productive where tilled. The soil in the west half is a rich black loam. The wheat raised here is of the first quality. The agricultural products common to this state all do well. Crops of 1875: wheat, 20,952 acres; oats, 11,502; .corn, 8,986; barley, 812; rye, 365; hops, 82; total, 42,690 acres. All the products of the soil find a good market with the lumbermen in this and adjoining counties. There is hardly a section but is well matured. The Black and Trempealeau rivers are the principal streams. These streams and their numerous tributaries are rich with pine, tamarack, and other valuable timber. The water powers are good and abundant. Near the center of the county there are very extensive deposits of iron of excellent quality. Occasional mounds of iron and indications of mineral are found over nearly the whole northern portion of the county. Population, as given by the census of 1875, 11,339, including 8,502 natives of this country, 2,837 foreigners; from Sweden and Norway, 1,393; from Canada, 429; from Germany, 369; from England and Scotland, 359; from Ireland, 202. Number of schools, 67; children, 4,294.


JEFFERSON COUNTY.
The general characteristics of Jefferson County are a gently rolling surface, with no deep valleys or barren hills; a combining of wood land, prairie, openings and natural meadows, all abundantly watered by lakes, rivers, creeks and springs; belts of heavy forests containing a choice variety of timber, sufficient for fuel and suitable for manufacturing purposes; an excellent supply of water powers, and a soil rich and well adapted to the production of all the varieties of grain, grass, fruits and vegetables common to this climate. The county contains 368,640 acres of land, two-thirds of which are now improved, and three-fourths of the balance are suitable for cultivation. The timber land is estimated to be about 40 per cent of the whole; openings 45 per cent; marsh 10 per cent., and prairie 5 per cent. In 1875, 41,188 acres of wheat were raised; 17,210 of oats; 27,159 of corn; 5,436 of barley; 3,646 of rye; 717 of hops, and 38 of tobacco; total, 95,394. Many farmers are engaged in the dairy business and in stock raising. Fruit is also largely cultivated. Attractive and flourishing villages are settled throughout the county, each built up by and engaged in manufactures, and contributing largely to the resources and prosperity of the county. Stone quarries are found in nearly every town, and in some portions there are extensive beds of clay, from which the finest varieties of cream colored brick are made. The population in 1875 was 34,908; of these 22,302 are natives of this country; 12,606 foreigners. Germans, 8,660; English and Scotch, 1,145; Irish, 1,094; Swiss and French, 526; Norwegians, 409, and Canadians, 378. Number of schools, 176; children of school age, 14,870.


JUNEAU COUNTY.
The area of Juneau County contains 550,000 acres of land, of which but a very small portion is yet used for agricultural purposes. The county has been settled comparatively but a short time, and for some years the sole occupation of its inhabitants was lumbering. The surface of the county is very level, except a bluffy range lying in the southern and southwestern section. These bluffs have a very rich soil, and are covered with a heavy growth of hard timber; between the bluffs are valleys having a deep, loamy soil, well adapted to raising all kinds of grain; north of the bluffs the level plain extends to the extreme northern line of the county. The soil in the middle section is of a clayey nature, but yields good crops of small grain; beyond the Lemon weir river it is a light, sandy loam. The northern and much of the western portions are marsh land, interspersed with ridges and islands of dry sandy land covered with a small growth of pine. Much of this marsh land is valuable for hay and grass, but the larger portion is alone valuable for cranberries. This interest bids fair to be the source of much wealth when these marshes are properly cultivated. Fifty per cent of the county is covered with timber, pine and hard wood; 10 per cent openings and the balance marsh. Amount of land cultivated in 1875 was, 11,541 acres of wheat, 8,211 of oats, 8,371 of corn, 156 of barley, 1,709 of rye, 701 of hops; total, 30,689. All kinds of native small fruits grow in abundance, and cultivated varieties have been raised with good success. Large amounts of lumber are manufactured from timber cut in the county, and from logs rafted down the streams from the counties above. Considerable deposits of iron are found in the middle and western portions of the county, but not in paying quantities. Population 15,300, including 11,577 natives of this country, and 3,723 foreigners. Irish, 1,365; Germans, 640; English and Scotch, 590; Norwegians and Swedes, 537; Canadians, 416. Schools, 86; number of children, 5,941.


KENOSHA COUNTY.
The county of Kenosha lies in the southeastern corner of the state on the shore of Lake Michigan. It is mainly agricultural in the direction of its industry. The city of Kenosha is the center of large manufacturing interests, mainly in wagons, agricultural implements, leather, boots and shoes, beer, pumps, etc. The making of cheese receives much attention throughout the whole county. There are over twenty factories engaged in this industry. The county is well adapted to stock raising, dairy farming, wool growing, and the best farmers are now engaged in these pursuits. A large amount of hay is produced annually. It is estimated that about 20 per cent of the land is marsh or natural meadow, 20 per cent timber, mostly oak, 10 per cent openings and 50 per cent prairie. The prairies are generally small in size, and surrounded with openings or timber land. There are many small lakes and several streams which furnish a good supply of water for a large portion of the county. The soil is very productive, mainly black loam and sand, though all varieties are found in different localities. This variety in kinds of soil and a consequent better adaptation to varied crops has given greater diversity to the agricultural products of the county. The value of butter much exceeds that of the wheat raised. The wool product is large, also the cattle, sheep and swine fattened. Much has been done to improve the breeds of stock, both cattle and horses. The crops of 1875 were as follows: 5,724 acres of wheat, 13,597 of oats, 15,113 of corn, 1,262 of barley, and 493 of rye; total, 36,189 acres. Population, 13,907, including 9,590 native born and 4,317 foreigners. Of the foreigners, 2,202 were Germans, 860 Irish, 824 English and Scotch, 132 French and Swiss, 145 Canadians, 106 Swedes and Norwegians. Number of schools, 63; of children of school age, 5,306.


KEWAUNEE COUNTY.
The county of Kewaunee is located on the shore of Lake Michigan, 110 miles above Milwaukee. Its coast is lined with harbors, from which the products of its industry are readily shipped to market. The quality of its farming land is excellent, and all kinds of grain and vegetables are successfully cultivated. Winter wheat especially, does well. The soil in the eastern part of the county is a clay loam; this becomes more or less mixed with sand and gravel on the west side. The county is heavily timbered, at least 90 per cent being covered with maple, beach, oak, basswood, elm, cedar, pine, hemlock, tamarack, etc. The remaining portions are marsh, but nearly all of it can be cultivated. The average price of improved land is about $20 per acre; unimproved, $5 to $7. Crops of 1875, were: wheat, 11,734 acres; oats, 6,036; corn, 319; barley, £47; rye, 111; tobacco, 7; total, 20,754 acres. The dairy business is next in importance to wheat raising. Owing to shipping facilities and a ready market, timber has been the principal article of export. Population, in 1875, 14,405; embracing 6,602 natives of this country and 7,803 foreigners. There are 2,292 Germans; 2,999 Swiss and French; 445 Irish; 226 Canadians; 200 Swedes and Norwegians. Number of schools, 50; number of children of school age, 5,889.


LA CROSSE COUNTY.
The county of La Crosse has a large diversity of interests, and a great variety of the elements of wealth. It contains the richest and the poorest of soils, it has superior grazing and tillage land, good markets, thriving manufactories, transportation facilities, both of rail and water, and such a connection with commerce as tends to develop its various branches of industry. The eastern half of the county is exclusively agricultural. Here stock raising and the dairy have received considerable attention, and have proved profitable to all concerned. The county contains about 300,000 acres of land, of which nearly one-half is under cultivation. The average price of improved farms is $15 per acre. The area of prairie land is estimated at 40 per cent of the whole; timber, 35 per cent; openings, 15 per cent., and marsh 10 per cent. The land along the Mississippi river on the west is rough and bluffy, but well adapted to stock and dairy purposes. The valleys between these bold bluffs are exceedingly fertile, and are the choicest farming lands. In 1875, 39,248 acres of wheat were raised; 10,651 acres of oats; 11,553 of corn; 1,534 of barley; 2,072 of rye; 204 of hops, and 6 of tobacco; total, 65,268 acres. La Crosse, the county seat, is a flourishing city of 10,000 inhabitants. It is situated on the Mississippi river, and being largely engaged in commerce, and also the base of supply and sale for a large portion of the lumber regions, it furnishes a home market for the agricultural products of the county. An extensive ship yard and various manufacturing industries are located here. Population of the county in 1875, 23,945, including 13,798 natives of the states and 10,147 foreigners. Of the foreigners, 3,340 are Germans; 3,186 Swedes and Norwegians; 1,069 Swiss and French; 803 English and Scotch; 684 Canadians; 576 Irish, and 489 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 73; of school children, 8,235.


