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you here: it is his will; let us submit.  It is best.'  He turned and met the enraged soldiers at the door.  In a moment he fell, pierced with seven bullets, and expired without a groan.  Elinipsico sat unmoved upon his stool, received the shots of the soldiers, and expired without a motion.  Red Hawk endeavored to escape by the chimney, but was shot and fell into the ashes."  The old writer, Stuart, says that "no arrests were made."  It possibly would have been a rather tough job to have arrested that company of Rockbridge six-footers with guns in their hands, for killing three or four of the red devils, as they called the Shawanees.  Of all Indians the Shawanees are said to have been the most bloody and terrible, holding all other men, whites as well as Indians, in contempt as warriors in comparison with themselves.  This opinion made them more fierce and restless than any other savages, and they boasted of having killed ten times as many whites as any other Indians.  They were well-formed, ingenious and active people, presumptions and imperious in the presence of others not of their nation, and always cruel.  It was chiefly the Shawanees that defeated Braddock, killing that General and Sir Peter Halkett in 1755.  They also defeated Major Grant and his Scotch Highlanders at Fort Pitt in 1758.

In regard to the manners, customs, habits, employments, amusements, dress, food, habitation, etc., of the Indians, the author has compiled the following from various sources reaching back to colonial times, which may be found interesting as well as a matter for preservation:

When the English first arrived at Jamestown it has been claimed that the North American continent was not as thickly inhabited by the aborigines as is generally supposed.  In fact, it has been doubted as to whether their settlements extended to the prairie country of the west, for that class of lands would not afford adequate shelter for much of the game desired by the savages, and none at all for the latter during the severe winters.  It has been computed, therefore, by Trumbnil, that only about 150,000 were within the compass of the thirteen original States.  It is altogether probable that all mountainous or timbered regions, however, contained large populations, even to the lakes and to the Pacific coast, for, as has been attempted to be shown by the writer, the Indian is an old inhabitant of America.  In their physical character the different tribes within the boundaries of the United States were nearly the same.  Their persons were tall, straight, and generally well proportioned.  Their skins were of a red, or copper-brown color; their eyes black, and hair long, black and coarse.  In constitution they were firm and vigorous, and capable of sustaining great fatigue and hardship.

As to their general character, they were quick of apprehension, and not wanting in genius, at times being friendly and even courteous.  In council they were distinguished for gravity and a certain eloquence; in was for bravery and stratagem.  When provoked to anger they were sullen and retired, and when determined upon revenge no danger would deter them; neither absence not time could cool them.  If captured by an enemy they never asked life, not would they betray emotions of fear even in view of the tomahawk or of the kindling faggot.
 Education among these rude savages of course had no place, and their only evidence of a knowledge of letters was in a few hieroglyphics; the arts they taught their young were war, hunting, fishing, and the making of a few articles, most of which, however, were produced by the females.  Their language was rude, but sonorous, metaphorical and energetic, being well suited to the purposes of public speaking, and when accompanied by the impassioned gestures and uttered with the deep guttural tones of the savage, it is said to have had a singularly wild and impressive effect.  They had some few war songs, which were little more than an unmeaning chorus, but it is believed, they had no other compositions which could be call such or worthy of preservation.  Their manufactures were confined to the construction of wigwams, bows, arrows, wampum, ornaments, stone hatchets, mortars for pounding corn, the dressing of skins, weaving of coarse mats from the bark of trees, or a wild hemp.  The articles they cultivated were few in number; Corn, beans, peas, potatoes, melons and a few others.
 Their skill in medicine was confined to a few simple preparations and operations.  Cold and warm baths were often applies, and a considerable number of plants were used with success.  For diseases they knew but little remedy, but had recourse to their "Medicine men," who treated their patients by means of sorcery.  They had few diseases, however, in comparison to those prevailing among civilized people.  The women prepared the food, took charge of the domestic concerns, tilled the scanty fields, and performed all the drudgery connected with the camp.  Amusements prevailed to some extent, and consisted principally of leaping, running, shooting at targets, dancing and gaming.  Their dances were usually performed around a large fire, and in those in honor of war they sang or recited the feats which they of their ancestors had achieved; represented the manner in which they were performed, and wrought themselves up to a wild degree of martial enthusiasm.  The females occasionally joined in some of these sports, but had none peculiar to themselves.  Their dress was various.  In summer they wore little besides a covering about the waist, but in winter they clothed themselves in the skins of wild beasts.  They were exceedingly fond of ornaments.  On days of show and festivity their sachems wore mantles of deer skins, embroidered with shells or the claws of birds, and were painted with various devices.  Hideousness was the object aimed at in painting themselves, which was intended to strike terror into the hearts of their enemies.  Chains of fish bones and skins of wild-cats were worn around the neck, as marks of royalty.

