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Part 10


Population of County and County Seat-Early Water Supply-Disastrous Floods-Old Stackhouse Mill-War of 1812-14-Revolutionary Veterans-The Valley Again to the Front-Another Morgan Appears-The First Company and Their Uniform-Lists of All Names Obtainable-Description of Old Court House and Jail-" Black Betty' "-Pillory' and Stocks-Ye Ancient Market House-Dramatic Entertainments-Names of the Actors-Judge Holmes as a Singer-Early Newspapers, Printing etc.-Some Taverns of note-Philip Bush and the " Golden Buck "-Louis Phillippe in Search of a Dinner-List of Corporation Officers-Various Proceedings of the Council-Some Pointers in the Cause Celebre-Fire Engines and Houses-Scared Councilmen-Sharp Spasm of Improvement-Reminiscences and Anecdotes-William Greenway-Sarah Zane-Stores, Stage Lines, Teaming, Dress, etc.

The population of Frederick County continued to increase with great regularity, and wealth to accumulate, for many years succeeding the great contest for liberty and independence, notwithstanding the extravagance that seems to have been engendered by seven or eight years of privation on the part of the colonies. In 1798 the tithables of the county were 3,996; in 1801 they were 4,802; in 1805, 4,904; in 1810, 4,964 and in 1812, 5,910. This was almost doubling the population, for if the tithables increased at that rate, it is supposable that the balance of the population kept pace with them. Winchester at this date, 1810, contained a population of about 2,000, including about 350 negroes. There were in the neighborhood of 400 houses of all kinds, with many fine stores and fine church buildings. Episcopal, Presbyterian, Lutheran, Methodist and Catholic. But notwithstanding the fine apparel of the ladies, the silk stockings, and knee and
shoe buckles of the gentlemen, the excellent schools and other evidences of material prosperity, the streets of the little city were horrible to behold, and some of them simply impassable at times. Teams would " stall " on Loudon and Water streets at the slightest provocation, and the boys had fine sport occasionally in swimming on Loudon near the Run. As late as 1844 David Russell, Jr., and Jacob Snyder, swam from about where the Presbyterian Church stands, to the Run. In 1795 a fearful flood swept through Boscowen and a portion of Loudon Streets; in 1811 another occurred; and still others, May 31, 1818; August 12, 1838; July 24, 1839; October 7, 1846, and August 1, 1855. The water stood fifteen inches deep, on some of those occasions, right in the heart of the town. Up to 1810 no effort to improve the streets was made, not even by macadamizing; they were simply kept up as the county roads were-a little grading and filling up the worst holes. April 10, 1810, the justices, who seem to have had charge of the streets of the town as well as the roads, passed the following: " Ordered that $300 be levied
upon the tithables of this county and included in the next levy for the purpose of enclosing part of the Public Square with a rail fence, and turnpiking or paving the main street opposite to the said square and otherwise improving the Public Square, and that Edward McGuire and William Davison do superintend the same."

The water supply in Winchester has always been a mattter (matter) of great concern to the inhabitants thereof, and as early as 1761 the passage of an act was obtained in the General Assembly prohibiting the running at large of hogs in the town, "as," the act reads, "they injure the springs and waters generally; Provided always, that the act be suspended till His Majesty's approbation shall be obtained." The fine spring located west of the town has always furnished an
ample supply of the purest water, and its conveyance to the homes of the citizens for a long time perturbed the city authorities, but at last, about 1806 or 1808, a Dr. Brown was engaged by the corporation to overcome the difficulty. He brought into use machinery for boring the proper sized logs, using horse-power for the purpose. After the logs were bored they were joined by iron rings made sharp on their edges, the logs then being driven into them. The contract was to bring the water to Loudon Street only, and from there the citizens were required to open the ditch, if they wished the water, and the corporation would lay down the connections. The bore in the main logs was two-inch, and the connections one-inch. The waste water from this splendid spring was sufficient for many years to operate a mill-the old land-mark known as the Stackhouse Mill-now numbered
among the things that were, having given place to a railroad depot. That old mill was undoubtedly the oldest building in this portion of the valley, and doubtless dates as far back as 1740 to 1750, James Wood settled upon the land upon which it stood several years prior to 1713, and as a mill was one of the first necessities, what more natural than that he should have built one on his land? There was a Wood's mill somewhere hereabouts before 1750, by the records; and besides, Mr. William G. Russell says that when he was a boy of seven or eight years old, in 1808, the mill was an old dilapidated affair at that time. James Stackhouse, from whom it took its last name, repaired it in 1813, and operated it for some years. Before the introduction of the pipes water had to be hauled or carried from the run at Washington Street. Wells were never very numerous in the town, owing to the immense labor required in penetrating through the solid limestone that underlies this whole region.