LA FAYETTE COUNTY.
The county of La Fayette, forming one of the southern tier of counties, is situated in the southwestern part of the state, in the section known as the lead region. It contains 403,200 acres of land, a large portion of which is now devoted to farming purposes. The general surface is undulating, unbroken by cliffs or high hills. The southern and western portions of the county are mostly prairie lands, dotted with occasional groves of timber. The prairie land embraces about 40 per cent of the whole area, and the balance is woodland, 35 per cent heavy timber, 25 per cent openings. The prevailing timber is oak, walnut, maple, hickory and ash. There are no swamps, marshes or waste land in the county. The Pecatonica and Galena rivers afford abundant water privileges, which are mainly used for flouring and saw mills. The county is well watered by these rivers and numerous springs and brooks. The soil is very fertile, composed of a black calcareous loam, with an admixture of sand, and a clayey subsoil. In limited sections a clayey and sandy soil is found. Fruits of various kinds are extensively raised, and with good success. The leading crop of 1875 was 24,203 acres of wheat; 47,212 of oats; 59,643 of corn; 6,280 of barley; 685 of rye; 21 of hops, and 3,130 of flax; total, 141,174 acres. Mining continues to be an important branch of production. Large quantities of lead are exported annually. In richness and amount of deposits the mineral resources are unexcelled. Lodes of great value are continually being discovered. Carbonate of zinc is found in large quantities. , Copper has been worked, but with little success. The green carbonate is found in small quantities in the northern part of the county. In 1875 the total population was 22,169, including 15,590 natives of this country; 2,344 English and Scotch; 2,295 Irish; 974 Norwegians; 713 Germans; 182 Canadians, and 71 of other nationalities; total foreigners, 6,579. Number of schools, 119; number of children of school age, 9,079.


LINCOLN COUNTY.
Lincoln County is one of the newest and largest counties in the state. It is bounded on the north by Michigan, on the east by Oconto County, on the south by Marathon and Taylor counties, and on the west by Taylor, Chippewa and Ashland counties. It embraces the valley of the upper Wisconsin, which with its numerous tributaries furnishes numerous water powers, very few of which are improved. At least three-fourths of the county is heavily timbered. The high lands or ridges are mostly covered with hard wood, such as maple, oak, elm, ash, basswood, butternut, etc. Along the streams the timber is mainly pine and hemlock. In the southern and central portions of the county, on either side of the Wisconsin River, there are thousands of acres of fine cranberry land. Lumbering is as yet the main business, but the soil is of excellent quality and well adapted to all kinds of grain and vegetables raised in this climate. The soil is a rich black loam, with clay subsoil. But little attention has as yet been paid to agriculture. The mineral resources of the county are yet undeveloped. Iron has been discovered in inexhaustible quantities in different portions, and will no doubt become one of its principal products. Copper and lead are known to exist. The census of 1875 gives 1,102 acres of the following crops: 319 acres of wheat; 698 of oats; 20 of corn; 29 of barley, and 27 of rye. Population, 895, mainly native born and Germans, 477 and 341 respectively. Number of schools, 6; children, 289.


MANITOWOC COUNTY.
This county lies in the northeastern part of the state, on the shore of Lake Michigan. It contains about 366,000 acres of land, of which nearly three-fifths are under cultivation. The general surface is rolling and well watered by rivers, creeks and small lakes. The rivers are short, being less than forty miles in length, but they furnish splendid water privileges, and are navigable for logs. The land was originally covered with heavy timber, pine, oak, beech, maple, cedar and hemlock. The pine has been cut off, but an abundance of hard wood yet remains. The bark of the hemlock is largely used in the manufacture of leather. There are about six sections of swamp lands in the county, which make excellent grass lands. On the lake shore the soil is sandy, but in the interior it is a clay loam and fertile. The farms are small, but well cultivated. A large area is annually sown to winter wheat, which does well. Peas and cucumbers are cultivated to supply eastern seed stores with seed. Corn does not usually ripen well, and hence is little cultivated. The average price of improved land is about $25 per acre. The following are given by the census as the areas sown to the crops specified: Wheat, 40,805 acres; oats, 20,913; corn, 892; barley, 2,772; rye, 3,771; hops, 2; total, 69,155. Excellent beds of clay are found along the lake shore, and large quantities of brick are annually exported. Marble and valuable stone quarries have been opened in various parts of the county. Many large specimens of float, copper and iron ore have been found in the county. Good water powers and an abundance of material have led to the development of manufactures. Tubs, pails, chairs, furniture, staves, hubs and spokes are made in large quantities at Manitowoc and Two Rivers. Numerous tanneries are located in the county. Two woolen mills are engaged in the manufacture of cloth and woolen goods. Ship building is carried on to some extent. Manitowoc and Two Rivers have excellent harbors and do a thriving commercial business. Population, in 1875, was 38,456, including 19,441 natives of the United States; 10,761 Germans; 3,062 Swiss and French; 1,680 Norwegians; 1,306 Irish; 598 Canadians; 317 English, and 1,291 of other nationalities; total foreign population* 19,015. Number of schools, 111; number of children of school age, 16,191.


MARATHON COUNTY.
The county of Marathon, situated in the valley of the Upper Wisconsin, contains forty-three townships, or 990,720 acres of land. It was first settled by lumbermen in 1840. Tilling of the soil was commenced in 1856, and has gradually increased in importance. The soil is very rich and well adapted to agricultural purposes; it is generally a black loam, resting on clay and covered with vegetable mold. Over forty bushels of wheat to the acre have been raised. Winter wheat has never failed. All kinds of grain do well. Good farming lands near settlements can be bought for four and five dollars an acre. There is still considerable land owned by the state and government, which can be taken under the Homestead Act or bought at low prices. In 1875, 3,356 acres of wheat were raised; 4,204 acres of oats; 181 of corn; 384 of barley; 59 of rye, and 2 of hops. In common with the other northern counties, the great interest is lumbering. Immense quantities of lumber are manufactured yearly, and still the supply seems undiminished. At least 75 per cent of the county is timbered land; pine and hemlock along the streams, and maple, oak, elm, basswood, butternut and ash on the high lands. The Wisconsin River and many streams flowing into it furnish an unlimited amount of water power, of which but a very small portion is used. The undeveloped mineral resources of the county are very extensive. Iron, copper and lead are known to exist there, but have not received much attention. Good quarries of granite are found but not worked. Large areas of the marsh are stocked with the cranberry vine. Population in 1875,10,111; native born, 5,394; Germans, 3,847; Irish, 171; Canadians, 371; English, 128; Norwegians, 126; other nationalities, 68. There are 65 schools, and 3,326 children of school age.


MARQUETTE COUNTY.
Marquette County has an area of about 320,000 acres. About five per cent of this is prairie, thirty-five per cent timber, forty per cent openings, and twenty per cent marsh. Much of the marsh is fine cranberry land, and with a little labor, can be made to yield a large revenue. They are also valuable as natural meadow, yielding large crops of hay and much feed. The county is well watered with springs, small creeks and large mill streams. The Fox River runs through the county, east and west, furnishing direct water communication with Lake Michigan. There are excellent water powers; one on the Montello River is sufficient to drive a half mile of machinery. Many of these mill sites are used to run flour and saw mills, factories, etc. There are four woolen mills in operation in the county. Land is worth from $5 to $20 an acre. The soil is diversified - loamy, clayey and sandy. In 1875, 11,149 acres were sowed to wheat; 3,388 acres to oats; 12,917, planted to corn; 148 acres of barley; 10,153 acres of rye; 162 acres of hops; total, 37,017. The population, 8,697; of these, 5,536 are native born; 1,794 Germans; 579 Irish; 486 English or Scotch; 163 Canadians, and 139 of other nationalities. Total foreigners, 3,161. Number of schools, 70; number of school children, 3,637.