In the construction of their habitations the Indians exercised but little judgment, their huts, or rather wigwams, consisting of a strong pole, erected in the center, around which other poles were driven obliquely into the ground and fastened against the center pole at the top.  These were covered with the bark of trees, and were but poor shelters, when considering the amount of material to be obtained in the primitive woods.  The domestic utensils did not extend beyond a hatchet of stone, a few shells and sharp stones which they used in place of knives; stone mortars for pounding corn, and mats and skins for sleeping upon.  They sat, ate and lodged upon the ground.  With shells and sharp stones they scalped their enemies, dressed their game, cut their hair, etc.  They made nets of thread or twine, twisted from Indian hemp, or of the sinews of the moose and deer, and fish hooks from bones bent for the purpose.  Their food was of the coarsest and simplest kind - the flesh, and even the entrails of birds and beasts, and in season corn, beans, peas, etc., together with the fruit, nuts and herbs of the forest.  They cooked their meat on sticks held to the fire, but in some instances boiled it and corn by putting hot stones in the water.  Parched corn was much used, especially in winter, upon which they lived in the absence of other food.  Their money, called wampums, consisted of small beads wrought from shells, and strung on belts and in chains.  These wampum beads varied in value, according to color, they being black, white, blue, and purple.  A belt of wampum was given as a toke of friendship, or as a seal or confirmation of a treaty.

There was little among the aborigines that could be called society.  Except when roused by some strong excitement, the men were generally indolent, taciturn, and unsocial; the women were to degraded to think much besides their toils.  Removing too, as the seasons changed, or as the game grew scarce, or as danger from a stronger tribe threatened, there was little opportunity for forming those local attachments and those social ties, which spring from long residence in a particular spot.  Their language, also, though energetic, was too barren to serve the purposes of familiar conversation.  In order to be understood and felt, it required the aid of strong and animated gesticulation, which could take place only when great occasions excited them.  It seems, therefore, that they drew no considerable part of their enjoyments from intercourse with one another.  Female beauty had little power over the men, and all other pleasures gave way to the strong impulses of public festivity, the burning and torturing of captives, seeking murderous revenge, or the chase, or war, or glory.  War was the favorite employments of these savages.  It roused them from the lethargy into which they fell when they ceased from their hunting excursions, and furnished them an opportunity to distinguish themselves - the achieve deeds of glory, and taste the sweets of revenge.  Their weapons were bows and arrows, headed with flint of other hard stones, which they discharged with great precision and force.  Some tribes clothed themselves in the thick skins of wild beasts, as a defense against the arrows of their enemies.  When they fought in the open field they rushed to the attack with incredible fury, at the same time uttering their appalling war-whoops.  Those whom they took captive, they usually tortured with every variety of cruelty, and to their dying agonies added every species of insult.  If peace was concluded, the chiefs of the hostile tribes ratified the treaty by smoking in succession the same pipe, called the calumet, of pipe of peace.

The government of the Indians in general was an absolute monarchy, though it differed in different tribes.  The will of the sachem was law.  In matters of moment, however, he consulted his counselors, but his decisions were final.  War and peace, among some tribes, were determined on in a council formed of old men, distinguished by their exploits.  When in council they spoke at pleasure, and always listened to the speaker with profound and respectful silence.  Says an old writer: "When prepositions for war or peace were made, or treaties proposed to them, by the colonial governors, they met the ambassadors in council, and at the end of each paragraph or proposition, the principal sachem delivered a short stick to one of his council, intimating that it was his peculiar duty to remover that paragraph.  This was repeated till every proposal was finished.  They then retired to deliberate among themselves.  After their deliberations were ended, the sachem, or some counselors to whom he had delegated this office, replied to every paragraph in its turn, with an exactness scarcely exceeded in the written correspondence of civilized powers.  Each man actually remembered what was committed to him, and with his assistance, the person who replied remembered the whole."