The Valley, with the conspicuous promptitude that characterized it at the opening of hostilities in 1775, came to the front when war was declared between our land and Great Britain in 1812, and many an old veteran who had fought with Morgan and witnessed the surrender of Cornwallis, again buckled on his harness and marched to do battle against the invader whom he had helped to drive from our
shores over thirty years before. And singular to relate the first company was again raised by a Morgan. Willoughby Morgan, reputed to have been the son of Gen. Daniel Morgan, was a highly educated young man, and studied law in Winchester. He was one of the handsomest men of his time, was over six feet in height, straight as an arrow, and symmetrically built; not fleshy, but strong, powerful and graceful in his movements. His company, the first in the Valley,are said to have all been selected with regard to their size, none of them being less than six feet tall. After some service Capt. Morgan received a commission in the regular army and served with Gen. Scott in his northwestern campaigns, in one of the battles of which he was killed. The uniform of Morgan's company at first consisted of a blue nankeen hunting shirt, fringed with red around the bottom, with a small cape around the shoulders, also fringed with red, the sleeves being similarly fringed; red flannel leggings, and a round top felt hat with a buck-tail stuck in the front.(This description was given the author by Mr. W. G. Russell, who, when a boy of thirteen years of age, saw the company marching along Loudon Street) After Capt. Morgan left the company, it was disbanded for a time, but was reorganized by Capt. Thomas Roberts. The names of those forming that company as far as can be ascertained were: Thomas Roberts, William Roberts, Alexander Holliday, William Ball, William Campbell, Solomon Heister, William C. Holliday, Jacob Baker, Charles Conrad, Nicholas Burwell, Augustus Streit, Peter Bowers, John Bowley, James Bennett, Joshua Reed, John Denny, Andrew Bush, Presley Hansbury, James Vance, Sandy Hutchinson, John M. Magson, Richard Beckwith, James Barr, (fifer), Stewart Grant, Isaac Lauck, John Sloat, James
Meredith, Philip Sherrer, John Foster, Philip Hoff, John Price, Isaac Kurtz, John Miller, Richard Holliday, Philip Bowers, James White, John Carter, George Rice, John C. Clarke, Robert Jack, George Swallum, Solomon Spengler, Jonas Ashby, William Kain, Lewis Beatty, John Everly (drummer), John W. Miller.

Capt. William Morris also organized a company of fifty-one members. The following list was furnished the Winchester News several years ago by Thomas Foster, who obtained it from the archives in Washington. It was an artillery company : William Morris, captain; George W. Kiger, first lieutenant; Isaac Lauck, second lieutenant; William Streit, third lieutenant; John Poe, fourth lieutenant; William Van Horn, first corporal; William Young, second corporal; Nathan Parrell,
third corporal; William McFee, fourth corporal; John Day, fifer; John Everly, drummer. Privates: Daniel Gray, John Allen, Thomas Austin, William Barnes, Levi Booker, Francis Beckwith, David Cather, John Cooley, Louthan Cochrane, Joseph Kremer, Robert Davidson, William Dalby, John Fenton, John Farmer, Thomas Foster, Roger Fulkerson, Richard Gibbs, John Hoffnagle, Samuel Herdsman, William Hutchinson, George Heinrich, John Johnson, John Haas, John Hoffman,
John Hesser, Asa Joyce, Richard Jones, Daniel Kiger, John Keeler, John Klyfustine, Thomas Lafferty, John Miller, John Morris, James McCann, Craven Shaw, John Schultz, George Schreck, Elisha Winn, Henry Young.