MILWAUKEE COUNTY.
Milwaukee County is situated on the shore of Lake Michigan. In its area it is one of the smallest counties of the state. The general character of the surface is rather broken and uneven, though there is but little waste land. Originally, about eighty per cent was covered with heavy timber, and the balance marsh. The greater portion of the timber has been cut off; what remains is regarded as having a higher value than the most valuable farming land in the county. Full four-fifths of the land is under cultivation. The average value of all the land in the county, both improved and unimproved, is $75 an acre. The soil is varied, but is mostly a calcareous loam, with a subsoil of clay. It is rich and productive. The area of specified crops in 1875 is, of wheat, 12,517 acres; of oats, 10,172; of corn, 6,580; of barley, 3,280; of rye, 2,687; of hops, 94, and of tobacco, one acre; total acreage, 35,331. The city of Milwaukee, the commercial metropolis of Wisconsin, is situated in this county. Besides being a great commercial center, it is largely engaged in manufactures of all kinds, giving employment to thousands of laborers, and adding greatly to the wealth and prosperity of the state and its industries. It is estimated that the value of its manufactured products is from twenty to twenty-five millions of dollars annually. To indicate the amount of its commercial transactions and the productive resources of the state, a few items are taken from the report of the Chamber of Commerce for 1875, though much of the products of our industry has sought a market through other avenues:
"Beans received, 20,311 bushels. Beer sold, 279,286 barrels. Butter received, 6,625,863 pounds, Cheese, 5,721,279 pounds, Cranberries, 10,752 barrels. Eggs, 40,742 packages, Fish inspected, 17,779 half barrels. Flour manufactured, 746,126 barrels; received, 1,443,801. Grain received - barley, 1,286,536 bushels; corn, 949,605; oats, 1,643,132; rye, 230,834; wheat, 27,878,727. Grass seed - clover, 16,088 bushels; timothy, 43,210. Highwines manufactured, 1,560,227 gallons. Hogs packed, 181,972. Hops received, 10,774 bales. Hides received, 232,000. Iron - ore received, Wisconsin, 26,824 tons; Lake Superior, 32,044; pig, received, 7,419; pig, manufactured, 36,656; railroad, manufactured, 25,360. Live stock received - cattle, 46,717; hogs, 144,961; sheep, 45,429. Lumber received, 132,476,000 feet. Mill feed received, 29,964,000 pounds; shipped, 67,935,000 pounds. Peas received, 111,685 bushels. Sheep pelts received, 97,597. Shingles received, 204,378,000. Tan bark received, 16,255 cords. Tobacco, 2,743,854 pounds. Wool, 3,047,077 pounds. Wood, 83,797 cords."
The fact that 559 new buildings were put up in the city in 1875, at a cost of $1,700,000, indicates its prosperity. An almost inexhaustible deposits of hydraulic cement, recently found near the city, will greatly add to the productive industry of the city. Population of the county in 1875, 122,927; including 65,200 natives of the states; 39,669 Germans; 6,293 Irish; 4,269 Swiss and French; 3,384 English, Welsh and Scotch; 1,208 Canadians; 1,046 Swedes and Norwegians, and 1,858 of other nationalities. Total foreign population, 57,727. Number of schools, 88; number of children of school age, 42,194.


MONROE COUNTY.
This county lies in the western portion of the state. It contains 565,000 acres of land, of which about 175,000 acres are now cultivated. Improved land is valued at from $15 to $50 an acre. The general surface is somewhat broken in the central and southern portions; in others, gently rolling. Several ridges traverse the whole length of the county, which spread out and form high table lands. The soil in the southern part is rich clay loam and very productive, well suited to raising grain and fruit. In the northern part the soil is mostly sandy, with occasional clay ridges and black loam prairies. In the northeast corner are extensive tracts of pine and large natural hay and cranberry meadows. The marsh land forms about 25 per cent of the whole surface; openings, 30 per cent; timber, 35 per cent, and prairie 10 per cent. The timber in the northern part is oak, white and Norway pine, tamarack and spruce; in the southern, oak, hickory, maple, ash and linden. The crops, given by the census of 1875, are wheat, 29,506 acres; oats, 11,308; corn, 11,155; barley, 456; rye, 313; hops, 353; total, 53,091 acres. There are several cheese factories in the county, and farmers are engaging more in stock raising and dairying than formerly. Large quantities of blueberries and whortle-berries grow wild, and are an annual source of income. There are many valuable mill sites, some of which are not yet improved. No mining in the county; but there are indications of iron, lead, copper and plumbago. In the southern part of the county, valuable beds of fire clay have been found. The county is well watered by running streams, in many of which speckled trout and other fine fish are found. At Sparta, the county seat, there are two flowing wells, whose waters have valuable medicinal properties, and the town has become noted as a place of resort for invalids. A number of flourishing manufactories are located at Sparta and Tomah. Population in 1875, 21,026; including 15,896 natives of the states, and 5,130 foreigners; from Germany, 2,034; from Ireland, 815; from England and Scotland, 760; from Sweden and Norway, 730; from Canada, 452; from Switzerland and France, 185, and 154 from other nations. Number of schools, 122; number of children of school age, 8,063.


OCONTO COUNTY.
Oconto is much the largest county in the state. It has an area of over 5,000 square miles, or over 115,200,000 acres of land. The state of Michigan forms its northern and a portion of its eastern boundary. Green Bay bounds it on the southeast. It is estimated that about 70 per cent of the land is covered with heavy timber; the balance marsh and alluvial bottom lands. The timber is about equally divided between pine and hemlock, and hard wood, principally oak, maple, ash, elm, etc. The Menomonee, Peshtigo and Oconto rivers, with many tributaries, traverse nearly every part of the county, furnishing abundance of water, and an unlimited amount of water power. In the northern and western sections there are numerous lakes well stocked with fish. Twenty years ago the county was almost an unbroken wilderness; now it is traversed in every direction by roads; gangs of saws are running in a hundred mills, and an army of men are engaged in hewing down its immense forests. All the main streams are used to raft logs and lumber to market. The surface in the southwestern part is rolling; near Green Bay, level. In the northern part, it is somewhat broken and rocky. The mineral range of Michigan enters the county on the north, and the mineral deposits it contains are destined to become an important element of prosperity. Most of the soil is good for farming purposes; it is especially adapted to grain and grass. The wheat harvest is more certain, a better yield and plumper berries here than further south. A large amount of hay and grain is imported annually to supply the lumbermen. -Hay is worth from $15 to $25 a ton; a large amount is cut on natural meadows, but .not enough to supply the demand. Land near settlements is worth from two to five dollars an acre. The state and general government still own a large amount of land which can be obtained by actual settlers under the Homestead Act, or bought at from seventy five cents to one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre. Population in 1875, 13,812. Of these 7,621 are natives of this country, 2,731 from Canada, 1,323 from Germany, 700 from Ireland, 632 from Sweden and Norway, 294 from France, 256 from England and Scotland, and 255 of various nations. Number of schools, 43; children of school age, 3,905.


OUTAGAMIE COUNTY.
The area of Outagamie County is sixteen townships. The surface is generally level or slightly rolling, heavily timbered and well watered. Seventy per cent of the county is timber land, and the balance, marsh or lowland prairie. Agriculture is the prominent interest of the county, for which the configuration of its surface, the fertility of its soil and its market facilities are especially adapted; yet it has equal advantages for manufactures, which will be developed at no distant day. The water power furnished by the lower Fox River, which passes through its southeastern corner, and by the Wolf River and its many tributaries, is unexcelled, either in extent or availability. There is also a great abundance of material for manufacturing purposes in the heavy timber with which a large portion of the county is covered. There is considerable low or swamp land in the county, but the greater portion of it is susceptible of drainage, and will eventually become the most productive land of the state. In 1875, 14,970 acres of wheat were raised; 6,356 of oats; 3,716 of corn; 411 of barley; 282 of rye, and 32 of hops; total acres, 25,667. The Fox River, in its present condition, furnishes a good outlet for the productions of a large portion of the county; but when the proposed ship canal is completed and the proposed railroad connections are made, the market facilities will be as good and direct as in any portion of the state. Appleton is the leading city of the county, and is the seat of a large and increasing manufacturing business. The water power of the lower Fox at this point is sufficient to run two thousand wheels. Population in 1875, 25,558; native born, 16,282; foreigners, 9,276; from Germany, 4,525; from Switzerland and France, 1,257; from Canada, 1,104; from Ireland, 1,098; from England and Scotland, 355; from Norway, 129; other nationalities, 808. Number of schools, 101; number of children of school age, 9,871.


