West Virginia State Site

Ohio County, West Virginia


Excerpts from "A Sketch of the Early History of West Liberty and Short Creek"
by Rev. J.A. Earl
Portions of this work were re-published in "The Echoer", various volumes, and that is what is transcribed here by K. Torp

"The border settlement of what is now West Virginia was the most daring and heroic enterprise of its kind in American History because it was the most dangerous. Lewis in his Archives & History says: "When these barbarian wars were ended, it was found that more men, women and children had perished at the hands of a savage foe in West Virginia, victims of the rifle, tomahawk and scalping knife, then had died from a similar cause in any other region of equal extent in America."
So true was this that about one hundred forts, stockades and block-houses were erected on West Va. soil to protect the frontier families.
West Liberty is one of the oldest and most historic towns in the State. It is located at the head of Short Creek. It was organized in 1787 (Hist. of Upper Ohio Valley, p. 186)
Abraham Van Meter, a noted frontiersman, and probably the largest land owner west of the Alleghenies (Hodes, Z.T., "Chronicles, p. 81) was the first person to improve the present site on which West Liberty now stands; Ruth, one of his daughters, married Reuben Foreman and Hannah, another daughter, married Providence Mounts. The town was laid out by the last two named persons and this was the first town organized in the Ohio Valley (Hist. of Upper Ohio Val., p. 186)
The original trustees, who laid out the town were Moses Chapline, Zachariah Sprigg Geo. McColloch, Chas. Wills, Van Swearingen, James Mitchell and Benj. Biggs (Newton - Panhandle History, p. 300)
The first Court for Ohio County was held at Black's Cabin, on Short Creek, Jan. 16, 1777 (Lewis, "History & Government of W. Va/. p. 127)
Rev. Dr. Jos. Smith, a graduate of Princeton in 1764, one of the four original members of the Redstone Presbtery and pastor at Upper Buffalo and Cross Creek said, "There is every reason to believe that this was the first Civil Court held in the Valley of the Mississippi ("Newton, Panhandle Hist., p. 156)
The location of Black's cabin is an example of the difficulty of obtaining accurate information from secondary sources.
Lewis says it was on Short Creek. An article by J.S. Bonar in W.Va. Review, Apr. 1927, says Black's Cabin was on the "site of the present Presbyterian Church". The History of the Upper Ohio Valley (p. 181) states that Black's Cabin which originally stood on the site on which was subsequently erected the Court House in West Liberty, was so called from having been erected by an individual of that name who came to that section between 1770-72. He was from Berkeley County., Va., and was an apprentice to Abram Van Meter, of the same county and state, and was by him sent to the west to select and locate land and to take the necessary measures for establishing a claim.
The writer's conclusion, based on the fact that the blockhouse fort in West Liberty (Or Court House Fort) stood on an elevated site above Black's Cabin, is that Black's Cabin stood near Court Springs.
On July 16, 1802, F.A. Michaux, M.D., a celebrated French physician and botanist reached West Liberty and said, "We passed through West Liberty Town, a small town of about 100 houses built on the side of the hill. The plantations in this neighborhood are numerous and the soil though unequal is fertile. (Lewis, Hist. & Government of W.Va., p. 140)
Today in the neglected cemetery on the Dixon farm can be read 4 tombstones of the early settlers:
Reuben Foreman, d. Feb 10, 1828 in his 75th year.
In Memory of Providence Mounts who departed this life May 16, 1813, aged 54 years. His illness continued 14 hours.
Hannah Mounts, who departed this life July 27, 1811, aged 47 years
Ruth V., wife of Reuben Foreman, d. June, 1815.
When the courthouse was at West Liberty it was quite a metropolis.
The Pittsburg Gazette in 1803 refers to Wheeling as a thriving little river town 12 miles southwest of West Liberty. On court days it seemed that the whole country would gather at West Liberty and frequently the crowd would amount to 1500 or 2000 souls. Court day was a gallant day. Here trials of speed between fast horses would be had and bets of larger or smaller sums would be offered on favorite animals. So prevalent was the habit of betting on these occasions that men would even bet the clothing on their backs when they had no money to gratify their propensity (History of Upper Ohio Valley, p. 188)
Van Meter Fort or Courthouse Fort which was a blockhouse, was located at West Liberty and commanded by Maj. Samuel McColloch. It stood on an elevated site above Black's Cabin and was erected about 1777. (History of Upper Ohio Valley , p183)
In 1797 West Liberty had a Post office, when there were only eight in West Virginia (Ambler, p. 190)
In 1879, West Liberty had a mill, a home-like hotel, wagon and smith shops and a few stores. After the County Seat was moved to Wheeling in 1797 the old courthouse was purchased by Zacharias Biggs and used for many years as a mill, run by horse power (History of Panhandle, p. 301)
Many interesting old farms around West Liberty were taken up as tomahawk claims and have been handed down from generation to generation. They have never been sold.
An interesting mound said to be 15,000 years old was opened up this year (1936) on the Waddle farm about � mile from the Short Creek Methodist Church.