Several other companies left this portion of the valley. One was commanded by Capt. Michael Coyle, with William Throckmorton as first lieutenant, and the names of some of the privates, which have been preserved, are Daniel Brown, John V. Brown, Frederick Aulick, Jacob Lauck, Henry Sloat, Isaac Russell, Jacob Mesmer, Robert Long, John M. Magson, who had been in one of the first companies, also, Benjamin Scrivener, Michael Copenhaver, Jacob Copenhaver, Henry Crebs John Coyle, William Jenkins, John Jenkins, Stephen Jenkins, J. Foster, S. Hester. These three companies were the only uniformed companies that left Frederick County, but there were a number of other persons who were members of other commands whose names are now forgotten. Roberts' and Morris' companies went to Norfolk and Coyle's  to Baltimore. At the time of the British advance on Washington Judge Henry St. George Tucker raised a cavalry company for ninety
days. They got as far as Harper's Ferry, but, having learned of the departure of the enemy, returned. They afterward went to Norfolk. Capt. Peter Printz commanded a company of militia, and Capts. Anderson and Miller were in the quartermaster department. Natty and Jacky Ryan, two young Irishmen, also enlisted in the service at the barracks in Winchester, and Natty was killed. Zachariah Crawford, Evan Thatcher, Henry Glaize, James Welch, Sampson Touchstone and Richard Jones, were also soldiers from this section. A recruiting
station was maintained, and the headquarters was in an old long weather-boarded house on Braddock Street. A number of prominent officers were here, and among them were Gen. Peyton Smith, Maj. Kean, Angus McDonald, Simon Owen and others. The unfortunate duel that took place between Gen. Peyton Smith and Hunter Holmes originated in that old building. While the soldiers were encamped in a grove at the southern end of Winchester a Methodist minister, Rev. Richard Furguson, frequently preached to them. Lorenza Dow, the famous and eccentric preacher, also preached in the same grove.

From Mr. Russell's notes on the early events and structures of Winchester the following is taken: "The Episcopal Church and graveyard took in about one-fourth of the public square. A stone wall covered with plank surrounded that portion now taken in by the Kerr and Senseny buildings. The church stood about ten feet from the line of the wall on Loudon and Water streets, affording a wide pavement. The entrance to the yard was on Water street. Before the building of the old stone jail there was a log one built way back in the other century, but it was destroyed by fire. It stood just about where Bantz's shoe store now is. The Clerk's office, built in 1805, stood about where the present one stands. It was of stone, arched inside
with brick. The Court House square was enclosed with a post and rail fence, and in the center of the yard stood 'Black Betty'-the whipping-post; also the pillory and stocks.

"One of the gable ends of the court house faced on Loudon street, and had up in the angle a 'bulls-eye' round window and with a roof projecting some ten feet.
There were doors in each gable end, but the front was toward Water street, and had large stone steps at the main entrance. Until the removal of the hill in front of the Conrad property the old court house stood the wear and tear of time very well, but at the tearing away and blasting of the hill, the building became undermined and was considered unsafe. The steeple which contained the bell was considered very fine in that day. The interior of the court house was well arranged. Entering the door you passed under a stairway which led to the jury rooms on the southwest corner. These rooms were about fifteen feet square, and furnished with benches. On the main floor, nearly opposite the door, was the Clerk's desk, raised about four feet above the floor. Benches were arranged for the juries. On the north end was the hustings for the judges and justices. The 'bar' was railed in for the lawyers."

In regard to the first stone jail and the old Market House Mr. Russell says: "The jail was about fifty square, facing on Cameron Street, with a yard running 100 feet on Boscowen Street. It was a low building and looked squatty. It was burned January 25, 1843. The building stood somewhat back from the street, the north side against a bank some five feet high, so on that side the top of the wall was not over eight feet high. On the west side of Cameron Street there was a wall fifteen or twenty feet high the whole length of the Market House which was about seventy feet long. This wall was surmounted by a heavy log into which were morticed posts, and railings were placed at each end. The wall embanked a hill, and perched  up on top of this hill stood the Market House-the old stone one-fifteen feet above the level of the street. It was a rough and rugged looking building two stories high, with six arches, all open, and above each arch a small window. The upper part was used as a town hall. An interior stairway led to the court and council rooms, and to the Masonic lodge room, as well. In 1815 the Masons and the corporation in conjunction put up a brick building on the north end, twenty feet on Cameron, and the width of the end of the Market House. Over the Market House the room was about sixty or seventy feet long, with fire-places in each and, used for public meetings, concerts, shows, etc."

A dramatic association called "The Thespian Society," performed in the old Market Hall several times during 1820 and 1821. The names of some of the plays they produced were, "The Glory of Columbia," "The wife of Two Husbands," "Old Mother of Glastoubury." "Old Tom Wiggins," etc. The members of the company were, Robert Menifee, John Hesser, Samuel H. Hall, Josiah W. Ware, Peter E. Sperry, S. H. Ball, W. G. Russell, David Z. Brown, Nash Gordon, Madison Hewlett, J. G. Heist, John B. D. Smith, John Turner, Samuel Campbell, Israel Cooper, William Lauck, John Edmonds, David Russell, George E. Edmondson, George Schultz, Samuel Reed, William Sperry. Peter Sperry was a splendid delineator of the Irish character, and never failed to bring down the house when he appeared upon the stage with his hat on the side of his head, a shillalah in his hand and a short pipe in his mouth. John Hesser was an excellent singer, and during one of the performances, while he was rendering "Hail Columbia" in his best style, he so aroused the patriotic ardor of the audience  that Judge Holmes stood up and joined in, all the balance of the audience following him. They made the old hall ring.