OZAUKEE COUNTY.
Ozaukee is one of the central lake shore counties, lying between Milwaukee County on the south and Sheboygan on the north. It has an area of 180,000 acres, over half of which is under cultivation. On the lake shore the surface is quite level, but becomes rather broken in the western part. Three-fourths of the county was originally covered with forests of hard timber, principally oak, maple, beech, ash, elm, hickory, etc. The remaining fourth was natural meadow and marsh land. The soil is clay, mixed with calcareous sand and gravel, the clay predominating in the eastern and the sand and gravel in the western part. The average price of land is from $25 to $40 an acre. In the valley of the Milwaukee River, which flows through the county north and south, the soil is a light loam. On this river and the Cedar Creek, one of its tributaries, there are many good water powers. A ledge of limestone runs through the county from northeast to southwest, which affords excellent and abundant building material. Quite a number of white sandstone quarries are in successful operation on the line of the railroads, and there are several brickyards engaged in manufacturing a cream colored brick, regarded by some as superior to the well known Milwaukee brick. With water communication on the lake and two lines of railroads running through the county, the market facilities are ample. The raising of grain, mainly wheat and rye, has been the leading agricultural interest, but more attention is now being given to a varied industry. More stock is kept, butter and cheese manufactured, wool raised and made up by manufactories, and fruit of the first quality is raised. Wild raspberries, blackberries and, in some places, cranberries are very abundant. The area of specified crops in 1875 is given by the census as 26,481 acres of wheat; 10,788 of oats; 3,111 of corn; 2,682 of barley; 226 of rye; 18 of hops; total, 43,306. Population, 16,545; native born, 9,278, and foreigners, 7,267, viz.: 4,701 Germans; 505 Irish; 167 French; 121 Norwegians; 117 Canadians; 70 English, and 1,586 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 59; children of school age, 7,531.


PEPIN COUNTY.
Pepin County is situated in the western part of the state, on the Mississippi river. Its area is seven townships, or some over 160,000 acres. The soil is mostly of a sandy loam, mixed more or less with clay. Good water privileges are found in nearly every town. The Chippewa River and its tributaries flow through the county, affording an abundance of water and an outlet for its agricultural products. Ten per cent of the land is prairie or high table land; 55 per cent is heavily timbered with all kinds of hard wood; 20 per cent, openings, and 15 per cent, marsh. The average price of improved land is ten to fifteen dollars per acre; of unimproved, from three to five dollars. The crops of 1875 were wheat, 9,201 acres; oats, 2,936 acres; corn, 5,958; barley, 134; rye, 326; hops, 28; total, 18,582. Population, 5,816; native born, 4,182; foreigners, 1,634. Of the foreigners, 374 are Germans; 260 Canadians; 606 Norwegians; Irish, 147; English, 150; French, 42_ Number of schools, 36; children of school age, 2,209.


PIERCE COUNTY.
The valley of the St. Croix, in which the counties of Pierce, St. Croix, Polk and Pepin are situated, has long been noted for the productiveness of its soil and the healthfulness of its climate. The latitude of these counties is much higher than of any other county in the state engaged exclusively in agriculture, yet the crops mature with as much, and by some, it is claimed more, certainty than in southern Wisconsin. The air is very dry and pure, and the extreme degrees of cold as well as sudden changes in temperature are not so severely felt as in a moister climate. The soil is dry and porous, easily worked, early to start in the spring and quick to mature the growth of crops, so that they seldom fail. Pierce County has an area of 600 square miles, or 367,000 acres. It is divided into prairie, twenty per cent., timber, mainly oak, ash, maple, basswood and elm, thirty-five per cent, openings, thirty-five per cent, and ten per cent, marsh. The soil of the prairie and openings is a sandy loam, with a base of magnesium limestone; that of the timbered land is a vegetable mold, with clay subsoil. Wheat is the main staple of production, for which the soil and climate seem peculiarly fitted. The county is well watered, as there are seven rivers running through it into the St. Croix River and lake, the Mississippi and Lake Pepin, which form its western and southern boundaries. These are rapid flowing streams and have good mill sites at short intervals throughout their whole length. There are also many brooks and creeks flowing into these rivers which have sufficient fall for mill sites. All these streams abound in fish, especially with speckled trout. Ready market is found for all their surplus products at St. Louis and below and in the pineries above. The rates of transportation by water are low. The reported crops of 1875 are, of wheat, 36,106 acres; of oats, 8,678 acres; of corn, 7.558; of barley, 681; of rye, 128; total, 53,151 acres. Population in 1875, 15,101; natives of this country, 11,313; foreigners, 3,788, including 1,624 Norwegians, 681 Germans, 640 Irish, 470 Canadians, 206 English, and 167 of various other nationalities. Number of schools, 94; children of school age, 5,797.


POLK COUNTY.
The same peculiarities of soil and climate pertain to this as to the county last described; also, in a great degree, the same physical characteristics and conditions. The area of Polk County is 700,000 acres. Of this, about 30 per cent is prairie land, 40 per cent timber, 20 per cent openings and ten per cent marsh. The greater portion of the timber is hard wood, but the northern and eastern townships contain vast quantities of valuable pine timber, and the lumber business is carried on extensively. The county is watered by numerous rivers, brooks and clear spring lakes, which afford ample water powers, and abound in brook trout and other fine fish. Wild meadows are numerous and furnish large quantities of hay and feed for stock. The St. Croix River, a navigable tributary of the Mississippi, bounds this county on the west, affording a means of transportation for the producers of the county down the river, or to connect with railroads east and west. The acreage of specified crops in 1875 was, of wheat, 5,225 acres; of oats, 3,132; of corn, 1,784; of barley, 135; of rye, 112; total, 10,388. Total population, 6,736; native born, 4,426; foreigners, 2,310. Of the foreigners, the leading nationalities are, Swedes and Norwegians, 1,160; Canadians, 376; Germans, 339; Irish, 201; English and Scotch, 128; other nationalities, 106. Number of schools, 54; children of school age, 2,381.


PORTAGE COUNTY.
Portage is the most central county of the state, and although its resources are far from being fairly developed, it already holds the first rank on the upper Wisconsin in regard to location, soil, climate, agricultural products and commercial advantages. It is thirty miles in length north and south, and twenty-four in width. The southern and eastern portions are much the most thickly inhabited, the northwestern part being mostly heavily timbered lands. The varieties of timber are pine, oak, maple, basswood and hemlock. It contains twenty-two townships, or 507,000 acres of land, 5 per cent is prairie land, 35 per cent timber, 50 per cent openings and 10 per cent marsh. There is very little waste land in the county. The few swamps and marshes it contains are susceptible of drainage, and may in this way be made equal if not superior to the best farming land in this section. The soil in some portions of the county is a light sandy loam, yet it is quite productive in favorable seasons, and with judicious management, will doubtless be greatly improved. The soil of the eastern portion of the county is probably as good for farming purposes as any in the northern part of the state. The area of land devoted to special crops is given by the last census as follows: Wheat, 12,128 acres; oats, 5,068; corn, 8,828; barley, 306; rye, 4,413; hops, 379 acres; total, 30,852 acres. But little attention has been given to fruit raising until quite recently, but enough has been done to prove that many of the hardier varieties of apples can be cultivated with success. A large number of fruit trees have recently been set out. There is a sufficiency of good stone for building purposes. The manufactures of the county are mainly confined to lumber, of which large quantities are exported annually. Population, in 1875, 14,856, comprising 10,077 native born and 4,779 foreign citizens. Of the foreigners, 1,709 are Germans; 1,176 Norwegians; 560 Canadians; 515 Irish; 442 English and Scotch, and 377 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 80; number of children of school age, 5,278. Two lines of railroad have lately been built through the county, which will give greater impetus to every branch of industry.