The religious notions of the natives consisted of traditions, mingled with many curious superstitions.  Like the Greeks, Romans, Persians and Hindoos, they believed in the existence of two supreme powers, a Great Spirit and an Evil Spirit.  They in a manner worshiped both, and in some instances are said to have formed rude images embodying their ideas of the deities.  They also had great reverence for the sun, thunder, lightning, fire, water, and, in fact, any force they could not understand or control, which is precisely in accordance with the habits of all barbaric or primitive peoples.  Their manner of worship was to sing and dance around large fires.  Besides dancing they offered a sort of supplication or prayers, and burned a powder composed of pounded roots, also blood, deer suet, and tobacco.  Marriage among them was generally a temporary contract.  The men chose their wives agreeable to fancy, and put them away at pleasure.  A wedding, however, was celebrated with some ceremony, and in many instances was observed with fidelity, not infrequently continuing through life.  Polygamy was common, there being no thought, apparently, of its being right or wrong.  The treatment of females was cruel and oppressive.  They were considered by the men as slaves and treated as such.  Those forms of decorum between the sexes, in which lay the foundation  for the respectful and gallant courtesy with which women are treated in civilized society, were unknown to them, and the females were not only required to perform severe labor, but often felt the full weight of the passions and caprices of the men.  The ceremonies after death varied but little among the tribes.  The corpse was usually laid in shallow holes dug with sharpened sticks, upon a layer of brush and wrapped in a skin.  The arms, utensils and ornaments of the deceased were buried with the remains.  Some were buried in a sitting posture with face toward the east.  Lamentations and cries accompanied an interment, which was more owing to custom, than in consequence of any grief or regret entertained by relatives or friends, as they could witness the torture or slaying of their own sons without being moved in the least.  Stoicism seems to be the invariable accompaniment to the character of all primitive people, their mode of life rendering that state or mind necessary.

They had no idea of distinct and exclusive property; lands were held in common, and every man had a right to choose or abandon his situation with or without regard to any one else.  Their knowledge of computation is thought not to have been extensive; in fact very limited.  The year was known as a cohonk, being so called from the note of the wild goose.  The term was more particularly applied to a winter, however, as the geese migrated southward at the approach of that season.  The months were known as moons, the days as suns, but the division of the day into hours was unknown.  They kept their accounts of any matters of sufficient importance by knots on a string, or notches in a stick.

The Indian's mission, whatever it was, in the economy of nature, has seemingly been fulfilled.  It is extremely doubtful that a single one of this ancient race will be alive at the expiration of one hundred years hence.  He is one of the world's mysteries, and will probably remain so to the end of time.