A dramatic society formed in 1825, met in a house on Loudon street, near Piccadilly, and the members were George Schultz, William C. Anderson, Samuel Reed, Isaac Hoff, J. S. Heist, W. G. Russell, Isaac Matthias, Jacob Everly, William Sperry, William Schultz, H. P. Ward, John Turner, J. B. Smith, John J. Smith, John Hesser and J. G. Heist. They also gave public performances.

Another company of amateur players performed in the old Methodist Church on Cameron Street in 1827. Some of the members were James Darlington, George Baker, J. George Heist, James P. Riely, John J. Harris, John S. Heist, John Charles, Samuel Johnson, C. Tuler Wolfe, Joseph Hamilton, J. W. Hollis and A. Seal.

Richard Bowen, who started the Centinel newspaper in Winchester in 1787, continued to publish a paper here for many years after 1800. He was a tall, fine looking Englishman, according to Mr. Russell, over six feet in height, and wore, till his death, short clothes, with blue silk stockings and silver knee and shoe buckles. He must have gotten control of the rival sheet, the Gazette, after some years, for he published that paper in a two-story building on Boscowen Street, between Loudon and the alley at the Lutheran Church. The paper passed from Bowen to Collett; then to John Haas, John Heiskell, Freeland and Lewis Eichelberger, and others, including the late Judge J. H. Sherrard, who also published the Virginian about 1827. Jonathan Foster published a paper about 1810-11. He purchased from Frizzell, who purchased from Lingan, said to have been the same who was killed in 1812 by a mob in Baltimore. Foster and James Caldwell published a paper called the Constellation. They were very enterprising printers, and published several books, "The Olive Branch," by Mathew Carey; "The Irish Emigrant," by Adam Douglas, and the "Horse Farrier," complied by Foster. Mr. McGlashell bought the Constellation from Foster, who in turn sold to J. G. Brooks, from whom it passed to S. H. Davis, then to Gallaher, then to Towers. Peter Printz started a printing office about 1824, and issued the Winchester Republican for many years. L. Eichelberger  published the Virginian for several years proceeding and after 1839. E. C. Bruce also published the Virginian for several years prior to the late war. He sold to J. J. Palmer, who moved the office up the valley in 1802, where it was destroyed. George E. Senseney published the Republican for a number of years before the war, and sold to Nathaniel B. Meade, who ran the paper until Gen. Banks came into the Valley, in the spring of 1862, when the plant was destroyed by the soldiers.

In 1865, on the first day of July, the News was started by G. R. Henry, P. L. Kurtz and H. K. Pritchard, and continued under that management till September, 1888, when the News Publishing and Binding Company was formed, Dr. J. F. Ward and R. M. Ward being the proprietors. During this same year, 1865, the Winchester Times made it appearance, with Goldsborough & Clark as editors and proprietors.
Clark retired and the firm became Goldsborough & Russell; then Goldsborough ran it  alone. Maj. R. W. Hunter then obtained control, but afterward sold a half interest to Mr. Beall, and the firm, became Hunter & Beall. Beall retiring, Mr. Hollis purchased an interest and the firm became Hunter & Hollis; then Hunter ran it alone, but afterward sold a half interest to T. W. Harrison. Hunter sold his other half to R. E. Byrd, and in 1883 the Winchester Times Publishing Company was formed and November 7, 1884, Col. William Riely took the management of the paper and still retains it. In 1865 A. M. Crane started the Journal, a Republican paper, and ran it for three or four years. It finally passed away, and Mr. Meade purchased the material and started the Sentinel, a Democratic paper, which ran about one and a half years, when it, too, disappeared. In September, 1884, T. H. Gosorn commenced the publication of the Leader, a Republican paper, which still runs successfully.