RACINE COUNTY.
Racine County is one of the most thriving and prosperous counties of the state. Its thrift is seen in the diversity of its industry, both in its manufactures and its agricultural productions, and in this varied industry lies the great cause of its prosperity. In no other county, except Milwaukee, is there so great a variety of manufactured products. In its location on the lake shore in southern Wisconsin, it has excellent market facilities, and can command a large local trade. The general topography of the county is of an undulating character, rising 250 feet or more above the level of Lake Michigan. The Fox River runs through the county from north to south, furnishing excellent facilities for water power. On the east side of this river the surface is nearly level, and the soil is a black loam with a marl clay subsoil. On the west side the land is more uneven and somewhat hilly, and the soil of a lighter character. There are 211,840 acres of land in the county. Of this, about forty-five per cent is prairie land, the same of timber, three per cent of openings and seven per cent marsh. The timber consists of nearly all the different varieties of hard wood known in the northwest. All kinds of grain, fruit and vegetables are successfully cultivated, but the character of the soil and a moist atmosphere during the spring, summer and fall, caused by the influence of the lake, are especially adapted to the growth of grass, and consequently many are engaged in stock raising and the dairy. There are many fine horses, herds of blooded cattle and sheep kept in the county. The crop items given by the census of 1875 are, wheat, 19,286 acres; oats, 16,668; corn, 15,865; barley, 2,063; rye, 683; hops, 38; total 54,601 acres. Fattening stock for market is quite an important branch of the farm products. Also, the packing and pressing of hay. An extensive business is done in the quarrying of stone, turning of lime and manufacture of brick. The limestone quarries near the city of Racine are of the best quality and inexhaustible in extent. The city of Racine, the county seat, is situated on a promontory running out four miles into Lake Michigan, at an elevation of about forty feet above the level of the lake. It has a good harbor and an extensive commerce, and is largely engaged in manufactures of various kinds. Population of the city is over 13,000. The population of the county in 1875 was 28,702; 17,119 natives of this country and 11,583 foreigners. Of the foreigners, 4,142 are Germans; 2,557 Swedes and Norwegians; 2,395 English and Scotch; 1,115 Irish; 967 Swiss and French; 290 Canadians, and 117 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 84; number of children of school age, 10,397.


RICHLAND COUNTY.
The first settlements were made in this county in 1848. In population it has grown from about 1,000 in 1851 to over 17,000 in 1875. The county contains sixteen townships, or about 370,000 acres of land, eighty per cent of which is covered with heavy timber; the balance is mostly openings. The most common varieties of timber are oak, maple, basswood, butternut, hickory, pine, ash and elm. The face of the country is somewhat uneven, consisting of ridges and valleys, the ridges often terminating in bluffs near the streams. Along the Wisconsin river, which forms its southern boundary, the soil is quite sandy and is very light, The soil of the timber region is a rich, dark sandy loam, easy of cultivation, and producing a rapid growth of vegetation, especially of grass. This natural adaptation of grass has led to considerable attention being given to raising stock, and the business has been found much more profitable than the raising of grain. Much care has been taken to improve the breeds of all kinds of stock. Several cheese factories are in successful operation, and have proved profitable. The principal farm products exported from the county are wheat, flour, pork, beef, butter, wool and poultry. The acreage of crops as given for 1875, is, wheat, 18,646 acres; oats, 7,795 acres; corn, 19, 585; barley, 195; rye, 981; hops, 553, and tobacco, 2; total, 47,757 acres. Much attention has been given to the cultivation of fruit, and it has been demonstrated that a great variety of fruit can be raised with success. The county is well watered with numerous springs, streams and rivers, most of which are well supplied with speckled trout. On the larger streams excellent mill sites are found, more than enough to meet the wants of the county. There are many excellent quarries of sandstone, limestone and marble; also large deposits of iron have been found in several localities; a vein of lead has been discovered and successfully worked in the southern part of the county; there are also indications of copper. Quarrying and mining have received but little attention as yet, for want of facilities for transportation. Population in 1875, 17,353, including 15,392 natives, and 1,961 foreigners. Of the foreigners, 531 are Germans; 475 Irish; 295 English and Scotch; 266 Norwegians; 185 Canadians, and 209 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 122; children of school age, 7,094.


ROCK COUNTY.
This is one of the oldest and best agricultural counties in the state. The first settlements were made in it in 1835, and now nearly the whole country is occupied and improved by actual settlers. The surface is very regular and even. There is very little rough or broken land in the county, or scarcely an acre which cannot be used for farming purposes. Of the twenty townships contained in the county, about 60 per cent is prairie, 20 per cent hard wood timber, and 20 per cent openings. It has quite a variety of soils, but all are remarkably productive. The county seems to be better adapted to grain than to grass, yet raising stock is largely engaged in. The exhibits of blooded stock at the fairs compare favorably with those of other sections of the state. Wheat has been the great staple of production, but of late year's corn has taken the lead. All kinds of coarse grain and vegetables are raised in large quantities. Considerable attention has been given to the cultivation of fruit, and there are many thrifty and productive orchards in nearly every part of the county. Large quantities of butter are made and shipped to market. The county ranks the fourth in the state in this productive industry. The crops of 1875, as given by the census, were, wheat, 34,449 acres; oats, 52,239; corn, 71,991; barley, 18,821; rye, 8,158; hops, 57; tobacco, 2,211; total, 181,926 acres. The Rock and Sugar rivers with their tributaries flow through the county, furnishing an abundance of water for agricultural and manufacturing purposes. Rock River is one of the best mill streams in the state, and it furnishes motive power for a large manufacturing interest at Janesville, Monterey and Beloit. In the value of manufactured products the county stands the third in the state. At Janesville, there is the most extensive cotton manufactory in the northwest, where four hundred looms turn out thousands of yards of excellent cloth weekly. The educational advantages of the county are superior; good high schools are located in many of the towns; two colleges, one at Beloit, another at Milton, rank high among institutions of learning. There are also a number of good seminaries in flourishing condition. Population, 39,039; 30,719 natives of this country, and 8,320 foreigners. Of these, 2,871 are Irish; 1,884 English, Scotch and Welsh; 1,480 Swedes and Norwegians; 1,142 Germans; 755 Canadians, and 188 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 176; children of school age, 13,931.


ST. CROIX COUNTY.
St. Croix is one of the northwestern counties of the state. It is bounded on the west by the St. Croix River and lake, which separate it from the state of Minnesota. The surface of the county is generally even or gently rolling, but in some parts there are quite large ridges. The soil is generally a black, sandy loam, but in the northern and eastern portions there is more or less clay. The different kinds of soil are very fertile, producing all kinds of cereals. Five rivers flow through the county and empty into the St, Croix or Lake Pepin. All of these streams and some of their tributaries furnish valuable mill sites and are well stocked with speckled trout. About 35 per cent of the county is heavily timbered land, and the balance is mostly prairie. The varieties of timber are mainly pine, oak, ash, elm, maple and basswood. The manufacture of lumber is extensively carried on, but the most important branch of productive industry is agriculture. Wheat is the main crop and is largely exported, both in the form of wheat and flour. Many farmers keep improved breeds of stock. Number of acres of wheat raised in 1875 was, 12,305; of oats, 3,435; of corn, 1,304; of barley, 483. The West Wisconsin railroad-passes through the county to St. Paul and gives another outlet for its products. Population, 14,966; of which 10,105 are native born; 1,630 Irish; 1,372 Norwegians and Swedes; 1,106 Canadians; 398 Germans; 280 English and Scotch, and 75 of other nationalities. Total foreigners, 4,861. Number of schools, 89; children of school age, 5,529.