POSSIBLY the first white man who ever laid eyes upon the beautiful, fertile, and now populous Shenandoah Valley, were Gov. Alexander Spotswood in the year of 1716.  There may have been white prisoners carried off across the Blue Ridge by the Indians, but none ever returned to tell the tale till the adventurous governor and his followers made their famous trip.  Col. Alexander Spotswood was a highly educated and gallant soldier in the service of his sovereign, and withal an accomplished and enterprising man, who was imbued with liberal and progressive ideas, and whose suggestions to the British ministry, had they been promptly and fully carried out, would have prevented much trouble with the French and resulted in great advantage to Britain in America.  He was appointed lieutenant-governor in 1710, and immediately began a course that was conservative and progressive; evidently being desirous of not only furthering the interest of his royal master, but the colony of Virginia as well.  He had for several years in contemplation the exploration of the country west of what were then known as the "high mountains," but in consequence of the hostility of the Indians it was almost impossible to penetrate this western terra incognita, but having finally consummated his plans he determined to go upon the expedition.  August 1, 1716, the Knightly Governor, in company with a troop of horsemen, consisting of fifty persons in all, began their westward march from the colonial capital.  The company comprised a number of gentlemen, military officers, rangers, servants, etc., with a goodly supply of provisions, ammunition, and, as an old chronicler puts it, "a carried assortment of liquors."  After several fights with the hostile savages who dogged the footsteps of the party almost from the moment of starting, and at the expiration of thirty-six days, at about one o'clock, of September 5, 1716, Gov. Spotswood, who was slightly in the advance, reached the brow of a declivity at the top of the Blue Ridge at Swift Run Gap, and the whole glorious view burst upon his enraptured sight.  For some moments, as the members of the Governor's party gathered around him, not a word or sound broke the stillness of the awe-inspiring scene, but they soon dismounted from their horses and drank the health of the King.  And what a vision met their gaze as they looked to the westward, northward and southward.  As far as the eye could reach the most enchanting landscape presented itself.  To the front of them, to the right and left, rolled miles of tall grass, whose golden-green shimmer in that September sun was a marvel to behold; the gently undulating expanse of Nature's virgin fields; the silvery streams in serpentine coils wound in and out for miles away, whilst in the far distance mountain upon mountain seemed piled one upon the other, until lost in the blue and gold of the clouds, challenging the eye to define where cloud began and mountain ceased.  Never before had these explorers witnessed the like of the enrapturing fairy scene, and they gazed long and intensely, as thousands have done since then, and as others may do to this day.  Even to the present dwellers in the valley the gorgeous and bewildering landscape visible from almost any point of the Blue Ridge Mountains is a continuous revelation, they never tiring in the admiration of its beauties; and an old mountain hunter who has stood, perchance, upon every peak of this range rarely fails to rest his hands upon his trusty rifle and gaze down into the green valley with the glistening Shenandoah brawling far beneath him.  Upon the return of Spotswood and his party the governor, in commemoration of the event, had a number of golden horseshoes struck, each of which had inscribed up on, "Sic jurat transendere Montes" - "Thus he swears to cross the mountains."

From the date of Spotswood's expedition till, possible, 1725, there is no record of any attempt to make a settlement in the Shenandoah Valley, and even then it was not made from the direction of the seat of the colonial government, that is, from the eastward; but instead, the fame of the great Virginia Valley, for its splendid land, fine water courses, and beautiful mountains, attracted the attention of some thrifty Germans who had settles in Pennsylvania, along the Susquehanna, and in York and Lancaster Counties.  A number of these people moved southward, through Maryland, and crossed the river a few miles above where now is Harper's Ferry, settling along the Cohongoruton (Potomac), from the junction of that stream with the Gerando (Shenandoah), westward for ten or fifteen miles.  These Germans were undoubtedly the first persons to make a permanent settlement in the Valley of Virginia, and they founded a village in their midst about 1726 or 1727, calling it new Mecklenburg, in honor of that portion of their fatherland from which they had emigrated to America.  The names of most of these Germans may be found to-day in the northern portion of Jefferson County, and belonging to many of the oldest and most respectable families of that section.  Mecklenburg, as will be shown further along, was changed to Shepherdstown after Mr. Thomas Shepherd came in, but the village was not organized by law until 1762.  Mr. Howell Brown, county surveyor of Jefferson, puts the settlement of Mecklenburg at 1728, but the names of those who settled there cannot now be obtained, as the date of their location was prior to the issuance of any grant in that section, they being simply "squatters" upon the land, and afterward purchasing their rights to the property.  Many of these settlers purchased from Richard Ap Morgan, a Welshman, who obtained a grant for a large body of land not long after 1730.  This Richard Ap Morgan was the great-grandfather of col. W. A. Morgan, of Morgan's Spring, whose father was named Abel, and whose grandfather  was Abraham, the last named being killed by a stone falling upon him when building the small stone mill which stands just north of High Street in Shepherdstown.  On High Street between Princess and Mill Streets, there is a small log house which is believed to have been built by the first Morgan, and is doubtless one of the first, if not the first building erected in the entire Shenandoah Valley.  This log structure is joined on what is known as the "horse and saddle" plan, and is yet in good preservation, although bearing evidence of great antiquity.  Many of the farms surrounding the homestead of Col. Morgan originally belonged to the Morgan estate, being cut off and sold at various periods, and among the pieces of property thus separated the one on which stands the old log cabin passed into the possession of Dr. Reynolds several years ago.  Another Morgan, according to Hawks in his "History of the Episcopal Church in Virginia." Settles in the lower valley, but whether he confounded the two families is difficult to say.  He at least places his "first settler" at a period ante-dating Kercheval's "first settler" by six years.  Hawks says: "Morgan Morgan was a native of Wales, whence he emigrated in early life to the province of Pennsylvania.  In the year 1726 he removed to what is now the county of Berkeley, in Virginia, and built the first cabin which was reared on the south side of the Potomac, between the Blue Ridge and the North Mountain.  He was an exemplary piety, devoted to the church; and in the year 1740, associated with Dr. John Briscoe and Mr. Hite, he erected the first Episcopal Church in the valley of Virginia.  This memorial of his zeal, it is believes, is still standing, and now forms that part of the parish of Winchester which is known as "Mill Creek Church."  This statement was published in 1836.