The tavern of Maj. Edward McGuire was started before the Revolution, and as has been shown in another place, was a famous house of resort for many years succeeding the great war for independence. It continued in notoriety after the beginning of the present century, and the spot where it stood has ever since been occupied as a hotel site; the original house kept by McGuire is described as being two long log and weather-boarded buildings, fifty feet each in length, with an alley dividing them. Next to McGuire's stood another tavern, a stone building kept by an Irishman named Brady, and it was, in the rear of this house, where in 1808  the first elephant ever exhibited in the valley made his debut.

Philip Bush kept a noted tavern for many years on Cameron street, south of the run. It was a fine large stone house, two stories high and some fifty feet in length. It was considered the fashionable hotel of Winchester in its day, and nearly all the dignitaries and foreign worthies sought Mr. Bush's hostelry when sojourning in these parts. In front of the door stood three or four willow trees, and in the yard was a large English walnut tree. Also, in front stood the sign post, and at its top was a fine gilded deer painted on the sign board. The tavern was known as the "Golden Buck." Landlord Bush, who was from Mannheim, Germany, was an irritable though kind-hearted man, and had, withal, an utter dislike to royalty and all the airs of royalty, and an illustration of this peculiarity is given in an anecdote related by the late C. Toler Wolfe, who got it from Dr. Philip Hoff (a brother of Lewis and John Hoff), who was in the habit of frequenting the Golden Buck in its palmy days. The story, in substance, is a follows: During the temporary absence of Mr. Bush two distinguished looking gentlemen alighted in front of the "Buck," and requested to be shown to a private room. "Old Sam," the servant perceiving that the guests were no ordinary mortals, hustled around and did the honors in great shape. It being about the dinner hour, the two gentlemen ordered their meals to be served in their room, and although this custom  was unknown at the Buck, Sam began to comply with the request. In the meantime Phillip returned to his house, and as Sam was conveying a tray of eatables to the upper floor he discovered him, and was informed that the guests had ordered their dinner upstairs. The irate old landlord rushed to the room of the strangers, and told them if they were too good to eat at his table that they were too good to stay at his house, and ordered them to leave instanter. They informed Bush who they were-that one of them was the crown prince of France and the other his brother, the Duc de Chartres, who were then in exile from their country. Bush replied that that fact made it so much worse, and he would not keep them at any price. They then pointed to his sign in proof of their having a right to demand public entertainment, whereupon the now fully aroused old landlord rushed to his wood-pile, and grasping his axe was about to hew down his sign-post, exclaiming, "Come down, Buck!" when the polite Frenchmen told Philip that they would go farther on. The prince was afterward Louis Phillippe of France.

In 1812-14 McGuire's tavern was the headquarters of the military gentlemen. Gen. Wilkinson, Col. Preston, Lieut. Shambaugh and others stopped there. Nearly opposite McGuire's Daniel Linn kept the "Golden Sheaf." Linn was a good-hearted man and met everybody with a pleasant smile. Around the sheaf on the sign was the legend, " May our country never want bread." William Van Horn kept a tavern on the corner of Loudon Street and Fairfax Lane. Brady's was the " Indian Queen." South of the run was the "Columbian Inn," kept by Capt. Peter Printz, who had been a gallant soldier in the war of 1812-14. Still further south on Loudon Street, where the Presbyterian Church now stands, was a large log and
frame building kept by Henry Bush, son of Philip Bush. After Bush came Elisha E. Russell, John C. Clark, Mrs. Edmund Pendleton and John Pitman. On the hill, corner Loudon and Monmouth Streets, the " Wagon and Four Horses " was kept by Elijah Walker. After Walker the house was kept by Benjamin Richards and William Hurr. Opposite Walker's a house was kept by Philip Amik. Further on Mrs. Hollenbeck kept a house, afterward by Benjamin Lanley. Mr. Osborne kept a tavern on Cameron Street, mostly for town trade. L. T. F. Grim kept a tavern which was afterward kept by Henry Fridley, then by Robert Brannan. Mr. Edmonson kept a tavern on Braddock Street which was afterward kept by William Doster. Peter Lauck's tavern, the " Red Lion," was on the corner of Loudon and Cork Streets. It was afterward kept by Edmund Pendleton, James Bryarly, Col.
George Kiger and Josiah Massie; Later on Bushrod Taylor ran a stage line from the hotel named after him, he succeeding Barrick, who had succeeded Edward McGuire. The line ran from Winchester to Alexandria and was a great public convenience at that time when railroads were only begun to be though of. Winchester has always been a good point for hotels, as it was, and still is, the "getting off place" for several of the noted springs and summer resorts of this section.