SAUK COUNTY.
Sauk County has a great diversity of soil and surface. Running through it is a range of high bluffs, from the northern slope of which the streams flow into the Baraboo River, and from the southern into the Wisconsin. Some of the soil, especially on the bottom lands bordering on the Wisconsin River, is light and sandy, but there is much calcareous matter mixed with the sand, which gives it considerable fertility. The soil of the prairies, which form about ten per cent of the surface, is a dark, calcareous loam, very strong and productive. The timber, covering about twenty per cent., is well distributed over the county. The varieties are mainly oak, basswood, maple, ash, elm, birch, butternut, hickory and hemlock. The soil of the timber region is very rich and productive, and well adapted to the growth of wheat and all kinds of grain and grass. Some of the best wheat land in the state lies in this region. Of the balance of the surface, about forty per cent is openings and twenty per cent marsh and lowland prairie. The soil of the openings is what is termed clay soil, with much sand and calcareous matter intermingled. A large proportion of the low prairie land is susceptible of cultivation and has a black, loamy soil with a clay subsoil. There are many localities which are specially adapted to fruit, and large quantities of apples, pears, strawberries, grapes, etc., are raised. Crops of 1875 were 35,501 acres of wheat; 20,409 of oats; 29,227 of corn; 809 of barley; 3,160 of rye, and 2,538 of hops. The Wisconsin River forms the boundary line of this county for over sixty miles, and when it becomes a national highway between the lakes and the Mississippi river, will afford cheap transportation for its products. The Chicago and Northwestern railroad passes through the county and the Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad runs along its southern line. Nearly every part of the county is traversed with streams which furnish a great abundance of water for manufacturing and other purposes. The largest of these is the Baraboo River, which has many good mill sites. At Baraboo, the county seat, the river falls forty feet within a distance of two miles, and furnishes an immense water power. Quite a number of mills and factories are located here. Extensive deposits of iron are found in various parts of the county. Furnaces are established at Ironton and Cazenovia. The ore is the brown hematite, and seems to be inexhaustible, and makes the best quality of iron. Copper is also found in some portions of the county. There are many quarries where the best of building stone can be obtained, both sandstone and limestone. In the town of Woodland there is a fine quarry of sandstone, which makes excellent grindstones and whetstones, pronounced equal, by some, to the best Ohio stones. Clay, for pottery ware and brick, is abundant. The most romantic scenery in the state is found around the Devil's Lake, near Baraboo, and in the bluffs and dells of the Baraboo River. At the lake, huge, rocky cliffs have been thrown up, apparently by volcanic forces, some 500 feet in height. Population of the county in 1875- 26,932, consisting of 19,536 natives of this country; 3,875 Germans; 1,068 Irish; 983 English, Scotch and Welsh; 799 French and Swiss; 436 Canadians; and 235 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 162; number of children, 10,383.


SHAWANO COUNTY.
Shawano County lies in the northeastern part of the state, in the valley of the Wolf River. This stream runs through the county from north to south, and is navigable to Shawano village, the county seat. Above this, and on its many tributaries, there are large numbers of mill sites, with a great abundance of power. In the number and equal distribution of its water powers, this county surpasses any other portion of the state of the same area. Eighty per cent of the surface is covered with heavy timber, and the balance is marsh. The timber along the streams is mostly pine; on the ridges and upland, oak, ash, maple, beach, basswood, hickory and hemlock. Immense quantities of pine lumber are manufactured annually and rafted down the streams to market. Lumbering has been the main business of the county. In 1859, the first attention was given to farming as a business, and since that time rapid progress has been made. The soil is fertile; yields very good crops of all kinds. Along the streams the soil is a sandy loam; on the uplands a black loam with a clay subsoil. Berries of various kinds grow wild in great quantities, and continue through the season, one variety following another: strawberries, red and black raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, whortleberries, and at the close, cranberries. There are large areas of the marsh lands specially adapted to the growth of the cranberry. Crops of 1875 were, wheat, 4,232 acres; corn, 1,464; oats, 3,770; barley, 67; rye, 503 acres. Considerable attention is now being paid to stock raising. Cattle, sheep and swine thrive here, and there is a ready home market in the pineries for all that can be raised. Many farmers of small means have started in here within a few years, cultivating the soil in its season, and in the winter going with their teams to work in the pineries at good wages. Population, 6,635, consisting of 3,537 native born citizens, and 2,297 Germans, 352 Swedes and Norwegians, 237 Canadians, 66 English, 50 Irish, and 96 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 32; children of school age, 2,028.


SHEBOYGAN COUNTY.
This county is situated on the shore of Lake Michigan. It contains fourteen townships, and parts of townships of two. Of this about seventy per cent was originally covered with heavy timber, nearly half of which has been cut off; twenty-four per cent openings and five per cent marsh. In the eastern part of the county, along the Sheboygan and Onion rivers, the timber is pine and hard wood; on the low lands, elm, basswood, ash, etc; but in other portions it is hard wood, in which oak, maple, beech and ash predominate. There are occasional swamps of tamarack and cedar. Along the streams in the eastern part the surface is rather broken, but becomes gently rolling as it retires from them. In the western part is a range of hills and hollows known as "The Kettles" where the soil is gravel or sandy loam. On this gravelly soil of the Kettles and on the clay soil of the heavy timber regions an excellent quality of wheat is raised. All kinds of farm crops are extensively raised, so that a large surplus is sent to eastern and southern markets. Hay is largely an article of export, thousands of tons being shipped annually to the lumber regions. The dairy and stock raising are becoming the leading business with many farmers, and will eventually be the most important branch of agricultural industry in the county. The native and cultivated grasses flourish and furnish the best of food for dairy purposes. Butter and cheese is extensively shipped to eastern markets. There are over twenty cheese factories in successful operation, and this branch of business is yearly extending. Of late years an extensive business has been done in raising peas for the St. Louis and Philadelphia markets. If cut at the right time and properly cured, they retain their green color and are canned and sold as green peas. For this purpose they bring double the price of ordinary peas. The acreage of crops for 1875 was, of wheat, 41,377 acres; of oats, 15,297; of corn, 7,539; of barley, 4,177; of rye, 1,061; of hops, 60; total, 72,511 acres. The value of the agricultural products are estimated as averaging about $2,000,000 yearly. The value of its manufactures amounts to nearly the same. The chief articles manufactured are flour, lumber, wagons, leather, furniture, woolen cloth and blankets, etc. Owing to superior commercial facilities, commerce is extensively carried on. Population in 1875, 34,021; consisting of 20,564 natives, 9,105 Germans, 2,077 Swiss and French, 1,011 Irish, 370 English and Scotch, 347 Canadians, 260 Norwegians, and 287 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 117; children of school age, 13,966.


TAYLOR COUNTY.
Taylor County was organized, in 1874, from territory detached from Chippewa, Clark and Marathon counties. It contains twenty eight townships, of which sixty-five per cent is covered with heavy timber fifteen per cent prairie, and the balance marsh land. From the center of the county the water shed divides, the drains on the southern slope flow into the Black River and its tributaries, on the east into the Wisconsin, and on the west and south into the Chippewa River. The county is well watered, and has many excellent water powers. The timber on the bottom lands bordering on the streams is principally white pine of excellent quality. Some of the heaviest pine timber in the state is found here. The timber on the ridges between the streams is mainly sugar maple, basswood, butternut, oak, elm, and black birch. The soil of much of the pine land is poor, being mostly sand and gravel; that of the heavy timber is a heavy black loam, with a clay subsoil. In some portions of the county the country is flat and swampy, and the timber is mostly hemlock, cedar, balsam and spruce. But little attention is given, as yet, to farming, the whole productive energy of the settlers being given to lumbering. As far as tested, all kinds of farm crops do well, especially winter wheat and grass. Much of the marsh land is well adapted to cranberries, and is well stocked with vines. The population in 1875 was 849; consisting of 677 natives of this country, and 172 foreigners, mainly Germans, Canadians, English and Norwegians.