From the settlement of Pennsylvania by the arrival of William Penn and his treaty with the Indians in 1682, a large influx of immigrants came to the new colony, among whom were, of course, many of the same faith as Penn, thrifty, well-to-do people; also a large number of Protestant Germans, all of whom settled upon the rich lands along the Susquehanna and other water courses of Pennsylvania.  These people in time hearing of the fertile valley of Virginia sought for locations therein, and among the first to obtain a grant from the governor of Virginia was Alexander Ross, a Quaker, who secured forty thousand acres, locating the same north and west and south of where now stands Winchester.  This was in 1730, or thereabouts, for the original survey made by the surveyor of Ross, named Ro. Brooks, laying off the boundaries of a tract of land containing 583 acres on Abraham's Creek, about one mile southeast of Winchester, is still in the possession of the Hollingsworth family, for whose ancestor the survey was made.  This survey is dated November 23, 1732, and Abraham Hollingsworth was the party to whom the land was conveyed.  The Hollingsworths say that Abraham had been living there as a squatter on the land for several years prior to the time that Ross, who having obtained his grant from Gov. Gooch, send his agent around over his domain to collect pay from those who were settled thereon.  Abraham not only paid Ross for his farm, but afterward, to save litigation and trouble, also paid Lord Fairfax a nominal sum to quiet his claim, for that thrifty scion of nobility, as will be further shown, had a wonderful eye for the main chance.  Abraham Hollingsworth, from these facts, was doubtless the first settler of this immediate section (now the upper portion of Frederick County), for the creek along which is land was located was named after him, showing that he had settled at that spot some time before.  The father of Abraham Hollingsworth, whose name was David, paid a visit to his son in this same year, 1732, and was killed by a buffalo over near the North Mountain, whilst on a hunting expedition.  There was a Parkins family at this time living not far from Hollingsworth's.  A number of Quakers about this period, some of whom purchased from Ross, made settlements on Apple-pie Ridge, and elsewhere not far off, among whom were the Bransons, Luptons, Walkers, Beesons, Barretts, McKays, Hackneys, Neills, Dillons and others, and about eight or nine miles southwest of Winchester were several families of Fawcetts, many of whose descendants migrated westward, but some of whom still occupy the original lands.  It is said that those who settled on Ross' lands, and the Quakers generally, were free from all depredations of the Indians, for the fame of Penn as a pacificator and as a man who always treated the aborigines with justice, paying them for their lands, etc., reached far and wide among the savages.