For the purpose of preservation and reference the following lists of officers of the city of Winchester, as fully as seems necessary for the matter in hand, are here given. There are no records of any officers earlier than the date 1804, as the books, if there ever were any, are now not to be found.

At a court of hustings, held for the corporation of Winchester on Friday, November 2, 1804, there were present:
Mayor, Lewis Wolf; recorder, Joseph Gamble; justices, Nathan Anderson, Charles Brent, Jr., Henry Bush, William Ball.

John Peyton having died, Thomas McKewen was chosen clerk by the justices, and the vacancy created by the resignation of McKewen, who was commissioner of the revenue, was filled by the appointment of Charles Brent, Jr.

March 1, 1805.-Charles Magill having been elected, was sworn in as mayor; Lewis Wolfe, as recorder; Charles Brent, Jr., Nathan Anderson, Joseph Gamble and Henry Beatty, aldermen.
Justices.-Charles Magill, Lewis Wolfe, Charles Brent, Jr., Nathan Anderson, Joseph Gamble, Henry Beatty.

Councilmen.-Samuel Colvert, Goldsmith Chandler, Simon Lauck, Peter Lauck, William Ball.

February 28, 1806.-Mayor, Lewis Wolfe; recorder, Charles Magill; aldermen-Charles Brent, Beatty Carson, Abraham Miller, Joseph Gamble; justices-Lewis Wolfe, Charles Magill, Charles Brent, Abraham Miller, Beatty Carson, Joseph Gamble; councilmen-Goldsmith Chandler, Nathan Anderson, John Brady, William Ball.

February 27, 1807.-Mayor, Charles Brent; recorder, Beatty Carson; aldermen-Samuel Colvert, Abraham Miller, John Baker; justices-Charles Brent, Beatty Carson, Samuel Colvert, Abraham Miller, John Baker; councilmen-Lewis Barnett, William Doster, Joshua Newborough, Simon Lauck, Jacob Poe.

March 4, 1808.-Mayor, Beatty Carson; recorder, Charles Brent; aldermen-Abraham Miller, Nathan Anderson, John Baker, John Crockwell; justices-Beatty Carson, Charles Brent, Abraham Miller, Nathan Anderson, John Baker, John Crockwell; councilmen-Daniel Overaker, Simon Lauck, John Schultz, Peter Harn.

March, 1809.-Mayor, Charles Brent; recorder, Beatty Carson; aldermen-Henry St. George Tucker, George Reed, Joseph Gamble; justices-Charles Brent, Beatty Carson, H. St. G. Tucker, George Reed, Joseph Gamble.

February, 1810.-Mayor, Beatty Carson; recorder, Charles Brent; aldermen-Abraham Miller, George Reed, Henry Beatty; justices-Beatty Carson, Charles Brent, Abraham Miller, George Reed, Henry Beatty.

March, 1811.-Mayor, Joseph Gamble; recorder, Beatty Carson; aldermen-George Reed, John Bell, John Barton, Abraham Miller; justices-Joseph Gamble, Beatty Carson, George Reed, John Bell, John Baker.

The order book or books of the corporation from the last date, 1811, are missing till 1843, but the officers from that period will be continued to the present time, before giving some of the more important proceedings of the common council, which, fortunately, are extant from 1819 to 1850.

In 1843 James P. Riely was elected mayor, and Lemuel Brent was made clerk. Riely sometime afterward resigned, and George W. Seevers was elected, who continued in office till 1847, when J. H. Sherrard was elected and continued in office till the close of the late war, although for several years during the existence of hostilities no business was transacted.

In 1865 Robert Y. Conrad was elected mayor, and the following appears as the first entry in the books:
August 7, 1865.-The mayor, recorder and aldermen-elect of the corporation of Winchester assembled in the clerk's office of the corporation of Winchester (the place appointed by a previous order of the court for holding said court by reason of the destruction of the court-room proper by the Federal army), pursuant to an adjournment of Saturday the 5th of August, 1865, by the commissioner appointed by the governor of Virginia, T, A. Pierpoint, for the purpose of organization.

Present: R. Y. Conrad, mayor; Joseph H. Sherrard, recorder; Elijah McDowell, alderman-at-large, and W. G. Russell, Frederick Schultz, Oliver M. Brown, William D. Brown, aldermen of wards, who severally took the oaths prescribed by the third article of the constitution of Virginia, before Henry M. Brent and William A. McCormick, commissioners appointed by the governor of Virginia for holding an election of legislative and judicial officers for said corporation. Said Robert Y. Conrad, mayor, also took the oath of office before said

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