TREMPEALEAU COUNTY.
This county contains about twenty townships, and is situated in nearly the center of the western tier of counties. The Mississippi river forms its boundary on the southwestern corner; the Trempealeau River on a part of the west side, and the Black river on the south. It is well watered by these steams and their tributaries. Besides these, there are many trout brooks and innumerable springs of soft water. The surface of the land is uneven, with valleys along the streams on the west, with ridges between rising into elevated table lands. These ridges are chiefly made up of Potsdam sandstone, with a strata rising 450 feet above the Mississippi, and capped with magnesium limestone, covered with vegetable loam and clay subsoil. The surface of these table lands and prairies is gently rolling. The soil on the river bottom lands is light and sandy, but on the elevations it is rich and produces good crops. All the vegetables and cereals common to the state are raised here. Winter wheat seldom fails to produce a good crop. Inland, most of the streams are lined with belts of hardwood timber, mainly oak, maple, ash and basswood. On some of the small creeks are belts of tamarack. The surface is about thirty-five per cent timber, twenty-five each openings and prairie, and fifteen marsh. The acreage of crops in 1875 was 45,851 acres of wheat; 12,483 of oats; 13,080 of corn; 1,200 of barley; 243 of rye, and 33 of hops; total, 72,889 acres. Many efforts have been made to raise apples and other fruits here, but in the main have not been very satisfactory. In some localities they have done well, and have received the first prize at our fairs. Population in 1875 was 14,992; consisting of 8,855 natives; 3,691 Swedes and Norwegians; 1,084 Germans; 455 English and Scotch; 400 Irish; 292 Canadians, and 215 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 77; children of school age, 5,631.


VERNON COUNTY.
The Mississippi river forms the western boundary of this county, for a distance of over twenty-two miles. The surface is for the greater part even, but in some parts broken into hills or ridges. The county contains 53,404 acres of land, divided into timber, openings and prairie, fifty per cent of the first, and twenty-five each of the others. The timbered land contains all the varieties commonly called hardwood. On the openings it is mainly white and burr oak. The soil is good, and yields crops of small grain equal to any portion of the state, and especially excels in its vegetables. It is well watered by springs and brooks, with an abundance of water power on the larger streams. Like all timbered land, the soil and climate are natural to the cultivation of grass, and are well adopted to stock and dairy business. This is already largely engaged in, and much grass fed stock and butter and cheese are shipped to eastern and southern markets. The first attempts at fruit raising were disheartening, but those who have persevered have met with very good success. Improved lands are worth from $15 to $30 per acre; unimproved from $3 to $10. Deposits of iron and copper are found in various places, but have not yet been developed. Crops of 1875: -wheat, 46,662 acres; oats, 18,273; corn, 16,915; barley, 1,445; rye, 156, and hops, 164; total 83,615 acres. Number of schools, 144; number of children of school age, 8,899.


WALWORTH COUNTY.
There are sixteen townships, or 368,640 acres of land contained in Walworth County, of which thirty-five per cent is prairie, fifteen per cent timber, forty per cent openings and ten per cent marsh. The central portion presents an elevated and nearly level plain, dividing the water shed into two nearly equal parts, that on the east flowing into the Fox River, and on the west into Rock River. Along some of the streams and near some of the lakes there are belts of hard wood timber, which contain a variety of oaks, black walnut, butternut, maple, linden and elm. The general surface is slightly undulating, except in the eastern part where is a range of bluffs where the land is very broken and the soil poor, but even this section is largely cultivated by foreigners. The soil of the county is of two marked kinds, that of the prairies, where it is dark loam, rich in vegetable matter and easily cultivated, but not quite so quick to promote early growth and maturity of crops as the other kind; that of the openings, which has more sand, lime and clay and sometimes iron mixed with the vegetable mold, with a subsoil of clay. Both these varieties of soil are very productive. Corn, oats and wheat are the main staples in grain, though all kinds of farm crops are largely raised. Of late years less and less attention is given to wheat culture, and more to the coarse grains and grass, and now the richest farms and the wealthiest farmers are those engaged in stock raising, dairying and sheep husbandry. In the production of wool this county is second in the state, Rock County taking the lead. Many cheese factories have lately been built and are doing a prosperous business. Fruit is largely and successfully cultivated. Apples, grapes and all kinds of small fruits are raised in abundance. Crops raised in 1875 were, 31,285 acres of wheat; 27,649 of oats; 40,173 of corn; 8,508 of barley; 2,807 of rye; 141 of hops, and 49 of tobacco; total, 110,612 acres. The county is well watered, has numerous springs and fine mill streams with numerous branches, affording abundance of water power. There are also twenty fine lakes, of which Lake Geneva, ten miles long and two wide, is the most noted, being a fashionable place of summer resort. Stratified limestone crops out in various parts of the county, and is valuable for lime and building purposes. Clay is also abundant. Population, in 1875, 26,259; comprising 21,052 native citizens; 1,741 Irish; 1,186 Germans; 1,081 English, Scotch and Welsh; 616 Norwegians; 395 Canadians, and 182 of the other nationalities. Number of schools, 129; children of school age, 9,304. One of the state normals is located at Whitewater, a thriving manufacturing village in the northeastern part of the county.


WASHINGTON COUNTY.
Washington County embraces in its limits twelve townships, and is twenty-four miles long by eighteen wide. Its soil is mainly clay mixed with sandy loam, and is well adapted to the cultivation of wheat. Nearly seventy-five per cent of the county was originally covered with timber, but a large amount has been cut off. The openings embrace about ten per cent., and fifteen is marsh land. Of the 276,480 acres in the county, all is owned by actual settlers, and five-eighths is under cultivation. Average price of land is $30 per acre. Cattle and horses are raised in considerable numbers, and much attention is given to dairying, especially to the manufacture of butter. Lumber and flour are manufactured to some extent, but agriculture in its various branches is the main pursuit; nine-tenths of the inhabitants are engaged in it. The Milwaukee River, Cedar and Rubicon creeks, with their tributaries, furnish abundant water for general purposes and for motive power. There are a number of fine water powers yet unimproved. The timber, consisting mainly of oak, maple, basswood, beech, elm, ash, etc., is well distributed. At Hartford, in the western part of the county, deposits of iron ore, equal- in quality to that at Iron Ridge are found. When developed, these mines will be of great advantage to the industrial interests of the county and state. The following gives the amount in acres of the various crops in 1875: Wheat, 62,508 acres; oats, 14,127; corn, 13,578; barley, 2,523; rye, 3,138; hops, 19; total, 95,893 acres. Population, in 1875, 23,862, comprising 13,836 natives of the United States; 8,193 Germans; 880 Irish; 566 French and Swiss; 146 English and Scotch; 97 Canadians, and 144 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 103; children of school age, 9,926.


WAUKESHA COUNTY.
The county of Waukesha is situated directly west of Milwaukee, at an average distance of twenty-five miles from that city. It contains 368,640 acres of land, divided into openings, timber, marsh and prairie land in the proportion of fifty, thirty-five, twelve and three per cent respectively. These different varieties are conveniently diversified and intermingled. In some few portions the surface is hilly, in others, nearly level, but in the greater portion it is gently rolling. There is a variety of soil, but for the greater part it is a mixture of loam and clay. It also contains much calcareous matter, is easy to cultivate and very productive, and is adapted to the growth of all kinds of grain and grasses. Considerable attention is given to raising various breeds of herded stock. The county is noted for its large flocks of fine sheep, its valuable stock of cattle and its dairy interests. Apples are raised in more than sufficient quantities to meet the wants of the county; pears, plums and other fruit do well in some seasons. The acreage of crops given by the census of 1875 is of wheat, 42,819; of oats, 19,596; of corn, 24,304; of barley, 5,086; of rye, 3,759; of hops, 202; of tobacco, 6; total, 96,772 acres. The county is well watered by springs, brooks, rivers and lakes, abounding with fine fish. Around Oconomowoc are many small lakes, beautifully located, which have made the place a noted summer resort. At the city of Waukesha, the county seat, a mineral spring has been discovered whose waters possess great curative powers, and which attracts many visitors and invalids. The state industrial school for boys is located in this city. There are also woolen mills here, which are largely engaged in the manufacture of shawls of excellent quality. The best limestone deposits in the state are found in this county, at Waukesha, Pewaukee and Menomonee, and an extensive business is done in the exportation of building stone and lime. Beds of clay suitable for pottery ware are found in the towns of Merton, Menomonee and Lisbon. Population of county in 1875, 29,425, comprising 19,115 natives; 4,511 Germans; 2,567 English, Scotch and Welsh; 1,658 Irish; 796 Swedes and Norwegians; 345 Canadians; 245 French and Swiss, and 188 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 120; children of school age, 11,212.