All the settlers at this period, 1730, and onward for ten years or more, came from the northward, as already indicated, for between the valley and the "low country," or east Virginia settlements, lay what was considered at that time a range of almost insurmountable mountains without any roads crossing them, save "trails" only known to the Indians; and between these mountains and the eastern settlements roamed thousands of the relentless savages, which constituted the successful expedition of Spotswood one of the most wonderful exploits known to history, for how his little band escaped annihilation is almost a miracle.  In addition to these reasons explaining the curious fact that Virginians were the last persons to settle the western section of their own colony, comes another cause, and a very potent one: the "low country" people were generally large land owners and did not need any extension of their domains; besides, they had inherited a certain conservatism, being descended from the Cavaliers, mostly, which trait exhibited itself in their evidently sullen acceptance of Cromwell and the Commonwealth and their joyful hailing of Charles II, at the Restoration.  To digress a moment, and jump from 1730 to 1889, the author is impelled to here note the fact that that ancient conservatism has not been even to this date eliminated; we will move slowly; but then it is a moot question whether all this rush and scramble after wealth produces more happiness than the old way.  The Chinese say no: - their result - an empire 3,000 years old and 400,000,000 population, but Tennyson says, "Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay."
 In addition to the Germans who first came and the Quakers, also came many Irish and Scotch-Irish, with a few Welsh and Hollanders, or Dutch, from New York, among the latter being the Vanswearingens and the Vanmeters; among the Welsh the Morgans and others, and among the Scotch-Irish those who settled along Back Creek and on the Opequon.  These nationalities professing religions in opposition to the established churches of their native countries sought relief from persecution in the New World.  The Catholics also found congeniality in Maryland, remaining there after arriving in America, and scarcely a single one emigrated to this valley in early times.  A number of Scotch-Irish families also settled along the Tuscarora and Mill Creek, as well as a few English and Welsh who held to the English established church, among these being Morgan Morgan, the Briscoes and others.  The grandfather of Mr. J. H. Smith, of Smithfield, now in Jefferson County, upon whose place occurred the famous operations of the "spooks" who were charges with clipping off the coat tails of sundry gentlemen, and whence arose the title to the locality of "Wizzard Clip," obtained a grant from Gov. Gooch as early as 1729 of 4,000 acres of land, and in connection with which an extraordinary exhibition of vitality is claimed.  It would strike one at first thought that it would be impossible for the grandfather of a gentleman now living to have been a man grown in 1729, but Mr. Smith informed Col. H. B. Davenport, who related it to the author, that his grandfather was eighty years old when his son, the father of Mr. J. H. Smith, was born, and that he (J. H.) was born when his father was eighty years of age.

The route taken by these early settlers to reach the valley was one and only one.  Starting from York, Penn., not only those living in that locality but those who came from New York, passed down through Maryland and struck the Potomac at the old Packhorse Ford just east of Shepherdstown, which at that date was simply a portion of an Indian trail, but it was the great northern and southern highway of the aborigines for, possibly, centuries, and along which hostile tribes had marched and camped, the Delaware going southward to meet their enemies, the Catawbas, going northward.  The great Shawnee tribe, also, with that majestic emperor, the famous Cornstalk, who had no peer in power and sway in Indian annals and tradition but Powhattan himself, had doubtless crossed this old ford many a time, with little thought that a century later his great enemy, the white man, should be engaged near that very spot, one against the other, in a struggle that for loss of life and suffering would put to shame the bloodiest battle in which he ever engaged.
 Several years prior to the settlement of any portion of the valley by the white man, when the Shawnees held undisputed possession of the country along the Shenandoah from the Potomac southward, frequent warlike excursions were made by the Delawares to the country of the Catawbas, who were the natural enemies of the northern tribes, and on one of these expeditions they were accompanied by a white man named John Vanmeter, a Dutchman, or of Dutch descent, from New York.  This Vanmeter was evidently one of those early adventurous spirits who loved battle and danger for itself, or possibly was a trader, his Hollandish origin prompting him to ways of traffic.  At any rate he knew a good thing when he saw it, for upon his return to Pennsylvania after the Catawbas had not only refused to be exterminated, but had driven their invaders back, he set about turning an honest penny in land speculation.  In passing along the Sought Branch he noticed the richness and beauty of the country and, after reaching home, he proceeded to make application to the governor of Virginia for a grant of 40,000 acres of that same land, which was given him, it is altogether probable, without a quibble, for what was a few thousand acres worth in that far away savage land?  He also told his sons to settle there by all means, whenever they turned their eyes southward, which one of them did, and some of his descendants are living there to this day and are among the most respected families in Virginia.  This refers to the Vanmeters on the South Branch.  Now the original John and his son Isaac, or his two sons John and Isaac, having obtained the grant spoken of, which was on this side of the mountain, along and south of the Opequon, in 1730, sometimes afterward sold the grant to a man in Pennsylvania, whom two of the historians of the valley have called Joist Hite, Kercheval having so spelled it, and the rest following that pleasant old chronicler.  The author hereof has investigated the matter somewhat, and is extremely doubtful whether any mother ever gave so singular a cognomen to her offspring as Joist.  He is of opinion that if Hite was Scotch-Irish, as some suppose, that his Christian name was Joyce, a pecu-

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