Many of the early settlers of West Liberty and Short Creek were people far about the average. They were better educated than most pioneers and excelled in morals and religion.
In the West Liberty Cemetery is buried General Benjamin Biggs, General W.B. Curtis and Capt. Wm. Brady, the famous Indian Scout. Theodore Roosevelt said that Brady was of far higher type than Lewis Wetzel: "For many years after the close of the Revolutionary War, he was the chief frontiersman of his own neighborhood. He never killed peaceful Indians, nor those who came in under flags of truce. Once he was captured, but when about to be bound to the stake for burning he suddenly flung an Indian boy into the fire and in the confusion burst through the warriors and actually made his escape through the whole pack of yelling savages following at his heels with rifle and tomahawks" (T.R. Roosevelt in "Winning of the West")
Brady was a devout Presbyterian and a marvelous student of the Bible. He died at West Liberty in 1796 "Pennsylvania Farmer, 1934"
Benjamin Biggs, one of the original trustees and prominent settlers commonly went by the name of General Biggs. He had been a Captain in the Revolutionary War, where he had won distinction by his courage and devotion to the cause of independence and was promoted at the age of 23 to the command of a company. After the close of the Revolutionary War, he became an Indian fighter. According to J.S. Bonar he was a Major General, a Dept. Commander in the War of 1812. He died at West Liberty at age 71. (History of Upper Ohio Valley, p. 184)
General W.B. Curtis, member and trustee of the West Liberty M.E. Church, was born April 18, 1821 on the historic ground where the great battle of Antietam was afterwards fought. IN 1832 his parents removed to West Liberty. He was a merchant until he became a soldier in 1862. He married Hannah M. Montgomery, a descendant of General Montgomery, who fell at Quebec. In 1861 Gen. Curtis was a member of the State Convention at Wheeling which organized a loyal State Government. For many years he was a trustee of West Liberty Academy. The part Col. W.B. Curtis took in the assault on Fort Gregg, Va won him the commission of General. (Miller & Maxwell, p. 399)
The Short Creek Country, near West Liberty, was appropriated by horse-racing, fox-hunting, jolly Marylanders and Virginians. Some of these people were highly educated and refined and noted for their hospitality, good living, fun and intermarriage.
Among the earliest settlers in northwestern Virginia were the McCollochs, who emigrated from the south branch of the Potomac in 1770 and located on the borders of Short Creek. The family consisted of four brothers, Abraham, George, Samuel and John - and two sisters, one of whom, Elizabeth, was the wife of Ebenezer Zane, who settled at the mouth of Wheeling Creek.
Samuel, who has been immortalized by his leap over Wheeling Hill, commanded Fort Van Meter back of the Clinton Consolidated School and Court House Fort at West Liberty. On the National Road at the top of Wheeling Hill, there is a marker describing the leap made by Major Sam. In the short Creek Cemetery there is a large memorial to him. Major Samuel McColloch is buried back of the Clinton School near the site of Fort Van Meter.
Abram McColloch, brother of Samuel figured quite extensively in the early history of Richland District, having engaged to some extent as a scout among the Indians by whom he received a wound in the hip. It was not fatal because of a book in his pocket. (Newton, "Panhandle History", p. 135)
Capt. Geo. McColloch was one of the first settlers of the West according to his tombstone in the Short Creek Cemetery. He departed this life May 19, 1830, aged 73. He was an original trustee of West Liberty.
Major John McColloch married the oldest daughter of Captain John Bukey. Later he became a trustee of the Fourth St. M.E. church in Wheeling.
The churches here were great pioneer churches. The greatest leaders of four of the largest American denominations preached in West Liberty. Ambler in his "History of West Virginia" mentions seven of those pioneers, Francis Asbury, Joseph Doddridge, Alexander Campbell, John McMillan, Joseph Cheuvrent, Asa Shinn and George Brown.
Francis Asbury, first Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church and "greatest builder of the American Church" preached near West Liberty, at the home of John Beck, Sept 5, 1803. According to Asbury's Journal he visited the West Liberty community in 1803, 1804, 1807, 1808, 1815.
Asbury's Journal, Sept 5, 1803 reads "We rode to John Beck's near West Liberty. I preached on Acts 3:26."
On Oct 21, 1804, "Rode to John McCollochs, within 1 mile of the Ohio River; Here my fever rose; I returned to John Beck's; I resolved to breakfast upon either grains of Ipicacuanna; this broke up my disease and fever of 50 days."
Aug. 12, 1807 Asbury preached at John Beck's new house. In 1808, the year he visited Wheeling, he rested at John Beck's.
On Sept 8, 1812, he wrote "I presume we had 10,000 at the Liberty Camp Meeting."
Prof. D.B. Rogers of the University of Pittsburgh wrote that the Zanes and Shepherds came from Wheeling to West Liberty to hear Wilson Lee. He preached in this territory in 1785, as he traveled the Redstone Circuit.
The Ohio Circuit which was formed in 1787 acquired property in 1793. The deed states that this real estate was the original Hodges Tract located in Liberty District. Joseph Hodges, the founder of the Hodges family of America, was one of the trustees of the Ohio Circuit.


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