WAUPACA COUNTY.
Waupaca County has the same physical characteristics pertaining to the southern tier of counties lying in the pine regions, an intermingling of pine and hard wood timber and openings, with little or no prairie and the varied soil peculiar to each. The pine timber is mainly in the northern part of the county, but groves and belts are found in the eastern and northeastern sections. This pine is of excellent quality and is rafted down the Wolf River and other streams in great quantities. The hard wood consists of oak, maple, birch, ash, cherry, hickory, basswood, elm, etc. The soil of the pine lands is generally light and sandy, but with proper cultivation, will yield good crops of corn, buckwheat beans, potatoes, vegetables, squashes, melons, etc. In the timber lands, the soil is composed of sand and clay, mixed with vegetable mold. In the openings, part of the land is more sandy than in the timber regions, but most of the soil is a dark, rich loam and quite productive. Wheat does remarkably well; the winter wheat seldom kills out. Corn is a pretty sure crop; even dent corn seldom fails to mature. The cultivated grasses do well; clover is largely raised, both for stock and as a fertilizer. About fifty-five per cent of the county is covered with timber, twenty per cent openings and the rest is marsh land. These marshes yield an abundance of good hay. The surface of the country is gently undulating except in a few places in the west and northwest, where it is broken by high hills and bluffs. The county contains twenty-one townships, or 483,840 acres of land. It is well watered in every part. The Wolf is the main, navigable stream. It ha3 many large tributaries which afford abundant and reliable water powers. Some of the best and most extensive water powers in the county are found on these streams. Scattered through the county there are a large number of lakes, which abound in fish. The acreage of crops for 1875 was, of wheat, 15,300 acres; of oats, 5,904; of corn, 8,276; of barley, 461; of rye, 2,255; of hops, 209; total, 32,405 acres. Fruit is cultivated to some extent and bids fair to be attended with success. Immense quantities of blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, gooseberries, whortleberries, blueberries and cranberries grow wild. There is scarcely a swamp or marsh in the county but what is stocked with the cranberry vine. Population in 1875- 19,646, comprising 13,921 Americans; 2,252 Swedes and Norwegians; 1,571 Germans; 654 Irish; 642 Canadians; 406 English and Scotch, and 200 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 104; children of school age, 7,225.


WAUSHARA COUNTY.
In its superficial area this county is six townships in length, three in width, containing 414,720 acres of land. Of this, five per cent is prairie, fifteen per cent timber, fifty per cent openings, and thirty per cent marsh. The three eastern townships are heavily timbered with maple, hickory, ash, elm, basswood and oak, with the exception of some large tracts of marsh. These marshes are natural cranberry land, and in some seasons have yielded immense crops of this fruit. The soil of the timber section is a clay loam, of the prairie a black loam, and of the openings sandy loam. The western portion of the county is quite sandy, but the land is easily cultivated and yields good returns for labor expended. The wheat and small grain raised here is of extra quality, but somewhat lacking in quantity of yield; but of all kinds of vegetables, the yield is large and of superior excellence. The general character of the surface is level, but there are some bluffs in the central and northern portions. Of its rivers, the Fox on the south, and the Wolf and Lake Poygan on the east, are navigable, furnishing cheap transportation to Lake Michigan. Pine River, Willow creek, and Mecan River are mill streams with excellent sites and water power for manufacturing purposes. Over a large area, artesian or flowing wells can be obtained at a depth of from fifty to one hundred feet. Crops of 1875: wheat, 14,658 acres; oats, 4,196; corn, 1,694; barley, 207; rye, 9,229, and hops, 313; total, 30,297 acres. There is a great abundance of wild fruits, and many have been successful in raising cultivated fruit. There are large beds of marl, equal in value as a fertilizer to the green marl of New Jersey; also good clay deposits for the manufacture of cream colored brick and stone ware. Population in 1875, 11,523, comprising 8,890 Americans, 834 Germans, 602 Danes, Swedes and Norwegians, 562 English and Scotch, 314 Irish, 270 Canadians, and 51 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 89; children of school age, 4,868.


WINNEBAGO COUNTY.
In its location, Winnebago County is remarkably fortunate. It lies on the west shore of Lake Winnebago, directly on the great water highway between the lakes and the Mississippi. It has within its limits and on its borders over one hundred and fifty miles of navigable waters. The upper and lower Fox and the Wolf Rivers are all navigable far beyond the limits of the county, and it is the outlet and the base of supplies of the immense pineries in the Wolf river valley. The county embraces sixteen townships, or 268,522 acres of land, of which the greater portion is owned by actual settlers. It is estimated that over three-fourths of the land is under cultivation. Improved lands are worth from $35 to $60 per acre on an average. About thirty-five per cent of the surface is covered with timber, mostly of the hard wood varieties, and twenty-five per cent each of openings and marsh, and fifteen of prairie. There are no swamp lands in it, and much of the marsh can readily be drained and made the best of tillable land. The surface is moderately rolling, with few slight ridges or hills contains a variety of soils; the black, vegetable mold, marly, clayey and sandy loam. Underlying them all is a subsoil largely composed of lime rock decomposed, which gives it great strength and fertility. Crops of 1875, were, of wheat, 41,346 acres; of oats, 11,963; of corn, 13,108; of barley, 692; of rye, 603; of hops, 91; total acreage, 67,803. The soil and climate are especially adapted to fruit culture. In no section of the country, east or west, can better apples, pears and grapes be found. Herds of thorough bred animals are kept by many farmers. Large quantities of butter and cheese are made. The county has an abundance of water for all purposes. Besides the streams mentioned above, there are many others flowing into them from all parts of the county, together with a large number of lakes. In a great portion of the county, flowing wells can be obtained at a small cost. The water powers of the county are unsurpassed in excellence. At the outlet of Lake Winnebago is one of the finest and largest powers in the country. In the value of its manufactures, Winnebago County stands second in the state, Milwaukee County taking the first place. There are large manufacturing interests established at Oshkosh, Neenah, Menasha, Omro, Winneconne and other places. Population in 1875, 45,033, comprising 30,452 Americans; 6,355 Germans; 2,026 English and Scotch; 1,882 Canadians; 1,794 Swedes and Norwegians; 1,690 Irish; 486 Swiss and French, and 348 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 118; children of school age, 15,500. The third state normal school is located at Oshkosh.


WOOD COUNTY.
This county is settled nearly in the geographical center of the state. It contains 530,000 acres of land, of which only a small portion is yet improved. The general surface is quite level, there being but little broken land in the county. In the southern portion there are many hay and cranberry marshes. The soil of this region is a sandy loam; that of the northern portion is a deep, rich clayey loam, well fitted for agricultural purposes. Owing to the overshadowing influence of the lumber interest, the agricultural resources of the county have not been developed, but when tested, good yields of an excellent quality of all the farm crops common to this climate have been secured. Wheat and the tame grasses do remarkably well. There is a great abundance of wild fruit, especially of the cranberry. The Wisconsin, Yellow, and Black rivers traverse the county, and have numerous tributaries which furnish an abundance of water. There are numerous mill sites scattered along these streams. On the Wisconsin, at Grand Rapids, the largest power in the county is formed. The river here falls one hundred feet within ten miles, with an abundant supply of water. This power can be easily improved, using both sides of the river. Seventy-five per cent of the land is timbered, the balance marsh. A large portion of the timber is a dense forest of heavy pine; the hard timber embraces all the varieties common to this climate. Valuable mineral deposits are found. Beds of iron ore, thought to be rich in quartz, are abundant. Copper ore is found in considerable quantities. Several quarries of good building stone have been opened. There are various kinds of granite, among them the Scotch granite, much used for monuments and ornamental work. Kaolin or porcelain clay, said to be the best in the country, is found in unlimited quantities. Until recently, the county has been without railroad connections, now there are two roads passing through it, which will hasten the development of its many and varied resources. There is plenty of good land in the county which can be bought at reasonable terms. Population in 1875, 6,048; comprising 3,943 Americans; 988 Canadians; 464 Germans; 265 Irish; 244 Norwegians; 118 English and Scotch, and 56 of other nationalities. Number of schools, 30; children of school age, 1,850.
[Source: "The State of Wisconsin: embracing brief sketches of its history"; By Edmund Theodore Sweet; Publ. 1876; Submitted by Andrea Stawski Pack]


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